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The complete, practical guide to testing fiber optic communication components and systems.
Fiber optic networks are evolving rapidly—and so is the technology used to design, measure, and test them. Fiber Optic Test and Measurement is the first authoritative, complete guide to measuring both current optical networks and those on the horizon. It reflects the collective experience of Hewlett-Packard's world-class lightwave test and measurement organization, and presents extensive information that has had limited circulation to date.
Learn how to characterize all three basic components of a fiber optic communication system: the optical transmitter, fiber medium, and optical receiver. Review each fundamental area of fiber optic measurement, including:
The book's unprecedented coverage of advanced fiber technology will be invaluable to professionals implementing or maintaining new optical networks. Learn how to:
This practical guide will help technicians, engineers, and scientists accurately measure and test fiber optic systems, without becoming experts in fiber optic theory. It will be equally useful for experienced fiber optic professionals and those new to the field.
|1||Introduction to Fiber Optic Systems and Measurements||1|
|2||Optical Power Measurement||55|
|3||Optical Spectrum Analysis||87|
|5||High Resolution Optical Frequency Analysis||169|
|7||Intensity Modulation and Noise Characterization of Optical Signals||246|
|8||Analysis of Digital Modulation on Optical Carriers||284|
|9||Insertion Loss Measurements||339|
|10||Optical Reflectometry for Component Characterization||383|
|11||OTDRs and Backscatter Measurements||434|
|13||Characterization of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers||519|
|App. A||Noise Sources in Optical Measurements||597|
|App. B||Nonlinear Limits for Optical Measurements||614|
|App. C||Fiber Optic Connectors and Their Care||621|
It became clear to the authors of this book that no single source of information is available in the broad subject area of lightwave test and measurement for fiber optic systems. The authors are with the lightwave test and measurement divisions at HewlettPackard. This book combines the collective experience of the lightwave staff at HewlettPackard together in a single source. The material in this book has been developed from application notes, seminars, conference presentations, journal publications, Ph.D. theses, and unpublished works from the last ten years. Much of this material has not had wide circulation to date.
The book will be useful for technicians, engineers, and scientists involved in the fiber optics industry or who want to become familiar with it. The book is designed to address the needs of people new to the fieldand to those intimately familiar with it. Chapter 1 describes the operation of a fiber optic link and its components. It then briefly describes the most common measurement needs of the fiber optic link and components with measurement block diagrams and example results. The chapter will be particularly valuable for the reader who wants a basic introduction but is not ready to dive into the more detailed coverage given in the following chapters. The basic concepts of the measurements will be presented with a minimum of mathematical detail. The main chapters of the book are designed so that the first section of each chapter provides an overview. Graphical aids are used whenever possible to help in understanding. Later sections of each chapter are geared to cover the material in greater depth for more advanced readers.
Chapters 2 to 6 cover the fundamental areas of fiber optic measurements:
The measurement of power is fundamental to most every lightwave measurement. Chapter 2 covers methods of power measurement and associated accuracy concerns. The area of optical spectral measurements is quite broad and is divided into three chapters. Chapter 3 covers the most common method using a diffraction-grating based optical spectrum analyzer. Chapter 4 covers the area of wavelength meters. Wavelength meters are the electrical analogue of frequency counters because they allow very accurate measurements of laser wavelength. Chapter 5 covers the area of very high wavelength-resolution spectral measurements.
The coverage of polarization in fiber optic systems (Chapter 6) is an area that historically has been underemphasized. This situation has changed since data rates have increased and optical amplifiers have been installed into fiber optic systems.
Chapters 7 and 8 focus on the measurement of the modulation on lightwave signals. In Chapter 7, the emphasis is on frequency-domain analysis of intensity modulation. The measurement of laser modulation bandwidth, distortion, and intensity noise are covered. Chapter 8 discusses time-domain measurements of the modulation. Here subjects such as eye-diagram analysis, temporal signal jitter, and bit-error-ratio measurements are covered.
Chapters 9 to 13 cover measurement topics that are common to two-port optical devices. Two-port optical devices include optical fiber, optical amplifiers, filters, couplers, isolators, and any other device where light enters and leaves. Chapter 9 covers the techniques used to measure insertion loss. Chapter 10 and I I cover methods of measuring the reflectivity of components. Chapter 12 covers the measurement of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. Finally, Chapter 13 covers erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) testing.