Flow at Ultra-High Reynolds and Reyleigh Numbers: A Status Report

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Because of their extremely low viscosity, liquid helium and ultra-cold helium gas provide ideal media for fundamental studies of fluid flow and turbulence at extremely high Reynolds numbers. Such flows occur in aerospace applications (satellite reentry) and other extreme conditions, where they are difficult to study. A cryogenic-helium wind tunnel would allow one to model these flows in a laboratory at much more benign conditions. Such studies have not been feasible because, using these fluids in a wind tunnel ...

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Overview

Because of their extremely low viscosity, liquid helium and ultra-cold helium gas provide ideal media for fundamental studies of fluid flow and turbulence at extremely high Reynolds numbers. Such flows occur in aerospace applications (satellite reentry) and other extreme conditions, where they are difficult to study. A cryogenic-helium wind tunnel would allow one to model these flows in a laboratory at much more benign conditions. Such studies have not been feasible because, using these fluids in a wind tunnel requires more liquid helium than has readily been available. However, the capacity of the refrigerators installed at several physics laboratories that supply liquid helium for particle accelerators (such as the one intended for the SSC in Texas or the one at Brookhaven National Laboratory) is so great that some of the liquid helium or the ultra-cold helium gas may also be used for fluid dynamics studies. The chapters in this book survey the challenges and prospects for research on fluid flows at high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers using cryogenic helium. They cover a wide range of topics: from refrigeration and instrumentation to theories of superfluid turbulence. The chapters are largely based on contributions to a workshop held at Brookhaven, but these have all been brought up to the state of the art in late 1997; in addition, several chapters contain entirely new material. This book will be of interest to physicist interested in fluid dynamics, mechanical engineers interested in turbulent flows and transport, and naval and aerospace engineers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780387985442
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
  • Publication date: 10/28/1998
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 484
  • Product dimensions: 6.43 (w) x 9.53 (h) x 1.15 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Participants
Ultra-High Reynolds Number Flows Using Cryogenic Helium: An Overview 5
Helium Flows at Ultra-High Reynolds and Rayleigh Numbers: Opportunities and Challenges 29
European Large Scale Helium Refrigeration 52
Cryogenic Wind Tunnels for Aerodynamic Testing 66
Application of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems to Ultra-High Reynolds Number Facilities 81
The Temperature and Pressure Dependencies of Fluid Properties: Implications for Achieving Ultra-High Rayleigh and Reynolds And Rayleigh Numbers 96
Advanced Measurement Techniques for Flow Diagnostics 118
Current Status of Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry Instrumentation 138
Application of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter and Some Visualization Methods to the Measurement of He II Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Phenomena 159
Cryogenic Thermometry for Turbulence Research: An Overview 179
Realization of a 10[superscript 7] Reynolds Number Helium Facility 184
The Mean Velocity Profile in Turbulent Pipe Flow 200
Instrument Development For High Reynolds Number Flows in Liquid Helium 206
Free Thermal Convection in Low Temperature Helium Gas 223
Buoyant Plumes and Internal Waves: Two Experiments in Turbulent Convection 236
High-Rayleigh Number Turbulence of a Low Prandtl Number Fluid 247
Recent Velocity Measurements in Turbulent Thermal Convection 258
Convection in [superscript 3]He-Superfluid-[superscript 4]He: A Novel System for Studying Convective Instabilities and Turbulence 286
Experiments on Strong Turbulence: Do We Really Measure What We Say We Measure? 300
Turbulent Mixing of a Passive Scalar 312
A Brief Overview of the RHIC Cryogenic System 315
High Reynolds Number Testing Requirements in (Civilian) Aeronautics 323
Considerations For Small Detectors in High Reynolds Number Experiments 329
Helium Gas Turbulence Experiments in Grenoble: Techniques and Results 336
Turbulence Driven Between Counter-rotating Disks in Low Temperature Helium Gas 345
Some Issues in Geophysical Turbulence and the Need for Accurate High Reynolds Number Measurements 358
Does Fully-Developed Turbulence Exist? 373
Hydrodynamic Turbulence: a 19th Century Problem with a Challenge for the 21st Century 375
Are Scalings of Turbulence Universal? 391
Vortex Lines in Non-Uniform Flows 403
Modeling of Sea Storms on Cryogenic Installations 412
Decay of Grid Turbulence in Superfluid [superscript 4]He 419
First Images of Controlled Convection in Liquid Helium 436
High Reynolds number [R[subscript [theta]] - O (10 [superscript 6])] Boundary Layer Turbulence in the Atmospheric Surface layer Above Western Utah's Salt Flats 450
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