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Flight Dynamics / Edition 1

Flight Dynamics / Edition 1

by Robert F. Stengel

ISBN-10: 0691114072

ISBN-13: 9780691114071

Pub. Date: 09/27/2004

Publisher: Princeton University Press

Flight Dynamics takes a new approach to the science and mathematics of aircraft flight, unifying principles of aeronautics with contemporary systems analysis. While presenting traditional material that is critical to understanding aircraft motions, it does so in the context of modern computational tools and multivariable methods. Robert Stengel devotes


Flight Dynamics takes a new approach to the science and mathematics of aircraft flight, unifying principles of aeronautics with contemporary systems analysis. While presenting traditional material that is critical to understanding aircraft motions, it does so in the context of modern computational tools and multivariable methods. Robert Stengel devotes particular attention to models and techniques that are appropriate for analysis, simulation, evaluation of flying qualities, and control system design. He establishes bridges to classical analysis and results, and explores new territory that was treated only inferentially in earlier books. This book combines a highly accessible style of presentation with contents that will appeal to graduate students and to professionals already familiar with basic flight dynamics.

Dynamic analysis has changed dramatically in recent decades, with the introduction of powerful personal computers and scientific programming languages. Analysis programs have become so pervasive that it can be assumed that all students and practicing engineers working on aircraft flight dynamics have access to them. Therefore, this book presents the principles, derivations, and equations of flight dynamics with frequent reference to MATLAB functions and examples.

By using common notation and not assuming a strong background in aeronautics, Flight Dynamics will engage a wide variety of readers. Introductions to aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, flying qualities, flight control, and the atmospheric and gravitational environment accompany the development of the aircraft's dynamic equations.

Product Details

Princeton University Press
Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
6.14(w) x 9.50(h) x 1.73(d)

Table of Contents

• Preface

• 1. Introduction

• Elements of the Airplane

• Airframe Components
• Propulsion Systems
• Representative Flight Vehicles

• Light General Aviation Aircraft
• Variable-Stability Research Aircraft
• Sailplane
• Business Jet Aircraft
• Turboprop Commuter Aircraft
• Small Commercial Transport Aircraft
• Large Commercial Transport Aircraft
• Supersonic Transport Aircraft
• Fighter/Attack Aircraft
• Bomber Aircraft
• Space Shuttle
• Uninhabited Air Vehicle
• The Mechanics of Flight
• References for Chapter 1

• 2. Exploring the Flight Envelope

• The Earth's Atmosphere

• Pressure, Density, and the Speed of Sound
• Viscosity, Humidity, and Rain
• Wind Fields and Atmospheric Turbulence
• Kinematic Equations

• Translational Position and Velocity
• Angular Orientation and Rate
• Airflow Angles
• Summary of Axis Systems and Transformations
• Forces and Moments

• Alternative Axis Systems
• Aerodynamic Forces and Moments
• Static Aerodynamic Coefficients

• Lift
• Drag
• Pitching Moment
• Side Force
• Yawing Moment
• Rolling Moment
• Ground Effect
• Thrusting Characteristics of Aircraft Powerplants

• Propellers
• Reciprocating Engines
• Turboprop, Turbofan, and Turbojet Engines
• Ramjet and Scramjet Engines
• Steady FlightPerformance

• Straight-and-Level Flight
• Steady Flight Envelope
• Cruising Range
• Gliding Flight
• Climbing Flight
• Maneuvering Envelope
• Steady Turning Flight
• References for Chapter 2

• 3. The Dynamics of Aircraft Motion

• Momentum and Energy

• Translational Momentum, Work, Energy, and Power
• Energy-Changing Maneuvers
• Angular Momentum and Energy
• Dynamic Equations for a Flat Earth

• Rigid-Body Dynamic Equations
• Scalar Equations for a Symmetric Aircraft
• Alternative Frames of Reference
• Inertial Reference Frames
• Body-Axis Reference Frames
• Velocity- and Wind-Axis Reference Frames
• Air-Mass-Relative Reference Frame
• Direction Cosines and Quaternions
• Acceleration Sensed at an Arbitrary Point
• Dynamic Equations for a Round, Rotating Earth

• Geometry and Gravity Field of the Earth
• Rigid-Body Dynamic Equations
• Aerodynamic Effects of Rotational and Unsteady Motion

• Pitch-Rate Effects
• Angle-of-Attack-Rate Effects
• Yaw-Rate Effects
• Roll-Rate Effects
• Effects of Wind Shear and Wake Vortices
• Aerodynamic Effects of Control

• Elevators, Stabilators, Elevons, and Canards
• Rudders
• Ailerons
• Spoilers and Flaps
• Other Control Devices
• Isolated Control Surfaces
• Trailing-Edge Flaps
• Solution of Nonlinear Differential Equations

• Numerical Algorithms for Integration
• Equations of Motion
• Representation of Data
• Trimmed Solution of the Equations of Motion
• References for Chapter 3

• 4. Methods of Analysis and Design

• Local Linearization of Differential Equations

• Stability and Control Derivatives
• Incorporating Unsteady Aerodynamic Effects
• Symmetric Aircraft in Wings-Level Flight
• Longitudinal Equations of Motion
• Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion
• Stability-Axis Equations of Motion
• Solution of Linear Differential Equations

• Numerical Integration and State Transition
• Static and Quasistatic Equilibrium Response to Inputs
• Initial Response to Control Inputs
• Controllability and Observability of Motions
• Truncation and Residualization
• Stability and Modes of Motion

• Stability of Transient Response
• Fourier and Laplace Transforms
• Modes of Aircraft Motion
• Phase Plane
• Frequency-Domain Analysis

• Transfer Functions and Frequency Response
• Nyquist Plot and Nichols Chart
• Root Locus
• Dealing with Uncertainty

• Random Variables and Processes
• Dynamic Response to Random Inputs and Initial Conditions
• Effects of System Parameter Variations
• System Survey
• Monte Carlo Evaluation
• Stochastic Root Locus
• Linear Aeroelasticity

• Stress, Strain, and Material Properties
• Monocoque and Semi-Monocoque Structures
• Force and Moments on a Simple Beam
• Static Deflection of a Simple Beam under Load
• Vibrations of a Simple Beam
• Coupled Vibrations of an Elastically Restrained Rigid Airfoil
• Vibrations of a Complex Structure
• The Four-Block Structure
• Fuel Slosh
• Introduction to Flying Qualities and Flight Control Systems

• Cognitive/Biological Models and Piloting Action
• Aircraft Flying Qualities
• Linear-Quadratic Regulator
• Steady-State Response to Command Input
• Implicit Model-Following and Integral Compensation
• Optimal State Estimation
• Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Regulator
• Design for Stochastic Robustness
• References for Chapter 4

• 5. Longitudinal Motions

• Longitudinal Equations of Motion
• Reduced-Order Models of Long-Period Modes

• Second-Order Phugoid-Mode Approximation
• Effects of Compressibility
• Effects of Altitude Variation
• Effects of Wind Shear
• Reduced-Order Model of the Short-Period Mode

• Second-Order Approximation
• Effects of Compressibility and High Angle of Attack
• Coupled Phugoid/Short-Period Dynamics

• Residualized Phugoid Mode
• Fourth-Order Model
• Longitudinal Flying Qualities
• Control Mechanisms, Stick-Free Stability, and Trim

• Elevator Control Mechanism
• Short-Period/Control-Mechanism Coupling
• Control Force for Trimmed Flight
• Elevator Angle and Stick Force per g
• "Tail-Wags-Dog" Effect
• Longitudinal Aeroelastic Effects

• Truncated and Residualized Elastic-Body Models
• Coupling of the Short Period with a Single Elastic Mode
• References for Chapter 5

• 6. Lateral-Directional Motions

• Lateral-Directional Equations of Motion
• Reduced-order Model of the Dutch Roll Mode
• Reduced-order Model of Roll and Spiral Modes
• Coupled Lateral-Directional Dynamics

• A Truncated Dutch roll/Roll Model
• Residualized Lateral-Directional Models
• Fourth-Order Model
• Lateral-Directional Flying Qualities
• Control Mechanisms, Nonlinearity, and Time Delay

• Rudder Control Mechanism
• Dutch roll/Rudder Coupling
• Quasi-linear Representation of Nonlinearity
• Quasi-linear Root Locus Analysis
• Roll-Spiral/Aileron Coupling
• Spoiler Nonlinearity and Time Delay
• Lateral-Directional Aeroelastic Effects

• Equilibrium Response to Control
• Eigenvalues and Root Locus Analysis of Parameter Variations
• Response to Initial Conditions and Step Control Inputs
• References for Chapter 6

• 7. Coupled Longitudinal and Lateral-Directional Motions

• Small-amplitude Motions

• Effects of Rotating Machinery
• Asymmetric Inertial and Aerodynamic Properties
• Asymmetric Flight Condition and Constant Angular Rate
• Coupling Controls
• Inertial Coupling of Pitch and Yaw Motions

• Fifth-Order Model of Coupled Dynamics
• Truncated and Residualized Fourth-Order Models
• Response to Controls During Steady Rolling
• Multiple Equilibrium Points

• Second-order Examples of Multiple Equilibria
• Effects of Cross-Coupling and Control on Rolling Equilibrium
• Flight at High Angle of Attack

• High-Angle-of-Attack Aerodynamics and Control Effects
• Fully Developed Spins
• Simulated Motions of a Business Jet Aircraft
• Stability of High-Angle-of-Attack Maneuvers
• Pilot-Aircraft Interactions
• Gain-Scheduled Stability and Command Augmentation
• Adaptive Neural Network Control
• Robust Nonlinear-Inverse-Dynamic Control
• References for Chapter 7

• Epilogue

• Appendices

• Constants, Units, and Conversion Factors
• Mathematical Model and Six-Degree-of-Freedom Simulation of a Business Jet Aircraft

• Main Program for Analysis and Simulation (FLIGHT)
• Low-Angle-of-Attack, Mach-Dependent Model (LoAeroModel)
• High-Angle-of-Attack, Low-Subsonic Model (HiAeroModel)
• Supporting Functions

• Equations of Motion (EoM)
• Cost Function for Aerodynamic Trim (TrimCost)
• Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM)
• Linear System Matrices (LinModel)
• Wind Field (WindField)
• Atmospheric State (Atmos)

• Linear System Survey

• Main Program for Analysis and Simulation (SURVEY)
• Supporting Functions

• Reduced-Order Models (LonLatDir)
• Transient Response (Trans)
• Static Response (Static)
• Controllability and Observability (ConObs)
• Natural Frequency (NatFreq)
• Stability and Modes of Motion (StabMode)
• Paper Airplane Program
• Bibliography of NASA Reports Related to Aircraft Configuration Aerodynamics

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