Fiber Optic Test and Measurement / Edition 1 by Dennis Derickson, Dennia Derickson | | 9780135343302 | Paperback | Barnes & Noble
Fiber Optic Test and Measurement / Edition 1

Fiber Optic Test and Measurement / Edition 1

by Dennis Derickson, Dennia Derickson
     
 

ISBN-10: 0135343305

ISBN-13: 9780135343302

Pub. Date: 10/08/1997

Publisher: Prentice Hall

This is the most authoritative, complete source of test and measurement information for engineers who design and maintain fiber optic networks. This book presents measurement principles for characterizing all three basic components of a fiber optic communication system: the optical transmitter, fiber medium and optical receiver. It also covers

Overview

This is the most authoritative, complete source of test and measurement information for engineers who design and maintain fiber optic networks. This book presents measurement principles for characterizing all three basic components of a fiber optic communication system: the optical transmitter, fiber medium and optical receiver. It also covers system level measurements, and discusses the principles and limitations of current fiber optic testing equipment. It discusses testing to SONET/SDH international standards, and helps engineers choose the best approach to testing today's new erbium doped fiber amplifiers. The book provides detailed recommendations for understanding polarization states, and presents new methods for accurately characterizing the behavior of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) fiber systems. It includes detailed coverage of testing fiber in the local loop, using optical power meters and optical time domain reflectometers. It also reviews the latest state-of-the-art 10 Gb/s systems, and even faster systems on the horizon. The coverage is practical, helping professionals accurately measure and test fiber optic systems without becoming experts in theory. All fiber optic engineers working with communications applications.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780135343302
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
10/08/1997
Series:
Hewlett-Packard Professional Bks.
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
672
Product dimensions:
6.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.50(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xix
1 Introduction to Fiber Optic Systems and Measurements
1(54)
1.1 Introduction
1(2)
1.2 Fiber Optic Links: The Basics
3(3)
1.2.1 Digital Communication Links
3(3)
1.3 Digital Communication Links
6(3)
1.3.1 Optic Fiber
6(2)
1.3.2 Optical Amplifiers and/or Optical Repeaters
8(1)
1.3.3 O/E Converters
8(1)
1.4 Wavelength Division Multiplexed Systems
9(3)
1.4.1 Wavelength Division Multiplexed Systems
9(3)
1.5 Analog Links
12(1)
1.5.1 Analog Links
12(1)
1.6 Characterization of Digital Fiber-Optic Links
13(2)
1.6.1 Bit Error Ratio
13(1)
1.6.2 Waveform Analysis
13(1)
1.6.3 Link Jitter
14(1)
1.6.4 Summary
14(1)
1.7 Optical Fibers and Two-Part Optical Components
15(6)
1.7.1 Step-Index Multimode Fiber
16(1)
1.7.2 Graded-Index Multimode Fiber
17(1)
1.7.3 Singlemode Fiber
18(2)
1.7.4 Optical Fiber Amplifiers and Two-Part Optical Components
20(1)
1.8 Measurement of Optical Fiber and Two-Part Optical Components
21(6)
1.8.1 Insertion Loss
21(2)
1.8.2 Amplifier Gain and Noise Figure Measurement
23(1)
1.8.3 Chromatic Dispersion
23(2)
1.8.4 Polarization-Related Measurements
25(1)
1.8.5 Reflection Measurements
26(1)
1.9 Optical Transmitters
27(5)
1.9.1 Fabry-Perot Lasers
27(1)
1.9.2 Distributed Feedback Lasers (DFBs)
28(1)
1.9.3 Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL)
29(2)
1.9.4 DFB With Electrooptic Modulator
31(1)
1.9.5 DFB With Integrated Electroobsorption Modulator
32(1)
1.10 LEDS
32(2)
1.10.1 Surface-Emitting LEDs
33(1)
1.10.2 Edge-Emitting LED
33(1)
1.10.3 Comparison of Optical Sources
34(1)
1.11 Optical Receivers
34(3)
1.11.1 p-i-n Photodetectors
34(2)
1.11.2 APD Detectors
36(1)
1.12 Optical Transmitter and Receiver Measurements
37(13)
1.12.1 Power
37(2)
1.12.2 Polarization
39(2)
1.12.3 Optical Spectrum Analysis
41(1)
1.12.4 Accurate Wavelength Measurement
42(1)
1.12.5 Linewidth and Chirp Measurement
43(1)
1.12.6 Modulation Analysis: Frequency Domain
44(2)
1.12.7 Modulation Analysis: Stimulus-Response Measurement
46(1)
1.12.8 Modulation Analysis: Time Domain
47(1)
1.12.9 Optical Reflection Measurements
48(2)
1.13 Organization of the Book
50(2)
Appendix: Relationships Between Wavelength and Frequency
52(1)
References
53(2)
2 Optical Power Measurement
55(32)
2.1 Introduction
55(1)
2.2 Power Meters with Thermal Detectors
56(2)
2.3 Power Meters with Photodetectors
58(13)
2.3.1 p-i-n diode Operation
59(2)
2.3.2 Spectral Responsivity
61(1)
2.3.3 Temperature Stabilization
62(1)
2.3.4 Spatial Homogeneity
62(1)
2.3.5 Power Range and Nonlinearity
63(3)
2.3.6 Polarization Dependence
66(1)
2.3.7 Optical Reflectivity and Interference Effects
66(1)
2.3.8 Compatibility with Different Fibers
67(4)
2.4 Absolute Power Measurement
71(5)
2.4.1 LED-Power Measurement
72(1)
2.4.2 High-Power Measurement
73(1)
2.4.3 Uncertainties in Absolute-Power Measurement
74(2)
2.5 Responsivity Calibration
76(4)
2.5.1 Traceability and Uncertainty in Responsivity Calibrations
78(2)
2.6 Linearity Calibration
80(5)
2.6.1 Linearity Calibration Based on Comparison
80(3)
2.6.2 Linearity Calibration Based on Superposition
83(2)
2.7 Summary
85(1)
Acknowledgments
86(1)
References
86(1)
3 Optical Spectrum Analysis
87(44)
3.1 Introduction to Optical Spectrum Analysis
87(1)
3.2 Types of Optical Spectrum Analyzers
88(3)
3.2.1 Basic Block Diagram
88(1)
3.2.2 Fabry-Perot Interferometers
88(2)
3.2.3 Interferometer-Based Optical Spectrum Analyzers
90(1)
3.2.4 Diffraction-Grating-Based Optical Spectrum Analyzers
90(1)
3.3 Anatomy of a Diffraction-Grating-Based Optical Spectrum Analyzer
91(13)
3.3.1 Basic OSA Block Diagram
91(1)
3.3.2 The Entrance or Input Slit
92(1)
3.3.3 The Collimating Optics
93(2)
3.3.4 The Diffraction Grating
95(3)
3.3.5 The Focusing Optics
98(1)
3.3.6 The Exit or Output Slit
99(1)
3.3.7 The Detector
100(1)
3.3.8 Single Monochromator Summary
100(1)
3.3.9 Single Monochromator Versus Double Monochromator
101(1)
3.3.10 Double Monochromator
101(1)
3.3.11 Double-Pass Monochromator
101(1)
3.3.12 Littman Double-Pass Monochromator
102(2)
3.4 Operation and Key Specifications of Diffraction-Grating-Based Optical Spectrum Analyzers
104(11)
3.4.1 Wavelength Accuracy
104(1)
3.4.2 Wavelength-Calibration Techniques
104(5)
3.4.3 Wavelength Resolution and Dynamic Range
109(3)
3.4.4 Sensitivity and Sweep Time
112(2)
3.4.5 Input Polarization Sensitivity
114(1)
3.5 Spectral Measurements on Modulated Signals
115(5)
3.5.1 Signal Processing in an OSA
115(2)
3.5.2 Zero-Span Mode
117(1)
3.5.3 Trigger Sweep Mode
117(1)
3.5.4 ADC-Trigger Mode
118(1)
3.5.5 ADC-AC Mode
118(1)
3.5.6 Gated-Sweep Mode
119(1)
3.6 OSA Application Examples
120(8)
3.6.1 Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
120(2)
3.6.2 Fabry-Perot Lasers
122(1)
3.6.3 Distributed Feedback (DFB) Lasers
123(2)
3.6.4 Optical Amplifier Measurements
125(1)
3.6.5 Recirculating Loop
126(2)
3.7 Summary
128(1)
Acknowledgments
129(1)
References
129(2)
4 Wavelength Meters
131(38)
4.1 Introduction
131(2)
4.1.1 Wavelength Definition
132(1)
4.1.2 Methods of Accurate Wavelength Measurement
132(1)
4.2 The Michelson Interferometer Wavelength Meter
133(7)
4.2.1 Fringe-Counting Description of Wavelength Meter Operation
134(3)
4.2.2 Doppler-Shift Approach to Understanding Wavelength Meter Operation
137(1)
4.2.3 Accurate Measurement of Distance, Velocity, and Time
138(1)
4.2.4 Wavelength Measurement with Respect to a Wavelength Standard
139
4.2.5 Summary of Michelson-Interferometer Wavelength Meter Operation
90(50)
4.3 Wavelength Meters in Multiple Signal Environments
140(3)
4.4 Absolute Wavelength Accuracy Considerations for Michelson-Interferometer Wavelength Meters
143(10)
4.4.1 The Ability to Count Many Fringes and to Count Them Accurately
144(1)
4.4.2 Index of Refraction of Air and Dispersion of Air
145(5)
4.4.3 Accuracy of the Reference-Laser Wavelength
150(1)
4.4.4 Dependence on the Signal Spectral Width
151(1)
4.4.5 Optical Alignment Issues
152(1)
4.4.6 Diffraction Effects
153(1)
4.4.7 Summary of Wavelength Accuracy Factors
153(1)
4.5 Michelson Wavelength-Meter Measurement Considerations
153(6)
4.5.1 Relative Wavelength Resolution
154(1)
4.5.2 Wavelength Coverage
155(1)
4.5.3 Sensitivity and Measurement Speed, Measurement Range, and Dynamic Range
156(1)
4.5.4 Amplitude Accuracy
157(1)
4.5.5 Single-Mode and Multimode Fiber Input Considerations for Wavelength Meters
158(1)
4.5.6 Measurement of Pulsed Signals
158(1)
4.6 Alternate Wavelength Meter Techniques
159(6)
4.6.1 Fabry-Perot Filters
159(3)
4.6.2 Static Fabry-Perot Interferometer Wavelength Meter
162(1)
4.6.3 Static Fizeau Interferometer Wavelength Meter
163(1)
4.6.4 Wavelength Discriminators
164(1)
4.7 Summary
165(1)
References
166(3)
5 High Resolution Optical Frequency Analysis
169(51)
5.1 Introduction
169(1)
5.2 Basic Concepts
170(9)
5.2.1 Linewidth and Chirp
173(2)
5.2.2 Interference between Two Optical Fields
175(4)
5.3 Laser Linewidth Characterization
179(23)
5.3.1 Heterodyne Using a Local Oscillator
179(6)
5.3.2 Delayed Self-Heterodyne
185(3)
5.3.3 Delayed Self-Homodyne
188(1)
5.3.4 Photocurrent Spectrum: Coherence Effects
189(5)
5.3.5 Coherent Discriminator Method
194(7)
5.3.6 Comparison of Techniques
201(1)
5.4 Optical Spectral Measurement of a Modulated Laser
202(6)
5.4.1 Heterodyne Method
204(1)
5.4.2 Gated Delayed Self-Homodyne
205(3)
5.5 Laser Chirp Measurement
208(5)
5.6 Frequency Modulation Measurement
213(4)
5.7 Summary
217(1)
References
218(2)
6 Polarization Measurements
220(26)
6.1 Introduction
220(1)
6.2 Polarization Concepts
221(13)
6.2.1 A General Description of Polarized Light
221(2)
6.2.2 A Polarization Coordinate System
223(1)
6.2.3 The Polarization Ellipse
223(1)
6.2.4 The Jones Calculus
224(2)
6.2.5 The Stokes Parameters
226(2)
6.2.6 Degree of Polarization
228(1)
6.2.7 The Poincare Sphere
229(2)
6.2.8 The Polarimeter and Polarization Analyzer
231(1)
6.2.9 The Mueller Matrix
232(2)
6.3 Retardance Measurement
234(3)
6.3.1 Introduction
234(1)
6.3.2 Measurement of Retardance
235(1)
6.3.3 The Poincare Sphere Method
236(1)
6.3.4 The Jones Matrix Method
237(1)
6.4 Measurement of Cross-Talk in Polarization-Maintaining Fiber
237(6)
6.4.1 Introduction
237(2)
6.4.2 The Crossed-Polarizer Cross-Talk Measurement
239(1)
6.4.3 The Polarimetric Cross-Talk Measurement
240(2)
6.4.4 Measurement of Cross-Talk Along a PM Fiber
242(1)
6.4.5 Cross-Talk Measurement of PM Fiber Interfaces
243(1)
6.4.6 Measurement of the Polarization Stability of Cascaded PM Fibers
243(1)
6.5 Summary
243(2)
6.6 References
245(1)
7 Intensity Modulation and Noise Characterization of Optical Signals
246(38)
7.1 Modulation Domain Analysis
246(6)
7.1.1 Simplified Transmission Systems
247(1)
7.1.2 Lightwave Transmission Components
247(3)
7.1.3 Intensity-Modulated Waveform and Spectrum
250(1)
7.1.4 Modulation-Frequency-Domain Measurements
251(1)
7.2 Modulation Transfer Function
252(11)
7.2.1 Lightwave Component Analyzer
253(1)
7.2.2 E/O Transfer Function Measurements
254(6)
7.2.3 O/E Transfer Function Measurements
260(3)
7.2.4 O/O Transfer Function Measurements
263(1)
7.3 Modulation Signal Analysis
263(6)
7.3.1 Lightwave Signal Analyzer
264(1)
7.3.2 Intensity Modulation and Modulation Depth
265(1)
7.3.3 Distortion
266(3)
7.4 Intensity Noise Characterization
269(6)
7.4.1 Intensity Noise Measurement Techniques
269(3)
7.4.2 Relative Intensity Noise
272(3)
7.5 Modulation Domain Calibration Techniques
275(7)
7.5.1 Optical Impulse Response
276(3)
7.5.2 Optical Heterodyning
279(1)
7.5.3 Two-Tone Technique
280(1)
7.5.4 Optical Intensity Noise
280(1)
7.5.5 Comparison of Calibration Techniques
281(1)
References
282(2)
8 Analysis of Digital Modulation on Optical Carriers
284(55)
8.1 Digital Fiber-Optic Communications Systems
284(4)
8.1.1 SONET/SDH Standards
285(2)
8.1.2 Performance Analysis of Fiber Optic Systems
287(1)
8.2 Bit-Error Ratio
288(10)
8.2.1 BER Measurement
289(1)
8.2.2 BERT Design
290(1)
8.2.3 Test Patterns for Out-of-Service Testing
291(2)
8.2.4 Clock Recovery
293(1)
8.2.5 Example Measurements
293(5)
8.3 Eye-Diagram Analysis
298(26)
8.3.1 Eye-Diagram Generation
298(2)
8.3.2 Digital Sampling Oscilloscope Architectures
300(1)
8.3.3 Real-Time Sampling
301(1)
8.3.4 Equivalent-Time Sampling
302(4)
8.3.5 Oscilloscopes for Eye-Diagram Analysis
306(1)
8.3.6 Eye-Parameter Analysis
307(4)
8.3.7 Eyeline Diagrams
311(5)
8.3.8 Extinction Ratio
316(8)
8.4 Mask Measurements
324(2)
8.4.1 Mask Definition
324(1)
8.4.2 Mask Margins
325(1)
8.4.3 Mask Alignment
325(1)
8.5 Jitter Testing
326(11)
8.5.1 Introduction
326(3)
8.5.2 Jitter Issues
329(1)
8.5.3 Jitter Mathematical Representation
330(1)
8.5.4 Jitter Measurement Categories
330(5)
8.5.5 Jitter Measurement Techniques
335(2)
References
337(2)
9 Insertion Loss Measurements
339(44)
9.1 Introduction
339(1)
9.2 How the Component Influences the Measurement Technique
339(4)
9.2.1 Measurement of Pigtailed and Connectorized Components
340(1)
9.2.2 Measurement of Flange-Mount Components
340(1)
9.2.3 Measurement of Components with Bare-Fiber Pigtails
341(1)
9.2.4 Insertion-Loss Measurement of Integrated Optics Components
342(1)
9.2.5 Imaging Techniques
343(1)
9.3 Single-Wavelength Loss Measurements
343(2)
9.4 Uncertainties of Single-Wavelength Loss Measurements
345(9)
9.4.1 Power-Meter-Related Uncertainties
345(1)
9.4.2 Uncertainty Caused by Polarization-Dependent Loss (PDL)
346(1)
9.4.3 Uncertainty Caused by Optical Interference
347(3)
9.4.4 Uncertainty Caused by the Wavelength Characteristic of the Source
350(4)
9.4.5 Uncertainty Caused by Incompatible Fibers
354(1)
9.5 PDL Measurement
354(4)
9.5.1 Polarization-Scanning Method
354(2)
9.5.2 Mueller Method
356(2)
9.6 Introduction to Wavelength-Dependent Loss Measurements
358(1)
9.7 Wavelength-Dependent Loss Measurements Using a Tunable Laser
359(9)
9.7.1 Loss Measurements with a Tunable Laser and a Power Meter
359(7)
9.7.2 Loss Measurements with a Tunable Laser and an Optical Spectrum Analyzer
366(2)
9.8 Wavelength-Dependent Loss Measurements Using a Broadband Source
368(13)
9.8.1 Broadband Light Sources
370(7)
9.8.2 Receiver Characteristics Relevant to Loss Measurement with Broadband Sources
377(2)
9.8.3 Examples of Filter Measurements Using Broadband Sources
379(2)
9.9 Summary
381(1)
Literature
381(2)
10 Optical Reflectometry for Component Characterization
383(51)
10.1 Introduction
383(4)
10.1.1 Motivation for High Resolution Measurements
385(2)
10.2 Total Return Loss Technique
387(4)
10.2.1 Reflection Sensitivity
387(2)
10.2.2 Multiple Reflections
389(2)
10.3 Basic Concepts for Spatially Resolved Reflectometry
391(10)
10.3.1 Spatial Resolution
391(2)
10.3.2 Dispersion Limit
393(1)
10.3.3 Rayleigh Backscatter and Spatial Resolution
394(2)
10.3.4 Rayleigh Backscatter and Coherent Speckle
396(3)
10.3.5 Coherent vs. Direct Detection
399(2)
10.4 Optical Low Coherence Reflectometry
401(19)
10.4.1 Introduction
401(1)
10.4.2 Description of Operation
402(4)
10.4.3 Special Considerations
406(14)
10.5 Survey of Different Techniques
420(10)
10.5.1 Direct Detection OTDR
420(2)
10.5.2 Photon Counting OTDR
422(1)
10.5.3 Incoherent Frequency Domain Techniques
423(2)
10.5.4 Coherent Frequency Domain Techniques
425(5)
10.6 Comparison of Techniques
430(1)
References
431(3)
11 OTDRs and Backscatter Measurements
434(41)
Overview 434(1)
11.1 Introduction
435(1)
11.2 Principle of OTDR Operation
435(12)
11.2.1 OTDR Fiber Signature
438(1)
11.2.2 Level Diagram
439(2)
11.2.3 Performance Parameters
441(3)
11.2.4 Tradeoff between Dynamic Range and Resolution
444(2)
11.2.5 Ghost Features Caused by Multiple Reflections
446(1)
11.3 Fiber Loss, Scatter, and Backscatter
447(7)
11.3.1 Loss in Fiber
447(2)
11.3.2 Backscatter Signal Analysis
449(5)
11.4 Measuring Splice-and Connector Loss
454(7)
11.4.1 Fusion Splice Loss
454(1)
11.4.2 Different Fibers
455(2)
11.4.3 Insertion Loss of Reflective Events
457(1)
11.4.4 Bending Loss
457(1)
11.4.5 Uncertainty of Loss Measurements
458(1)
11.4.6 A Variable Splice-Loss Test Setup
459(2)
11.5 Return Loss and Reflectance
461(6)
11.5.1 Return-Loss Measurements
461(1)
11.5.2 Reflectance Measurements
461(5)
11.5.3 Accumulative Return Loss
466(1)
11.6 Automated Remote Fiber Testing
467(5)
11.6.1 Link Loss Comparison
467(1)
11.6.2 Dark Fiber Testing
468(1)
11.6.3 Active Fiber Testing
468(4)
11.7 Outlook
472(1)
References
472(3)
12 Dispersion Measurements
475(44)
12.1 Introduction
475(1)
12.2 Measurement of Intermodal Dispersion
476(3)
12.2.1 Introduction
476(1)
12.2.2 The Pulse Distortion Method
477(1)
12.2.3 The Frequency Domain Method
478(1)
12.3 Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion
479(8)
12.3.1 Introduction
479(1)
12.3.2 Causes of Chromatic Dispersion
479(1)
12.3.3 Definitions and Relationships
479(1)
12.3.4 Control of Chromatic Dispersion
480(2)
12.3.5 The Modulation Phase-Shift Method
482(3)
12.3.6 The Differential Phase-Shift Method
485(1)
12.3.7 The Baseband AM Response Method
486(1)
12.4 Polarization-Mode Dispersion
487(28)
12.4.1 Introduction
487(3)
12.4.2 Causes of PMD
490(1)
12.4.3 Mode Coupling and the Principal States of Polarization
490(2)
12.4.4 Definitions and Relationships
492(2)
12.4.5 Statistical Characterization of PMD in Mode-Coupled Fiber
494(1)
12.4.6 A Brief Summary of PMD Measurement Methods
495(1)
12.4.7 The Fixed-Analyzer Method
495(7)
12.4.8 The Jones-Matrix Eigenanalysis Method
502(5)
12.4.9 The Interferometric Method
507(4)
12.4.10 The Poincare Arc Method
511(1)
12.4.11 The Modulation Phase-Shift Method
512(1)
12.4.12 The Pulse-Delay Method
513(1)
12.4.13 Agreement between PMD Measurement Method
514(1)
12.5 Summary
515(1)
References
516(3)
13 Characterization of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
519(78)
Introduction 519(1)
13.1 Fiber Amplifiers
520(5)
13.1.1 Basic Concept
520(5)
13.2 Gain
525(8)
13.2.1 Small-Signal Gain
529(1)
13.2.2 Saturated Gain
530(1)
13.2.3 Polarization Hole-Burning
530(1)
13.2.4 Spectral Hole-Burning
531(1)
13.2.5 Gain Tilt, Gain Slope
532(1)
13.3 Noise
533(9)
13.3.1 Optical Noise
533(1)
13.3.2 Intensity/Photocurrent Noise
534(8)
13.4 Noise Figure
542(4)
13.4.1 Noise-Figure Definition
543(3)
13.5 Characterization of Gain and Noise Figure
546(37)
13.5.1 Amplifier Gain
547(3)
13.5.2 Measurement of Noise Figure
550(33)
13.6 Other Types of Optical Amplifiers
583(7)
13.6.1 Rare-Earth Doped Fiber Amplifiers
583(4)
13.6.2 Gain from Fiber Nonlinearities
587(2)
13.6.3 Semiconductor Amplifiers
589(1)
13.6.4 Measurements of Other Types of Optical Amplifiers
590(1)
13.7 Sources of Measurement Errors
590(1)
13.8 Useful Constants for EDFA Measurements
591(1)
13.9 Summary
591(1)
References
592(5)
Appendix A Noise Sources in Optical Measurements
597(17)
A.1 Electrical Thermal Noise
598(3)
A.2 Optical Intensity Noise
601(3)
A.3 Photocurrent Shot Noise
604(4)
A.4 Optical-Phase-Noise to Intensity-Noise Conversion
608(4)
A.5 Summary
612(1)
References
613(1)
Appendix B Nonlinear Limits for Optical Measurements
614(7)
B.1 Raman Limit
614(2)
B.2 Self-Phase Modulation
616(2)
B.3 Brillouin Limit
618(1)
B.4 Summary
619(1)
References
620(1)
Appendix C Fiber Optic Connectors and Their Care
621(18)
C.1 Background
621(1)
C.2 Connector Styles
622(2)
C.3 Connector Design
624(6)
C.4 Connector Care
630(3)
C.5 Cleaning Procedures
633(5)
Reference
638(1)
Index 639

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