Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards

Paperback (Print)
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $52.82
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 5%)
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (4) from $52.82   
  • New (2) from $52.82   
  • Used (2) from $79.41   

Overview

Most people associate fluoride with the practice of intentionally adding fluoride to public drinking water supplies for the prevention of tooth decay. However, fluoride can also enter public water systems from natural sources, including runoff from the weathering of fluoride-containing rocks and soils and leaching from soil into groundwater. Fluoride pollution from various industrial emissions can also contaminate water supplies. In a few areas of the United States fluoride concentrations in water are much higher than normal, mostly from natural sources. Fluoride is one of the drinking water contaminants regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because it can occur at these toxic levels. In 1986, the EPA established a maximum allowable concentration for fluoride in drinking water of 4 milligrams per liter, a guideline designed to prevent the public from being exposed to harmful levels of fluoride. Fluoride in Drinking Water reviews research on various health effects from exposure to fluoride, including studies conducted in the last 10 years.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780309101288
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • Publication date: 12/22/2006
  • Pages: 530
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents


Summary     1
Introduction     13
Fluoride in Drinking Water     14
History of EPA's Regulation of Fluoride     16
Committee's Task     18
Committee's Approach     21
Structure of the Report     22
Measures of Exposure to Fluoride in the United States     23
Sources of Fluoride Expostire     24
Recent Estimates of Total Fluoride Exposure     54
Total Exposure to Fluoride     55
Summary of Exposure Assessment     64
Biomarkers of Exposure, Effect, and Susceptibility     69
Findings     81
Recommendations     87
Pharmacokinetics of Fluoride     89
Overview of Fluoride Chemistry, Units, and Measurement     89
Short Review of Fluoride Pharmacokinetics: Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination     90
Pharmacokinetic Models     92
Fluoride Concentrations in Human Bone Versus Water Concentration     93
Fluoride Concentrations in Bones after Clinical Studies     96
Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Rats and Humans     98
Organofluorine Compounds     99
Factors Modifying Pharmacokinetics and Their Implications for Potentially Susceptible Populations     99
Findings     101
Research Recommendations     101
Effects of Fluoride on Teeth     103
Enamel Fluorosis     103
Other Dental Effects     126
Findings     127
Recommendations     130
Musculoskeletal Effects     131
Chemistry of Fluoride As It Relates to Mineralizing Tissues     131
Effect of Fluoride on Cell Function     133
Effects of Fluoride on Human Skeletal Metabolism     138
Effect of Fluoride on Chondrocyte Metabolism and Arthritis     177
Findings     178
Recommendations     180
Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Fluoride     181
Reproductive Effects     181
Developmental Effects     193
Findings     204
Recommendations     204
Neurotoxicity and Neurobehavioral Effects     205
Human Studies     205
Animal Studies     214
Neurochemical Effects and Mechanisms     218
Findings     220
Recommendations     222
Effects on the Endocrine System     224
Thyroid Follicular Cells     224
Thyroid Parafollicular Cells      236
Parathyroid Glands     238
Pineal Gland     252
Other Endocrine Organs     256
Summary     260
Recommendations     266
Effects on the Gastrointestinal, Renal, Hepatic, and Immune Systems     268
GI System     268
The Renal System     280
Hepatic System     292
Immune System     293
Findings     295
Recommendations     302
Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity     304
Genotoxicity     304
Carcinogenicity     316
EPA Guidelines and Practice in Setting MCLGs Regarding Carcinogenicity     334
Findings     335
Recommendations     338
Drinking Water Standards for Fluoride     340
Current Methods for Setting Standards for Drinking Water     340
New Risk Assessment Considerations     342
Fluoride Standards     345
Findings and Recommendations     352
References     354
Appendixes
Biographical Information on the Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water     411
Measures of Exposure to Fluoride in the United States: Supplementary Information     416
Ecologic and Partially Ecologic Studies in Epidemiology     439
Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Rats and Humans     442
Detailed Information on Endocrine Studies of Fluoride     447
Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)