Field and Laboratory Guide to Tree Pathology / Edition 2

Field and Laboratory Guide to Tree Pathology / Edition 2

by Robert O. Blanchard
     
 

ISBN-10: 012103982X

ISBN-13: 9780121039820

Pub. Date: 08/28/1997

Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780121039820
Publisher:
Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date:
08/28/1997
Edition description:
2ND
Pages:
358
Product dimensions:
6.22(w) x 9.36(h) x 0.85(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii(4)
Acknowledgments xvii(2)
Introduction xix
PART I Concepts and Techniques for Understanding, Identifying, and Controlling Tree Diseases 4(41)
1 Tree Biology Selected References
4(1)
2 Sterile Technique
5(4)
Introduction
5(1)
Preparation of Sterile Media
5(3)
Sterile Transfers
8(1)
3 Diagnostic Techniques
9(10)
Introduction
9(1)
Isolation of Disease-Causing Organisms
10(3)
Preparation and Interpretation of Microscope Slides
13(6)
4 Preservation of Diseased Specimens and Pathogens
19(6)
Introduction
19(1)
Diseased Samples
19(3)
Pathogens--Fungi and Bacteria
22(2)
Selected References
24(1)
5 Models
25(6)
Introduction
25(1)
The Disease Cycle
25(1)
The Disease Triangle
26(2)
The Control Triangle
28(1)
Associations among Organisms
28(2)
Selected References
30(1)
6 Symptomatology
31(6)
Introduction
31(1)
Symptoms
31(3)
Signs
34(2)
Selected References
36(1)
7 General Control Strategies
37(8)
Introduction
37(1)
Exclusion
38(1)
Eradication
39(1)
Protection
40(1)
Resistance
40(1)
Selected References
41(4)
PART II Diseases Caused by Infectious Agents 45(228)
8 Fungi
45(6)
Introduction
45(1)
Sexual Reproduction
46(1)
Asexual Reproduction
46(1)
Classification
47(2)
Selected References
49(2)
9 Foliage Diseases
51(38)
Introduction
51(2)
Disease: Powdery Mildew (Species of Phyllactinia, Erysiphe, Microsphaera, Uncinula, Podosphaera, Sphaerotheca)
53(5)
Disease: Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis)
58(5)
Disease: Anthracnose (Most commonly species of Apignomonia, Discula, Kabetiella)
63(8)
Disease: Oak Leaf Blister (Taphrina caerulescens)
71(1)
Disease: Tar Spot of Maple (Rhytisma acerinum, R. punctatum)
72(3)
Disease: Needle Cast [Species of Cyclaneusma (Naemacyclus), Elytroderma, Lophodermium, Phaeocryptos (Adelopus), Rhabdocline, Rhizosphaera, and other related genera]
75(6)
Disease: Needle and Tip Blight [Species of Kabatina, Mycosphaerella (Scirrhia), Phomopsis, Sirococcus (Ascochyta), Sphaeropsis (Diplodia), and other related genera]
81(4)
Disease: Sooty Mold (Traditionally ascomycetous fungi in the family Capnodiaceae but, more accurately, many pigmented members of the Ascomycota)
85(4)
10 Vascular Wilt Diseases
89(22)
Introduction
89(1)
Disease: Dutch Elm Disease (Ophiostoma ulmi)
90(8)
Disease: Oak Wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum)
98(3)
Disease: Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium dahliae)
101(4)
Disease: Mimosa Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. perniciosum)
105(6)
11 Canker Diseases
111(46)
Introduction
111(1)
Disease: Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica)
112(7)
Disease: Strumella Canker (Urnula craterium)
119(3)
Disease: Eutypella Canker (Eutypella parasitica)
122(4)
Disease: Nectria Canker [Target Canker] (Nectria galligena)
126(3)
Disease: Beech Bark Disease (Nectria coccinea var. faginata)
129(7)
Disease: Hypoxylon Canker (Hypoxylon mammatum)
136(5)
Disease: Scleroderris Canker (Ascocalyx abietina)
141(5)
Disease: Cytospora [Leucostoma] Canker of Spruce (Leucostoma kunzei)
146(4)
Disease: Butternut Canker (Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum)
150(7)
12 Rust Diseases
157(30)
Introduction
157(1)
Disease: White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola)
158(7)
Disease: Pine-Oak Gall Rust [Eastern Gall Rust] (Cronartium quercuum)
165(4)
Disease: Fusiform Rust (Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme)
169(5)
Disease: Cedar-Apple Rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae)
174(3)
Disease: Ash Rust (Puccinia sparganioides)
177(10)
13 Root Diseases
187(18)
Introduction
187(1)
Disease: Armillaria Root Rot [Shoestring Root Rot] (Armillaria mellea)
188(5)
Disease: Annosum Root Rot (Heterobasidion annosum)
193(3)
Disease: Phytophthora Root Rots (Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cactorum are most common, but other species of Phytophthora may be involved)
196(4)
Mycorrhizae
200(5)
14 Discoloration and Decay in Living Trees
205(4)
Wounds
205(1)
Host Response to Wounds (CODIT)
205(1)
Microbial Invasion of Wounds
206(1)
Carpenter Ants and Termites in Living Trees
206(2)
Selected References
208(1)
15 Bacterial Diseases
209(14)
Introduction
209(1)
Disease: Crown Gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)
210(4)
Disease: Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora)
214(4)
Disease: Bacterial Wetwood of Elm (Enterobacter cloacae and other bacteria)
218(5)
16 Vascular Bacterial Diseases
223(18)
Introduction
223(1)
Disease: Elm Yellows [Elm Phloem Necrosis] (Phytoplasma)
224(5)
Disease: Lethal Yellowing of Coconut Palms (Phytoplasma)
229(3)
Disease: Ash Yellows or Ash Witches'-Broom (Phytoplasma)
232(3)
Disease: Leaf Scorch of Hardwoods (Xylella fastidiosa)
235(6)
17 Virus Diseases
241(6)
Introduction
241(1)
Virus Diseases of Trees
242(2)
Control of Virus Diseases of Trees
244(1)
Selected References
244(3)
18 Nematode Diseases
247(14)
Introduction
247(1)
Nematode Diseases of Tree Roots
248(4)
Control of Nematode Root Diseases
252(3)
Systemic Attack of Nematodes
255(2)
Disease: Pine Wilt (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)
257(4)
19 Diseases Caused by Parasitic Seed Plants
261(12)
Introduction
261(1)
Disease: Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.)
261(3)
Disease: True (Leafy) Mistletoe (Species of Phoradendron, Loranthus, and Viscum)
264(3)
Disease: Dodder (Cuscuta spp.)
267(6)
PART III Diseases Caused by Noninfectious Agents 273(26)
20 Temperature Extremes
273(6)
Introduction
273(1)
High Temperature--Heat Injury
273(2)
Low Temperature--Cold Injury
275(1)
Selected References
276(3)
21 Moisture Extremes
279(6)
Introduction
279(1)
Water Deficiency--Drought
279(1)
Water Excess--Flooding and Poorly Drained Soils
280(1)
Selected References
281(4)
22 Nutrient Abnormalities
285(4)
Introduction
285(1)
Macronutrients
285(1)
Micronutrients
286(1)
Soil and Tissue Analysis
286(1)
Selected References
286(3)
23 People Pressure Diseases
289(10)
Introduction
289(1)
Construction Injury
289(2)
Chemical Injury
291(3)
Control of People Pressure Diseases
294(1)
Selected References
295(4)
PART IV Field and Laboratory Exercises 299(26)
Exercise I: Symptoms and Signs
299(1)
Exercise II: Collection and Identification of Powdery Mildews
300(1)
Exercise III: Disease Sample Collection
301(3)
Exercise IV: Isolations of Vascular Wilt Pathogens
304(3)
Exercise V: Detection of Starch Reserves in Trees
307(2)
Exercise VI: Koch's Postulates
309(1)
Exercise VII: Extraction of Nematodes from Soil and Roots
310(4)
Exercise VIII: Observations of Mycorrhizae
314(1)
Exercise IX: Development of Crown Gall
315(1)
Exercise X: Appraisal of Shade Trees
316(2)
Exercise XI: Detection of Hazard Trees
318(2)
Exercise XII: Effects of Salt on Tree Seedlings
320(1)
Exercise XIII: Detection of Discoloration and Decay in Wood
321(4)
Glossary 325(6)
Bibliography 331(22)
Index 353

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