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Overview

These days people are looking to the Internet for its gaming possibilities. Whether it's real-time role-playing you're after with 30,000 of your closest friends, or just a solitary round of crazy golf, the most versatile piece of web animation software just made itself more approachable for designing games!

This book takes us deep, deep down into the realms of game design, and hunts out the features that are really going to evolve your Flash skills into full-on game wizardry. We are going to discuss what makes a good game, and what makes a great game. We grapple with the concepts of 3D and how to get Flash to produce cutting-edge game environments, while keeping our sensible shoes on by reducing those file sizes and download times. We conduct a battle of wits with artificial intelligence, and have a good crash around with some collision detection in platform games. All in all, we are pushing Flash to its breaking point to see what lies beyond.

The Studio series assumes you already know your way around Flash's basics, and it aims to boost your knowledge and help you master some advanced techniques. Flash 5Games Studio draws its inspiration from the full spectrum of Flash's capabilities. Amongst other things, it explores:

  • Refining methods of graphic creation to speed up game performance
  • Using ActionScript techniques for player control and environmental reactions
  • Mastering the sound capabilities with interactive soundtracks
  • Using data packets and sockets to develop multiplayer games

What you’ll learnWho this book is for

If you want to turn your open-ended Flash animations into challenging, high-quality games, then this is the book for you. You will benefit from it if you are:

  • A Flash user who wants to get comfortable with the most important and useful ActionScript commands
  • A Flash user who wants to push the software to the edge of its capabilities, and stretch your knowledge base to its limit
  • A Flash-savvy game designer who wants to venture into the realms of web-based gaming

Whether it's real-time role-playing you're after with 30,000 of your closest friends, or just a solitary round of crazy golf, the most versatile piece of web animation software just made itself more approachable for designing games!

This book takes us deep, deep down into the realms of game design, and hunts out the features that are really going to evolve your Flash skills into full-on game wizardry. We are going to discuss what makes a good game – and what makes a great game.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781903450673
  • Publisher: Apress
  • Publication date: 4/1/2001
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 500
  • Product dimensions: 7.62 (w) x 8.98 (h) x 1.64 (d)

Meet the Author

Sham Bhangal has worked on books in new media for five years, during which time he has authored and co-authored numerous friends of ED books, including critically acclaimed, award-winning, and bestselling titles like Foundation Flash, New Masters of Flash, Flash MX Upgrade Essentials, Flash MX Most Wanted, and the Flash MX Designer's ActionScript Reference. He has considerable working experience with Macromedia and Adobe products, as well as other general web design technologies (such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, etc.). In addition to speaking appearances at FlashForward, the biggest Macromedia Flash developer conference, Sham has also been a beta tester for Macromedia and Discreet products for a number of years.

Glen Rhodes started his mind going early in life, when he was about 4 years old. At that age, Glen began playing the piano, which was sitting unused in his family's house. He's been playing ever since. Later, in 1997, Glen co-wrote a full-length musical called Chrystanthia. Somewhere along the way, he picked up game programming as a hobby, and eventually ended up making games professionally for home console systems. Then, in 1998, Glen discovered how he could take all my experiences and combine them, when he discovered Flash. The rest is history. Glen shares his ideas on his website, GlenRhodes.com.

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Read an Excerpt

Excerpt from
Chapter 4:

Event Handling

In this chapter we're going to explore the exciting new event handling toys on offer in Flash 5, and look at how we can mix and match them to create our own, more complex event handling routines. This is where more advanced gaming really begins to take hold, with the beginning of a sensitive control system.

We will take as a starting point our tank project from the last chapter, and try to evolve it, taking in a few more complex routines along the way. Here's what we'll do:

  • Find out how to produce smooth movement from the keyboard
  • Allow simultaneous actions
  • Enable the user to customize keys
  • Look at spawning objects and initializing them
  • Detect collision between objects and set the consequences After all this we should have a pretty responsive and engaging game and, more importantly, a genuine grasp on how to deal with user input in Flash.

The onClipEvent Function

The main new tool that is going to help us with all this is the onClipEvent function, which lets us detect events that were unusable in Flash 4. Even better is the fact that this code is attached to the outside of the movie clip instance, just like a button's code is on the outside of the button. e The result of this is that you can now have any number of instances of a movie clip out on the stage, with each instance having different code.

So then, clip events are pieces of ActionScript attached to the movie instance; which wait to be triggered by an external event. The great thing is, since the code is attached to the movie's Object Actions window, and therefore not actually on its timeline, it doesn't matter what frame your ' movie clip is on for the code to execute.

This new method allows you to store user controls, collision detection and movement scripts all in one place, making it easier to read through and edit your FLASH file at a later date. Anybody who has walked away from a file for a week or so, only to come back and feel like it was written by a stranger, will know that this type of organization is a lifesaver.

Let's start by taking a look at each of the onClipEvent options, and how they are going to help us with game design.

onClipEvent (load)

With the load event, it's possible to initialize values for a movie clip the moment it appears. This is extremely useful in games, as obstacles or enemies often act within preprogrammed parameters. These parameters can be assigned once here, then other scripts can use the information however they choose. This is also a great place to initialize functions, such as the way in which an object is to move. Functions only need to be introduced once, so the fact that load is only run when the movie clip is loaded makes it the obvious place to put them.

onClipEvent (enterFrame)

Often going hand in hand with the load event is the enterFrame event. This event triggers its code at the beginning of each frame. What this means is the code is running constantly, executing at the current frame rate. Because of this, it's a great place to add code that looks after the maintenance of a movie, such as whether or not a bullet has hit anything on its progress across the screen. Later on in this chapter we will be applying an (enterFrame) event to our tank's shells in order to check whether they have hit any of the randomly scattered mines.

There is a lot more that can be put in this event handler, such as checks for user controls and timers. Rest assured we'll be looking at those towards the end of this chapter.

onClipEvent (unload)

The opposite of load is the unload event. I rarely use this code for games, because the number of events that may prompt an unloading is pretty large. The unload event is triggered whenever the movie clip is no longer present, whether that is by simply not being on the timeline anymore, being removed by removeMovieClip, or if either happens to any of its parent movie clips. In a lot of games, it's not the simple act of leaving the stage that is significant, but how it leaves.

It's possible for an element to leave the screen for any number of reasons. Maybe it has been destroyed, or maybe it's just the end of the game. In either case, the code for a movie would have been processed. I much prefer to add the code to the event that triggers the object's destruction. Adding this code to the code that causes the unload event is going to be easier to read later on.

onClipEvent (data)

This triggers when either external variables or SWFs are being loaded. Every time Flash receives a section of data for a loaded SWF, or when the last variable of a file loads in, this event is set off. We'll see this in action later in the book when we build a level editor and use the data event to check when a new level map has been loaded, and to display it when it has.

Elsewhere in the onclipEvent window we have a series of user input related events. These events are mouseDown mouseUp mouseMove, keyDown, and keyUp. In the next section not only will we look at the role of these onClipEvent events, but also the events associated with the on statements, as part of buttons.

User Interaction

In Flash we have access to two input devices - the keyboard and the mouse (or whatever you use as the mouse, such as a tablet). Sorry - there is no access to the joystick port, which would be a nice bonus, but you can still create some great interfaces with the standard inputs. Let's start by looking at each of the devices as they apply to making game controls, then we can go through the many different ways of interpreting the input.

The Keyboard

Wow, look at all of those keys - so much potential for the world's most complex game! But hold your horses. You need to keep in mind that most of us only have two hands with five fingers to each, and as much as I might like games, it certainly doesn't cover bringing my toes into play.

Certain games call for a lot of different controls, but these are not generally meant to be used at once. For instance, tile-based RPGs will often have a lot of commands, like pickup, drop, inventory, attack, talk, open, and so on, but these are things that you neither have to do quickly nor at once. In an arcade game like a space shooter, you have only a few controls, but you have to do things quickly and often simultaneously.

There is a balance that you as the game designer can decide for yourself, but if your controls are intuitive and comfortable, you should be safe. "Intuitive controls" pretty much means borrowing from what's considered the most common controls. For the keyboard, that often means the arrow keys for the directional controls, or the I, J, K, and L keys which for a long time were considered to be the default direction keys. Whatever you choose, if you design a keyboard interface, make sure your users don't have to play the finger equivalent of a tongue twister before they even get to the actual challenges in the game.

Also bear in mind that there are different keyboard types. Putting a lot of controls in the center of your keyboard may work fine for a standard keyboard but may be awkward on a split keyboard or a laptop keyboard where the player also has to use a track-pad. Also, depending on the type of computer you have, there may be different keys, specific to an operating system, such as the ALT and CTRL keys on the PC, and the COMMAND and OPTION keys on the Mac. While you have access to almost all of the keys on the keyboard, be sure not to choose controls that simply won't work on another keyboard or may be arranged in an unusable way.

The Mouse

The mouse is a simpler device than a keyboard, but for game play it can have a much more sensitive touch. Like the keyboard, the mouse comes in many different guises. Flash is limited to the two features that are common to every mouse: movement and the main button (commonly the left mouse button for PCs).

Now that we all know about what we have available to us, let's talk about using them to control a game. There are a few different ways of dealing with input from the mouse. Flash has inbuilt event handlers for both keys and mouse, and as we briefly discussed in the onClipEvent section, there are also some for movie clips. We can also create scripts that access the status of the mouse or keyboard. We'll touch on these quickly here, but in the large part we'll leave them for the section on building our own checks later.

We'll start off by looking at the button's event handlers, as they will be the most familiar to those of you who have used Flash as a tool for creating user interfaces. After that, we'll look at the onClipEvent events that have to do with the keyboard and mouse, and finish off with looking at the properties available to us when we start building our own event handlers.

Button Event Handlers

Buttons are a simple way of setting up interactivity; they lay in wait, listening for the correct action from the player, then when the correct action is performed, they merrily respond. Of course, if it's listening for a keyPress it really doesn't act like a button; it's a no-frills event handler that doesn't have to be touched in itself. It just holds the code. If on the other hand, a button is listening for a mouse event, it often needs to be physically "pressed" by the cursor. This relies on a hit area - a defined shape where the button exists. As you're no doubt aware, this doesn't have to have anything to do with what the button looks like:

Here the hit area is a bit larger than the actual button graphic, and is just a simple shape. Since you don't ever see it, there is no real reason to decorate it. Also, since the point of a simple button is to be pushed, I often find it a good idea to expand the hit shape of the button to a larger area so that the user has no problem interacting with it. Also keep in mind that hit areas are completely static. No animation can occur. If you place any type of animated symbol in this frame, the hit state will simply be the first frame of that symbol.

Whenever the mouse enters this hit area, the cursor (if visible) will turn into a hand. For a game this can be a good or a bad thing. If you are trying to show your player that this is an area you can interact with, this is an excellent way of doing it since the hand is a symbol users will recognize as an interactive spot. This is helpful in exploratory games where you want to give the user some hints.

On the other hand if you are creating a shooting game, changing the cursor may not be such a great thing. If your targets are marked by a cursor change, that may be giving the user more information than you want since it might be too easy to spot the targets if they are supposed to be hidden.

With the mouse, you can set up handlers that execute code when you enter a button, press it, let go of it, or when you leave the button without letting go, let go outside the button, or enter the e button with the mouse button already pressed. With all of that, there are certainly a large number of games where you can use buttons as the main interaction, but these are normally puzzles, or other games where you need to choose something, or use a drag and drop style interface. Arcade games made with buttons as the main interaction are generally quite limited to shooting galleries and whack-a-mole style games.

The best way to create a deft control system is by using the keyboard. But we have to be careful; there are limitations that we have to be aware of. The main one of these comes with the on (keyPress "key") command, as it works just as if you were typing normally: If you hold down the key, it triggers once, then there is a pause, followed by a repeating trigger: While that may not seem so bad, a lot can happen in the time it takes for the action to repeat. Also, in most game applications where you need to continuously hold down a key for a persistent effect, it really helps if the action happens smoothly.

Unfortunately, the limitations of the keyPress event handler don't finish there. As with typing, you can only have one character being produced at a time. If you hold down two keys, the one that registers second blocks the first, and that command is never received. In the last chapter we looked at the beginning of a tank game where you had to use two controls simultaneously since you had to control the tread independently. This sort of thing would not be possible with the keyPress event Handler.

The last major restriction is that unlike the mouse button, using the on (keyPress) method you can't detect the release of a key. In games where you need persistent actions, you need to detect when the action stops. For something like a game using a slingshot, if you wanted to have the user hold down a key and let it build up power until the player lets go, you would have to use another solution since there is no easy, accurate way of detecting when the key is released, telling the game to let the slingshot go...

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Table of Contents

Layout Conventions 2
Code Download 4
Support 4
1 Introduction to Gaming 7
What Makes a Good Game? 19
Final Thoughts 31
2 Optimizing Graphics for Games 35
A Day in the Life of a Frame 37
The Price of Graphics 37
The Price of Vectors 43
Simply Simplifying 70
File Optimization: Sweetening the Download 72
Final thought: Think ahead 78
3 Flash's Built in Objects 81
Defining an Object 82
Objects for Games 84
Getting Intimate with the Movie Clip 89
Conclusion 108
4 Event Handling 111
Event Handling 112
The onClipEvent Function 112
User Interaction 113
Button Event Handlers 115
Event Handlers Applied 120
Custom Controls 122
Spawning and Initialization 136
Collision Detection 142
Timer 146
Death 147
Conclusion 149
5 Turn Based Games and Advanced Logic 152
Game Definition Fundamentals 153
Coding a Turn-Based Game 162
Summary 192
6 Structured Real Time Programming 195
Structured Real-Time Programming 196
Getting Ready for Real Time 196
The Need for Speed 196
GameWorlds and GameSprites 204
Examples of Our gameWorld 206
Tennis 206
Our Flash Timelines 215
Example 2 Building a Scrolling Shoot 'Em Up 230
The Indivividual Objects 237
Cs Turn 263
How it works 264
The arms Movie Clip 275
7 Designing a Platform Game Construction Kit 281
The Platform Game 282
How the Game Works 283
Building a Level Editor 295
The Data Structure for Levels 307
Displaying Levels 310
Exending the Level Editor 311
Adapting the Game Engine 312
8 Interactive Sound 317
Why Games are Different 318
Basic Sound Scripting Actions 321
Applying Sound to a Game 325
Sound Hierarchies - Targeting 334
Conclusion 349
9 Music in Games 353
Aspects of Music 355
What Works? 358
When and What to Play 360
Software 360
Music in Flash 361
Exporting Music From Flash 362
10 Understanding Artificial Intelligence 379
A Being of Your Own 380
Your First Virtual Pet 382
Conclusion 398
11 The Third Dimension 402
Faking it 403
Manic Bounce 417
Star Cruiser 427
Isometric 3D 446
Summary 454
12 Real 3D 457
Square One 458
Drawing Things 468
Rendering a Shape 471
Sprites 492
13 Ultimate 3D 507
Limitations of Flash 510
The Flash Polygon Engine 511
Making it 3D 520
Speed Considerations for Games 526
Cs Mech Attack 529
The Story So Far 530
What's Going on in the Game 532
The Game 541
Finishing Up 591
Conclusion 592
14 Online Data 595
What is PHP? 596
What is mySQL? 597
Reading Minds with Flash and PHP 597
Keeping the score 608
Systems Architecture 624
15 Multi Layer Applications 624
Multiplayer Flash 629
The Game 638
The Socket Object 656
Synchronization 675
Conclusion 678
Director Afterword 681
Director for Flash Users 682
Index 695
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