Filipino Americansby Jon Sterngass
According to the 2000 U.S. census, Filipinos ranked second among foreignborn immigrants living in the United States: At least 1.4 million foreignborn people from the Philippines live in the United States, and more than 2 million Americans identify their ancestry as Filipino. In the early 1900s, during the first wave of immigration, Filipinos worked as agricultural laborers in California and Hawaii, cannery workers in Alaska and Washington, and sailors in the U.S. Navy. More recently, Filipino immigrants have played crucial roles in such fields as computer programming and nursing. Throughout their time in the United States, they have struggled to balance the Filipino concepts of pakikisama (smooth social interaction) and bayanihan (cooperative work) with the individualism and materialism that often defines American culture. This book examines the history and culture, as well as the trials and successes, of these so-called invisible immigrants.
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