Fisheries Ecology and Management

Fisheries Ecology and Management

by Carl J. Walters, Steven J. D. Martell, Steven J.D. Martell
     
 

ISBN-10: 0691115451

ISBN-13: 9780691115450

Pub. Date: 10/18/2004

Publisher: Princeton University Press

Quantitative modeling methods have become a central tool in the management of harvested fish populations. This book examines how these modeling methods work, why they sometimes fail, and how they might be improved by incorporating larger ecological interactions. Fisheries Ecology and Management provides a broad introduction to the concepts and quantitative

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Overview

Quantitative modeling methods have become a central tool in the management of harvested fish populations. This book examines how these modeling methods work, why they sometimes fail, and how they might be improved by incorporating larger ecological interactions. Fisheries Ecology and Management provides a broad introduction to the concepts and quantitative models needed to successfully manage fisheries.

Walters and Martell develop models that account for key ecological dynamics such as trophic interactions, food webs, multi-species dynamics, risk-avoidance behavior, habitat selection and density-dependence. They treat fisheries policy development as a two-stage process, first identifying strategies for varying harvest in relation to changes in abundance, then finding ways to implement such strategies in terms of monitoring and regulatory procedures. This book provides a general framework for developing assessment models in terms of state-observation dynamics hypotheses, and points out that most fisheries assessment failures have been due to inappropriate observation model hypotheses rather than faulty models for ecological dynamics.

Intended as a text in upper division and graduate classes on fisheries assessment and management, this useful guide will also be widely read by ecologists and fisheries scientists.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780691115450
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
Publication date:
10/18/2004
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
448
Product dimensions:
6.14(w) x 9.16(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

LIST OF FIGURES xi

LIST OF TABLES xvii

PREFACE xix

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxi

PART ONE: CHANGING OBJECTIVES AND EMERGING ASSESSMENT METHODS 1

CHAPTER 1: Introduction 3

1.1 The Role of Predictive Models 3

1.2 The Distinction between Fish Science and Fisheries Science 5

1.3 Approaches to Prediction of Policy Impact 6

1.4 Experimental Management 9

1.5 The Ecological Basis of Sustainable Harvesting 12

CHAPTER 2: Trade-Offs in Fisheries Management 20

2.1 Trade-Off Relationships and Policy Choices 22

2.2 Short-Term versus Long-Term Values 25

2.3 Biological Diversity versus Productivity 31

2.4 Economic Efficiency versus Diversity of Employment Opportunities 37

2.5 Allocation of Management-Agency Resources 39

PART TWO: ELEMENTARY CONCEPTS IN POPULATION DYNAMICS AND HARVEST REGULATION 41

CHAPTER 3: Strategic Requirements for Sustainable Fisheries 43

3.1 Harvest Optimization Models 46

3.2 Constructing Feedback Policies 49

3.3 Feedback Policy Implementation 58

3.4 Feedback Policies for Incremental Quota Change 61

3.5 Actively Adaptive Policies 63

CHAPTER 4: Tactics for Effective Harvest Regulation 65

4.1 Tactical Options for Limiting Exploitation Rates 67

4.2 Managing the Risk of Depensatory Effects under Output Control 69

4.3 Tactics for Direct Control of Exploitation Rates 74

4.4 Regulation of Exploitation Rates in Recreational Fisheries 77

4.5 In-Season Adaptive Management Systems 79

4.6 Monitoring Options and Priorities 80

4.7 Maintaining Genetic Diversity and Structure in Harvested Populations 83

PART THREE: USE AND ABUSE OF SINGLE-SPECIES ASSESSMENT MODELS 87

CHAPTER 5: An Overview of Single-Species Assessment Models 89

5.1 Objectives of Single-Species Assessment 89

5.2 State-Observation Components 91

5.3 Estimation Criteria and Measuring Uncertainty 95

5.4 Modeling Options 101

5.5 Using Composition Information 110

5.6 Dealing with Parameters That Aren't 121

CHAPTER 6: Foraging Arena Theory (I)124

6.1 Beverton-Holt Model for Stock-Recruitment 128

6.2 Alternative Models Based on Juvenile Carrying Capacity 132

6.3 Using Foraging Arena Arguments to Derive the Beverton-Holt Model 136

6.4 Implications for Recruitment Research and Prediction 147

CHAPTER 7: Problems in the Assessment of Recruitment Relationships 151

7.1 Which Parameters Matter? 152

7.2 Predicting Reproductive Performance at Low Stock Sizes 158

7.3 Predicting Capacity to Recover from Historical Overfishing 160

7.4 The Errors-in-Variables Bias Problem 162

7.5 The Time-Series Bias Problem 165

7.6 Can Statistical Fisheries Oceanography Save the Day? 173

PART FOUR: MODELING SPATIAL PATTERNS AND DYNAMICS IN FISHERIES 179

CHAPTER 8: Spatial Population Dynamics Models 181

8.1 Life-History Trajectories 182

8.2 Multistage Models 185

8.3 Eulerian Representation 188

8.4 Lagrangian Representation 193

8.5 Policy Gaming with Spatial Models 198

CHAPTER 9: Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Fishing Effort 200

9.1 Long-Term Capacity 201

9.2 Short-Term Effort Responses 204

9.3 Spatial Allocation of Fishing Effort 210

9.4 Mosaic Closures 223

PART FIVE: FOOD WEB MODELING TO HELP ASSESS IMPACT OF FISHERIES ON ECOLOGICAL SUPPORT FUNCTIONS 229

CHAPTER 10: Foraging Arena Theory (II)231

10.1 Understanding Foraging Arena Theory 232

10.2 Predicting Trophic Flows 236

10.3 Adding Realism (I): Foraging Time Adjustments 240

10.4 Adding Realism (II): Trophic Mediation 244

10.5 Ecosim 246

10.6 Representing Trophic Ontogeny in Ecosim 248

10.7 Single-Species Dynamics from Ecosim Rate Equations 252

10.8 Ecosystem-Scale Variation 254

CHAPTER 11: Options for Ecosystem Modeling 256

11.1 Qualitative Analysis of Dominant Trophic Interactions 259

11.2 Qualitative Analysis of More Complex Linkages 270

11.3 Models That Link Dynamics with Nutrient Cycling Processes 271

11.4 Representation of Mesoscale Spatial-Policy Options 276

11.5 Individual-Based Size-and Space-Structured Models 283

CHAPTER 12: Parameterization of Ecosystem Models 286

12.1 Parameterizing Models 287

12.2 Parameter Estimates from Experimental Data 289

12.3 Estimating Parameters from Mass Balance Snapshots 292

12.4 Challenging Ecosystem Models with Data 300

PART SIX: STRATEGIES FOR ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT 311

CHAPTER 13: Marine Enhancement Programs 313

13.1 Things That Can Go Wrong 317

13.2 Critical Steps in Enhancement Program Design 326

13.3 Monitoring and Experimental Requirements 331

CHAPTER 14: Options for Sustainable Ecosystem Management 334

14.1 Alternative Visions of Ecosystem Structure 335

14.2 Moving Toward Sustainable Ecosystem Management 344

APPENDIX: Definitions for Mathematical Symbols 349

BIBLIOGRAPHY 355

INDEX 381

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