Fiber Optic Test and Measurement / Edition 1

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Overview

53433-9

The complete, practical guide to testing fiber optic communication components and systems.

Fiber optic networks are evolving rapidly—and so is the technology used to design, measure, and test them. Fiber Optic Test and Measurement is the first authoritative, complete guide to measuring both current optical networks and those on the horizon. It reflects the collective experience of Hewlett-Packard's world-class lightwave test and measurement organization, and presents extensive information that has had limited circulation to date.

Learn how to characterize all three basic components of a fiber optic communication system: the optical transmitter, fiber medium, and optical receiver. Review each fundamental area of fiber optic measurement, including:

  • Optical power measurements using several types of photodetectors
  • Spectral measurements using diffraction gratings, Michelson interferometers and both heterodyne and homodyne spectrum analysis
  • Polarization measurements—increasingly important in high data rate networks that utilize optical amplifiers
  • Modulation measurements via frequency and time domain analyses

The book's unprecedented coverage of advanced fiber technology will be invaluable to professionals implementing or maintaining new optical networks. Learn how to:

  • Test digital fiber systems to SONET/SDH international standards
  • Accurately characterize the behavior of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) fiber systems
  • Test two-port optical devices for insertion loss, reflectivity of components, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion, and the behavior of Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs).

This practical guide will help technicians, engineers, and scientists accurately measure and test fiber optic systems, without becoming experts in fiber optic theory. It will be equally useful for experienced fiber optic professionals and those new to the field.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780135343302
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 10/8/1997
  • Series: Hewlett-Packard Professional Bks.
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 672
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 8.97 (h) x 1.49 (d)

Meet the Author

Hewlett-Packard engineers and scientists at three different locations in California and Germany collaborated to produce this work.

DENNIS DERICKSON (editor) was one of the founding members of Hewlett-Packard's fiber optic test and measurement group in Santa Rosa, CA.

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Table of Contents

Preface
1 Introduction to Fiber Optic Systems and Measurements 1
2 Optical Power Measurement 55
3 Optical Spectrum Analysis 87
4 Wavelength Meters 131
5 High Resolution Optical Frequency Analysis 169
6 Polarization Measurements 220
7 Intensity Modulation and Noise Characterization of Optical Signals 246
8 Analysis of Digital Modulation on Optical Carriers 284
9 Insertion Loss Measurements 339
10 Optical Reflectometry for Component Characterization 383
11 OTDRs and Backscatter Measurements 434
12 Dispersion Measurements 475
13 Characterization of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers 519
App. A Noise Sources in Optical Measurements 597
App. B Nonlinear Limits for Optical Measurements 614
App. C Fiber Optic Connectors and Their Care 621
Index 639
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Preface

There are many excellent books in the area of fiber-optic communication systems. This book tackles one important subset of this broad field: fiber optic test and measurement techniques. It focuses specifically on the measurement and testing of fiber-optic communication links and the components that make up the link. This book also demonstrates methods to characterize the interactions between these components that have dramatic effects on system performance. The area of lightwave measurement technology is rapidly evolving as is the entire fiber optics industry. It is difficult to keep up with the myriad of measurement demands generated in both the telecommunications and data communications area. The contents of this book provide a detailed coverage of measurement principles that are needed to design and maintain fiber optic systems now and in the future.

It became clear to the authors of this book that no single source of information is available in the broad subject area of lightwave test and measurement for fiber optic systems. The authors are with the lightwave test and measurement divisions at HewlettPackard. This book combines the collective experience of the lightwave staff at HewlettPackard together in a single source. The material in this book has been developed from application notes, seminars, conference presentations, journal publications, Ph.D. theses, and unpublished works from the last ten years. Much of this material has not had wide circulation to date.

The book will be useful for technicians, engineers, and scientists involved in the fiber optics industry or who want to become familiar with it. The book is designed to address the needs of people new to the fieldand to those intimately familiar with it. Chapter 1 describes the operation of a fiber optic link and its components. It then briefly describes the most common measurement needs of the fiber optic link and components with measurement block diagrams and example results. The chapter will be particularly valuable for the reader who wants a basic introduction but is not ready to dive into the more detailed coverage given in the following chapters. The basic concepts of the measurements will be presented with a minimum of mathematical detail. The main chapters of the book are designed so that the first section of each chapter provides an overview. Graphical aids are used whenever possible to help in understanding. Later sections of each chapter are geared to cover the material in greater depth for more advanced readers.

Chapters 2 to 6 cover the fundamental areas of fiber optic measurements:

a. Optical power measurements (Chapter 2);
b. Spectral measurements (Chapter 3 to 5);
c. Polarization measurements (Chapter 6).

The measurement of power is fundamental to most every lightwave measurement. Chapter 2 covers methods of power measurement and associated accuracy concerns. The area of optical spectral measurements is quite broad and is divided into three chapters. Chapter 3 covers the most common method using a diffraction-grating based optical spectrum analyzer. Chapter 4 covers the area of wavelength meters. Wavelength meters are the electrical analogue of frequency counters because they allow very accurate measurements of laser wavelength. Chapter 5 covers the area of very high wavelength-resolution spectral measurements.

The coverage of polarization in fiber optic systems (Chapter 6) is an area that historically has been underemphasized. This situation has changed since data rates have increased and optical amplifiers have been installed into fiber optic systems.

Chapters 7 and 8 focus on the measurement of the modulation on lightwave signals. In Chapter 7, the emphasis is on frequency-domain analysis of intensity modulation. The measurement of laser modulation bandwidth, distortion, and intensity noise are covered. Chapter 8 discusses time-domain measurements of the modulation. Here subjects such as eye-diagram analysis, temporal signal jitter, and bit-error-ratio measurements are covered.

Chapters 9 to 13 cover measurement topics that are common to two-port optical devices. Two-port optical devices include optical fiber, optical amplifiers, filters, couplers, isolators, and any other device where light enters and leaves. Chapter 9 covers the techniques used to measure insertion loss. Chapter 10 and I I cover methods of measuring the reflectivity of components. Chapter 12 covers the measurement of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. Finally, Chapter 13 covers erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) testing.

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