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Fixed and Flapping Wing Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicle Applications
     

Fixed and Flapping Wing Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicle Applications

by Thomas J. Mueller
 

ISBN-10: 1563475170

ISBN-13: 9781563475177

Pub. Date: 08/28/2002

Publisher: American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics

Recently, there has been a serious effort to design aircraft that are as small as possible for special, limited-duration missions. These vehicles may carry visual, acoustic, chemical, or biological sensors for such missions as traffic management, hostage situation surveillance, rescue operations, etc.

The goal is to develop aircraft systems that weigh less

Overview

Recently, there has been a serious effort to design aircraft that are as small as possible for special, limited-duration missions. These vehicles may carry visual, acoustic, chemical, or biological sensors for such missions as traffic management, hostage situation surveillance, rescue operations, etc.

The goal is to develop aircraft systems that weigh less than 90 grams, with a 15-centimeter wingspan. Since it is not possible to meet all of the design requirements of a micro air vehicle with current technology, research is proceeding. This new book reports on the latest research in the area of aerodynamic efficiency of various fixed wing, flapping wing, and rotary wing concepts. It presents the progress made by over 50 active researchers in the field from Canada, Europe, Japan, and the United States. It is the only book of its kind.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781563475177
Publisher:
American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
Publication date:
08/28/2002
Series:
Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Ser.
Pages:
605
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.80(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexv
Chapter 1An Overview of Micro Air Vehicle Aerodynamics1
I.Introduction2
II.Fixed Wing Vehicles4
III.Flapping Wing Vehicles6
IV.Concluding Remarks8
References9
Part I.Fixed Wing Aerodynamics
Chapter 2Higher-Order Boundary Layer Formulation and Application to Low Reynolds Number Flows13
I.Introduction14
II.Curvilinear Coordinates and Equations15
III.Equivalent Inviscid Flow16
IV.Entrainment Equation and Viscous/Inviscid Coupling17
V.Integral Momentum and Kinetic Energy Equations17
VI.Turbulent Transport Equation18
VII.Real Viscous Flow Profiles19
VIII.Profile Families21
IX.Higher-Order Corrections22
X.High-Order Panel Method24
XI.Viscous/Inviscid System Formulation29
XII.Results30
XIII.Conclusions33
References33
Chapter 3Analysis and Design of Airfoils for Use at Ultra-Low Reynolds Numbers35
I.Introduction35
II.Computational Analysis Methods36
III.Flowfield Assumptions38
IV.Grid Topology39
V.Comparison with Experiment40
VI.Effects of Reynolds Number and Geometry Variations on Airfoil Performance41
VII.Airfoil Optimization56
VIII.Conclusions59
References59
Chapter 4Adaptive, Unstructured Meshes for Solving the Navier-Stokes Equations for Low-Chord-Reynolds-Number Flows61
I.Introduction62
II.Approach63
III.The Finite Element Approximation66
IV.Fluid Solver67
V.Grid Generation and Adaptive Refinement70
VI.Results73
VII.Database Validation76
VIII.Ongoing Work76
IX.Conclusions79
Acknowledgment80
References80
Chapter 5Wind Tunnel Tests of Wings and Rings at Low Reynolds Numbers83
I.Introduction83
II.Effect of Aspect Ratio and Planform on the Aerodynamic Lift and Drag84
III.Effect of Low Reynolds Numbers on the Lift and Drag of Ring Airfoils86
References90
Chapter 6Effects of Acoustic Disturbances on Low Re Aerofoil Flows91
I.Introduction91
II.Experimental Arrangements94
III.Results98
IV.Discussion106
V.Potential Use of Sound to Improve Performance110
VI.Conclusions111
Acknowledgments112
References112
Chapter 7Aerodynamic Characteristics of Low Aspect Ratio Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers115
I.Introduction116
II.Apparatus117
III.Procedures119
IV.Uncertainty120
V.Flow Visualization120
VI.Discussion of Results121
VII.Vortex-Lattice Method137
VIII.Conclusions139
Acknowledgments139
References140
Chapter 8Systematic Airfoil Design Studies at Low Reynolds Numbers143
I.Introduction143
II.Design Process144
III.Parametric Studies in Airfoil Design147
IV.Summary and Conclusions164
Acknowledgments166
References166
Chapter 9Numerical Optimization and Wind-Tunnel Testing of Low Reynolds Number Airfoils169
I.Introduction170
II.Aerodynamic Model171
III.Experimental Setup172
IV.Numerical Optimization of Low Reynolds Number Airfoils176
V.Experimental Investigations on Very Low Reynolds Number Airfoils182
VI.Conclusion and Outlook188
References188
Chapter 10Unsteady Stalling Characteristics of Thin Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number191
I.Introduction191
II.Experimental Methods193
III.Results and Discussion196
IV.Summary and Conclusions211
Acknowledgments212
References212
Part II.Flapping and Rotary Wing Aerodynamics
Chapter 11Thrust and Drag in Flying Birds: Applications to Birdlike Micro Air Vehicles217
I.Introduction217
II.Avian Flight Performance219
III.Thrust Generation222
IV.Drag Reduction224
V.Wing Shape226
VI.Conclusions227
Acknowledgments228
References228
Chapter 12Lift and Drag Characteristics of Rotary and Flapping Wings231
I.Introduction232
II.Aerodynamics of Hovering Insect Flight232
III.Propeller Experiments at High Re237
IV.Results and Discussion241
Acknowledgments246
References246
Chapter 13A Rational Engineering Analysis of the Efficiency of Flapping Flight249
I.Introduction250
II.The Influence of Wake Roll Up on Flapping Flight253
III.Minimum Loss Flapping Theory258
IV.Results264
V.Summary and Discussion271
Acknowledgments272
References272
Chapter 14Leading-Edge Vortices of Flapping and Rotary Wings at Low Reynolds Number275
I.Introduction276
II.Computational Modeling of a Rotary Wing277
III.Numerical Accuracy279
IV.Results279
V.Conclusions284
Acknowledgment285
References285
Chapter 15On the Flowfield and Forces Generated by a Flapping Rectangular Wing at Low Reynolds Number287
I.Introduction287
II.Previous Work288
III.Scope of Present Work290
IV.Experimental Setup290
V.Wing Motion291
VI.Velocity Data Planes291
VII.Velocity Field Data Analysis293
VIII.Force Measurements294
IX.Results and Discussion295
X.Conclusions303
References303
Chapter 16Experimental and Computational Investigation of Flapping Wing Propulsion for Micro Air Vehicles307
I.Introduction308
II.General Kinematics308
III.Plunging Airfoils311
IV.Pitching Airfoils318
V.Pitching and Plunging Airfoils320
VI.Airfoil Combinations324
VII.Summary and Prospective336
Acknowledgments336
References336
Chapter 17Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wings at Low Reynolds Number341
I.Introduction343
II.Unsteady Wing Theory343
III.Experimental Aerodynamics354
IV.Geometrical Consideration of Blade Element Theory363
V.Forces and Moments Acting on Beating Wings374
VI.Conclusion385
References391
Chapter 18A Nonlinear Aeroelastic Model for the Study of Flapping Wing Flight399
I.Introduction401
II.Structural Analysis405
III.Aerodynamic and Inertial Forces and Moments407
IV.Damping415
V.Results and Discussion419
VI.Conclusions427
References428
Chapter 19Euler Solutions for a Finite-Span Flapping Wing429
I.Introduction430
II.Numerical Method432
III.Investigations for Two-Dimensional Flow433
IV.Investigations for Three-Dimensional Flow441
V.Conclusions449
Acknowledgments449
References449
Chapter 20From Soaring and Flapping Bird Flight to Innovative Wing and Propeller Constructions453
I.Introduction453
II.Bionic Airfoil Construction454
III.Bionic Propeller465
IV.Conclusions469
Acknowledgments470
References470
Chapter 21Passive Aeroelastic Tailoring for Optimal Flapping Wings473
I.Introduction473
II.Experimental Setup475
III.Results477
IV.Conclusions481
Acknowledgments482
References482
Chapter 22Shape Memory Alloy Actuators as Locomotor Muscles483
I.Introduction484
II.Brief Overview of SMA Actuators486
III.Thermomechanical Transformation Fatigue of SMA Actuators488
IV.Adaptive Control of SMA Actuator Wires491
V.Energy Considerations for SMA Actuators494
VI.SMA Actuators as Locomotor Muscles for a Biomimetic Hydrofoil496
VII.Conclusions498
Acknowledgments498
References498
Part III.Micro Air Vehicle Applications
Chapter 23Mesoscale Flight and Miniature Rotorcraft Development503
I.Introduction503
II.Approach508
III.Testing515
IV.Conclusions516
Acknowledgments516
References517
Chapter 24Development of the Black Widow Micro Air Vehicle519
I.Introduction519
II.Early Prototypes519
III.Multidisciplinary Design Optimization520
IV.Energy Storage524
V.Motors525
VI.Micropropeller Design526
VII.Airframe Structural Design528
VIII.Avionics530
IX.Video Camera Payload531
X.Stability and Control532
XI.Performance532
XII.Ground Control Unit533
XIII.Conclusions533
Acknowledgments535
References535
Chapter 25Computation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Micro Air Vehicle537
I.Introduction538
II.The Incompressible Flow Solver538
III.Description of the Micro Air Vehicle Model539
IV.Discussion of Results540
V.Summary and Conclusions554
Acknowledgments554
References554
Chapter 26Optic Flow Sensors for MAV Navigation557
I.Introduction557
II.Optic Flow557
III.Description of the Optic Flow Sensor560
IV.Use of Optic Flow for Navigation566
V.Initial In-Flight Experiments567
VI.Next-Generation Sensors571
VII.Conclusion573
Acknowledgments573
References573
Series Listing575

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