Fits, Trances, and Visions: Experiencing Religion and Explaining Experience from Wesley to Jamesby Ann Taves
Pub. Date: 10/25/1999
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Fits, trances, visions, speaking in tongues, clairvoyance, out-of-body experiences, possession. Believers have long viewed these and similar involuntary experiences as religiousas manifestations of God, the spirits, or the Christ within. Skeptics, on the other hand, have understood them as symptoms of physical disease, mental disorder, group dynamics, or
Fits, trances, visions, speaking in tongues, clairvoyance, out-of-body experiences, possession. Believers have long viewed these and similar involuntary experiences as religiousas manifestations of God, the spirits, or the Christ within. Skeptics, on the other hand, have understood them as symptoms of physical disease, mental disorder, group dynamics, or other natural causes. In this sweeping work of religious and psychological history, Ann Taves explores the myriad ways in which believers and detractors interpreted these complex experiences in Anglo-American culture between the mid-eighteenth and early-twentieth centuries.
Taves divides the book into three sections. In the first, ranging from 1740 to 1820, she examines the debate over trances, visions, and other involuntary experiences against the politically charged backdrop of Anglo-American evangelicalism, established churches, Enlightenment thought, and a legacy of religious warfare. In the second part, covering 1820 to 1890, she highlights the interplay between popular psychologyparticularly the ideas of "animal magnetism" and mesmerismand movements in popular religion: the disestablishment of churches, the decline of Calvinist orthodoxy, the expansion of Methodism, and the birth of new religious movements. In the third section, Taves traces the emergence of professional psychology between 1890 and 1910 and explores the implications of new ideas about the subconscious mind, hypnosis, hysteria, and dissociation for the understanding of religious experience.
Throughout, Taves follows evolving debates about whether fits, trances, and visions are natural (and therefore not religious) or supernatural (and therefore religious). She pays particular attention to a third interpretation, proposed by such "mediators" as William James, according to which these experiences are natural and religious. Taves shows that ordinary people as well as educated elites debated the meaning of these experiences and reveals the importance of interactions between popular and elite culture in accounting for how people experienced religion and explained experience.
Combining rich detail with clear and rigorous argument, this is a major contribution to our understanding of Protestant revivalism and the historical interplay between religion and psychology.
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Table of Contents
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix
PART ONE. FORMALISM, ENTHUSIASM, AND TRUE RELIGION, 1740-1820 13
CHAPTER ONE Explaining Enthusiasm 20
CHAPTER TWO Making Experience 47
CHAPTER THREE Shouting Methodists 76
PART TWO: POPULAR PSYCHOLOGY AND POPULAR RELIGION, 1820-1890 119
CHAPTER FOUR Clairvoyants and Visionaries 128
CHAPTER FIVE Embodying Spirits 166
CHAPTER SIX Explaining Trance 207
PART THREE: RELIGION AND THE SUBCONSCIOUS, 1886-1910 251
CHAPTER SEVEN The Psychology of Religion 261
CHAPTER EIGHT Varieties of Protestant Religious Experience 308
NAME INDEX 435
SUBJECT INDEX 441
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