The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study / Edition 1

The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study / Edition 1

by Mary Beth Adams
     
 

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ISBN-10: 1402046146

ISBN-13: 9781402046148

Pub. Date: 06/28/2006

Publisher: Springer Netherlands

The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study is a long-term, paired watershed acidification study, undertaken in the central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia, USA. The Study, which began in 1989, includes research on biogeochemical responses of streams, soils and vegetation to air pollution, and also includes research on acidification's effects on salamanders. This

Overview

The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study is a long-term, paired watershed acidification study, undertaken in the central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia, USA. The Study, which began in 1989, includes research on biogeochemical responses of streams, soils and vegetation to air pollution, and also includes research on acidification's effects on salamanders. This book describes the responses to chronic N and S amendments by deciduous hardwood forests, one of the few studies to focus on these important hardwood forest ecosystems. Intensive monitoring of soil solution and stream chemistry, along with measurements of soil chemistry, and vegetation growth and chemistry, provide insights into the acidification process in forested watersheds, evaluating these in the context of nitrogen saturation, soil acidification and base cation leaching models. This volume will be of interest to researchers, ecosystem modellers, managers and policy-makers concerned with the effects of air pollution on forested ecosystems.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781402046148
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Publication date:
06/28/2006
Series:
Environmental Pollution Series, #11
Edition description:
2006
Pages:
280
Product dimensions:
6.50(w) x 9.50(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study David R. DeWalle John L. Hom Mary Beth Adams

1 Introduction 1

2 Atmospheric Deposition at Fernow 2

3 Theory of Acidification by Atmospheric Deposition 3

4 Fernow Research Themes 11

4.1 Nutrient Cation Mobilization 11

4.2 Cation Depletion/Aluminum Mobilization 12

4.3 Biomass Growth Cycles 13

4.4 Steady States 14

5 Book Organization 14

6 References 15

Chapter 2 Fernow and the Appalachian Hardwood Region James N. Kochenderfer

1 Regional Description 17

2 Disturbance Agents 18

3 Vegetation Description 19

4 Early Settlement and Industrial Development 20

5 Early Fernow History 20

6 Fernow Research 22

7 Fernow Geology and Soils 24

8 Fernow Forest Composition 26

9 Fernow Climate 28

10 Study Watersheds 28

11 Water Instrumentation 32

12 Watershed Acidification Treatments 33

13 References 34

Chapter 3 Soil Chemical Response to Experimental Acidification Treatments Mary Beth Adams David R. DeWalle William T. Peterjohn Frank S. Gilliam William E. Sharpe Karl W.J. Williard

1 Introduction 41

2 Methods 42

2.1 Comparisons between WS3 and WS4 42

2.2 Comparisons between WS3 and WS7 44

2.3 Effects on Soils on WS9 46

3 Results 47

3.1 Pretreatment Soil Characteristics - WS3, WS4, WS7 47

3.2 Pretreatment Soil Characteristics - WS9 49

3.3 Treatment Effects 49

3.3.1 Comparisons between WS3 and WS4 49

3.3.2 Comparisons between WS3 and WS7 56

3.3.3 Treatment Effects WS9 58

3.3.4 Soil N Cycling 62

4 Discussion 63

5 Conclusion 65

6 References 66

Chapter 4 Soil Water and Stream Water Chemical Responses Pamela J. Edwards Karl W. J. Williard Frederica WoodWilliam E. Sharpe

1 Introduction 71

2 Methods 72

2.1 Soil Water Sampling 72

2.2 Stream Water Sampling 72

2.3 Chemical Analyses 76

2.4 Data Analyses 77

3 Soil Water 79

3.1 WS4 and WS3 Responses 79

3.2 WS9 Responses 96

4 Stream Water 103

4.1 Concentrations in Baseflow 105

4.1.1 WS4 Responses 105

4.1.2 WS3 Responses 108

4.1.3 WS9 Responses 112

4.2 Concentrations at Peakflow 118

4.2.1 WS4 Responses 118

4.2.2 WS3 Responses 118

4.2.3 WS9 Responses 121

5 Discussion 124

5.1 Application of Base Cation Results 124

5.2 Application of Nitrate Responses 126

5.3 Regional Susceptibility to Acidification 127

6 Summary and Conclusion 129

7 References 131

Chapter 5 Vegetation and Acidification David R. DeWalle James N. Kochenderfer Mary Beth Adams Gary W. Miller Frank S. Gilliam Frederica Wood Stephanie S. Odenwald-Clemens William E. Sharpe

1 Introduction 137

2 Vegetation Description 139

2.1 Fernow 139

2.1.1 Stand Conditions - WS3 and WS7 139

2.1.2 Herbaceous Layer Characteristics - WS3 and WS7 140

2.2 Stand Conditions - WS9 142

3 Methods 143

3.1 Tree and Stand Growth 143

3.1.1 Growth Plot Analyses 143

3.1.2 Tree Core Analysis 144

3.2 Foliar Chemistry 146

3.3 Dendrochemistry 146

3.4 Herb Layer Dynamics 147

4 Results 148

4.1 WS3 vs. WS7 (Fernow) Results 148

4.1.1 Tree Growth 148

4.1.1.1 Growth Plots 148

4.1.1.2 Tree Cores 150

4.1.2 Overstory Foliar Chemistry 156

4.1.3 Dendrochemistry 159

4.1.4 Herb Layer Effects 165

4.2 WS9 (Clover Run) Results 171

4.2.1 Tree Growth 171

4.2.2 Foliar Chemistry 173

4.2.3 Dendrochemistry 173

5 Discussion 174

6 Conclusions 182

7 References 184

Chapter 6 Response of Salamanders to Experimental Acidification Treatments Thomas K. Pauley Mark B. Watson James N. Kochenderfer Michael Little

1 Introduction 189

1.1 Salamanders in the Fernow Experimental Forest 190

1.2 Biology and Ecology of Salamanders 190

1.3 Effects of Disturbance on Salamanders 191

2 Salamander Research on the Fernow Experimental Forest 193

3 Methods 194

3.1 Effects of Watershed Acidification 194

3.2 Effects of Clearcutting 195

4 Results 195

4.1 Effects of Watershed Acidification on Salamanders 195

4.2 Effects of Clearcutting on Salamanders 197

5 Discussion 198

6 Conclusions 199

7 References 200

Chapter 7 Acidification and Nutrient Cycling Mary Beth Adams William T. Peterjohn Frank S. Gilliam

1 Introduction 207

2 Nitrogen Cycling 208

2.1 Inputs 208

2.2 Outputs 210

2.3 Budgets 211

2.4 Internal Cycling 212

3 Sulfur Cycling 216

3.1 Inputs 216

3.2 Outputs 217

3.3 Budgets 219

3.4 Internal Cycling 220

4 Calcium Cycling 221

4.1 Inputs 221

4.2 Outputs 221

4.3 Budgets 221

4.4 Internal Cycling 223

5 Magnesium Cycling 226

5.1 Inputs 226

5.2 Outputs 226

5.3 Budgets 226

5.4 Internal Cycling 226

6 Potassium Cycling 228

6.1 Inputs 228

6.2 Outputs 228

6.3 Budgets 228

6.4 Internal Cycling 228

7 Conclusions 229

8 References 232

Chapter 8 Implications for Forest Ecosystem Sustainability and Resiliency John L. Hom Yude Pan Kevin McCullough

1 Introduction 237

2 Methods 238

2.1 Model Description: Focus on N Deposition 238

2.2 Nitrogen Deposition Scenarios 239

3 Results 243

3.1 N Deposition Modeling and Mapping 243

3.2 Net Primary Productivity, NPP 245

3.3 Water Yield 245

3.4 Current Forest N Leaching Losses and Retention 245

3.5 Comparison with Field Data 252

4 Conclusions 253

5 References 254

Chapter 9 Conclusions and Recommendations from the Fernow Watershed Acidification Study Mary Beth Adams David R. DeWalle John L. Hom

1 Nutrient Cation Mobilization 259

2 Cation Depletion/Aluminum Mobilization 261

3 Biomass Growth Cycles 263

4 Steady States 264

5 Implications for Forest Sustainability and Resiliency 265

6 Research Recommendations 266

7 References 268

Appendices 269

Index 277

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