Flight Testing of Fixed-Wing Aircraft

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Overview

The measurement of performance during an airplane's flight testing is one of the more important tasks to be accomplished during its development, as it impacts both the airplane's safety and its marketability. Performance sells airplanes.

This book discusses performance for both propeller-driven and jet aircraft. However, its principal emphasis is on propeller-driven aircraft, because much of the methodology for testing of propeller-driven aircraft has been lost with time.

The book is intended as a text for those teaching courses in fixed-wing flight testing. It is also a reference for those involved in flight test on a daily basis or those who need knowledge of flight testing to manage those activities. The book is divided into three sections. The first two sections—Performance, and Stability and Control—are arranged so that they might be taught as a semester course at the upper-level undergraduate or graduate level. The third section, Hazardous Flight Tests, provides information based upon more than 30 years of experience in performing and directing such tests and serves as a valuable reference.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781563475641
  • Publisher: American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
  • Publication date: 9/15/2003
  • Series: AIAA Education Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 459
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Part 1 Performance Flight Testing
Chapter 1. Introduction 3
1.1 Introduction to Flight Testing 3
1.2 Types of Flight Tests 4
1.3 Sequence of Flight Testing 4
1.4 Planning the Test Program 4
1.5 Governing Requirements and Regulations 6
1.6 The Atmosphere 9
1.7 Aircraft Weight and Center of Gravity 12
1.8 Flight Testing Tolerances 15
References 16
Chapter 2. Methods for Reducing Data Uncertainty in Flight Test Data 19
2.1 Introduction 19
2.2 Sources and Magnitudes of Errors 19
2.3 Avoiding or Minimizing Errors 22
2.4 Error Analysis 25
References 28
Chapter 3. Airspeed Systems Theory and Calibration 29
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Federal Aviation Regulation Requirements 29
3.3 Theory of Airspeed Systems 30
3.4 Position Error 32
3.5 Lag Errors 33
3.6 Altimeter Position Error 33
3.7 In-Flight Calibration Methods 34
3.8 Temperature Probe Calibration 37
References 38
Chapter 4. Stall Speed Measurement 39
4.1 Introduction 39
4.2 Federal Aviation Administration Requirements 39
4.3 Stall Theory 42
4.4 Aircraft Loading 47
4.5 Safety Considerations 48
4.6 Flight Test Method 48
4.7 Data Reduction Method 49
References 52
Chapter 5. Determination of Engine Power in Flight 53
5.1 Introduction 53
5.2 Power Measurement of an Internal Combustion Engine in Flight 54
5.3 Installed Horsepower Losses and How They Affect Power Measurement 58
5.4 Power Corrections 59
5.5 Critical Altitude Determination 61
References 62
Chapter 6. Propeller Theory 63
6.1 Introduction 63
6.2 Propeller Theory 63
6.3 Propeller Polar Diagram 67
6.4 Constant Speed or Controllable Propellers 67
6.5 Activity Factor 67
6.6 Propeller Noise 68
References 68
Chapter 7. Jet Thrust Measurement In Flight 69
7.1 Introduction 69
7.2 Basic Theory 69
7.3 Methods of In-Flight Thrust Measurement 72
References 74
Chapter 8. Level Flight Performance Theory 75
8.1 Introduction 75
8.2 Thrust Required 75
8.3 Effects of Variables on Thrust Required 77
8.4 Power Required 78
8.5 Effects of Variables on the Power Required Curves 79
8.6 Effects of High Mach Number 81
8.7 Thrust or Power Available 82
References 82
Chapter 9. Level Flight Performance Flight Test and Data Reduction Methods for Propeller-Driven Aircraft 83
9.1 Introduction 83
9.2 Federal Aviation Administration Requirements 83
9.3 PIW-VIW Method 83
9.4 Flight Test Method 84
9.5 Reduction of Observed Data 85
9.6 Expansion of Observed Data 90
Reference 96
Chapter 10. Level Flight Performance Jet Aircraft 97
10.1 Introduction 97
10.2 Theory 97
10.3 Flight Test Techniques 100
10.4 Data Reduction 103
References 103
Chapter 11. Range and Endurance 105
11.1 Introduction 105
11.2 Range--Propeller-Driven Airplanes 106
11.3 Range--Jet Aircraft 111
11.4 Effects of Wind on Range 115
11.5 Endurance--Propeller-Driven Aircraft 117
11.6 Endurance--Jet Aircraft 117
References 118
Chapter 12. Climb Performance Theory 119
12.1 Introduction 119
12.2 Climb Theory 119
References 126
Chapter 13. Climb Performance Methods, Data Reduction, and Expansion 127
13.1 Introduction 127
13.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 127
13.3 Test Methods 129
13.4 Reduction Methods for Steady Climbs 131
13.5 Expansion Methods 140
References 142
Chapter 14. Energy Approach to Performance Flight Testing 143
14.1 Introduction 143
14.2 Theory 143
14.3 Application to Climb Performance 145
14.4 Other Applications of Energy Methods 147
14.5 Level Acceleration Flight Test Method 149
References 151
Chapter 15. Turning Performance 153
15.1 Introduction 153
15.2 Forces on an Aircraft during a Level Turn 153
15.3 Turning Performance Limitations 155
15.4 Flight Test Method 157
References 159
Chapter 16. Methods for Drag Determination in Flight 161
16.1 Introduction 161
16.2 Speed Power Method 161
16.3 Prop-Feathered Sinks or Glide Polars 164
16.4 Incremental Drag Method 166
16.5 Incremental Power Method 167
References 167
Chapter 17. Airspeed vs Flight Path Angle Performance Method for Powered-Lift Aircraft 169
17.1 Introduction 169
17.2 V-[gamma] Method 169
References 174
Chapter 18. Takeoff and Landing Theory and Methods 177
18.1 Introduction 177
18.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 177
18.3 Theory 180
18.4 Test Methods 184
18.5 Test Procedures 187
18.6 Data Reduction 188
18.7 Rejected Takeoff Distances 197
References 197
Part 2 Stability and Control Flight Testing
Chapter 19. Introduction to Stability and Control Flight Testing 201
19.1 Introduction 201
19.2 Regulations 201
19.3 Reference Axes Systems 201
19.4 Definitions of Stability and Controllability 202
19.5 Relation of Stability and Control to the Aircraft's c.g. Envelope 206
19.6 Control System Characteristics 207
References 207
Chapter 20. Static Longitudinal Stability Theory 209
20.1 Introduction 209
20.2 Stick-Fixed Static Longitudinal Stability 210
20.3 Longitudinal Control 215
20.4 Elevator Position Stability 216
20.5 Stick-Free Longitudinal Stability 218
20.6 Control Force Stability 219
20.7 Stick-Free Longitudinal Static Stability for an Irreversible Control System 221
References 221
Chapter 21. Static Longitudinal Stability Flight Test Methods 223
21.1 Introduction 223
21.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 223
21.3 Stick-Fixed Neutral Point Determination 224
21.4 Stick-Free Neutral Point Determination 225
21.5 Flight Test Method for Determination of Neutral Points 230
21.6 Other Static Longitudinal Stability Tests 230
References 233
Chapter 22. Dynamic Longitudinal Stability Theory 235
22.1 Introduction 235
22.2 Theory 236
22.3 Long Period or Phugoid 238
22.4 Short Period 240
22.5 Elevator Short Period 246
References 246
Chapter 23. Dynamic Longitudinal Stability Flight Test Methods and Data Reduction 247
23.1 Introduction 247
23.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 247
23.3 Flight Test Methods for Evaluating the Phugoid 248
23.4 Phugoid Data Reduction 248
23.5 Short Period Flight Test Methods 249
23.6 Short Period Data Reduction 252
References 253
Chapter 24. Longitudinal Maneuvering Stability Theory 255
24.1 Introduction 255
24.2 Elevator Position Maneuvering Stability 257
24.3 Stick-Force Maneuvering Stability 259
24.4 Compressibility Effects 264
References 264
Chapter 25. Maneuvering Stability Methods and Data Reduction 265
25.1 Introduction 265
25.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 265
25.3 Evaluation by Pilot Opinion 266
25.4 Flight Test Methods for Quantitative Evaluation 267
25.5 Data Reduction Techniques 271
References 273
Chapter 26. Longitudinal Control and Trim Theory and Flight Test Methods 275
26.1 Introduction 275
26.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 276
26.3 Longitudinal Control 278
26.4 Longitudinal Trim 280
References 283
Chapter 27. Methods for Improving Longitudinal Stability and Control 285
27.1 Introduction 285
27.2 Control System Gadgets 285
27.3 Elevator Tabs 288
27.4 Aerodynamic Balance 292
References 296
Chapter 28. Lateral-Directional Stability Theory and Flight Test Methods 297
28.1 Introduction 297
28.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 297
28.3 Theory 299
28.4 Directional Stability 300
28.5 Lateral Stability 302
28.6 Side Force 304
28.7 Control-Free, Lateral-Directional Stability 306
28.8 Flight Test Methods 308
References 310
Chapter 29. Dynamic Lateral-Directional Stability Theory and Flight Test Methods 311
29.1 Introduction 311
29.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 311
29.3 Theory 312
29.4 Spiral Mode 314
29.5 Roll Mode 315
29.6 Dutch Roll Mode 315
29.7 Effects of Lateral-Directional Parameters on Lateral-Directional Dynamics 316
29.8 Flight Test Methods for Evaluating Dynamic Lateral-Directional Stability 320
References 322
Chapter 30. Lateral Control Power (Rolling Performance) 323
30.1 Introduction 323
30.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 323
30.3 Single Degree of Freedom Roll Response 324
30.4 Influence of Various Parameters on Rolling Performance 327
30.5 Lateral Control in the Real Case 331
30.6 Other Methods of Roll Control 340
References 340
Chapter 31. Directional Control 341
31.1 Introduction 341
31.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 341
31.3 Directional Control--Single-Engine Airplanes 344
31.4 Directional Control--Multiengine Airplanes 345
31.5 Methods for Determining C[subscript N delta subscript r] 349
References 357
Chapter 32. Flying Qualities 359
32.1 Introduction 359
32.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 359
32.3 Cooper-Harper Pilot Rating Scale 359
32.4 Levels of Flying Qualities 361
32.5 Flight Test Procedures 361
References 363
Part 3 Hazardous Flight Tests
Chapter 33. Stall Characteristics 367
33.1 Introduction 367
33.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 367
33.3 Stall Characteristics Theory 372
33.4 Aircraft Loading 372
33.5 Safety Considerations 372
33.6 Flight Test Method 373
33.7 Data Requirements 375
33.8 Potential Problems 376
33.9 Problem Fixes 377
References 381
Chapter 34. Airplane Spin Testing 383
34.1 Introduction 383
34.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 384
34.3 Spin Theory 390
34.4 Planning for Spin Testing 405
34.5 Flight Test Method 409
References 415
Chapter 35. Dive Testing for Flutter, Vibration, and Buffeting 417
35.1 Introduction 417
35.2 Federal Aviation Administration Regulations 417
35.3 Theory 419
35.4 Safety Considerations 422
35.5 Instrumentation 424
35.6<
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