Fluorinated Ionomers / Edition 2by Walther Grot
Pub. Date: 08/17/2011
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Fluorinated ionomer polymers form impermeable membranes that conduct electricity, properties that have been put to use in large-scale electrochemical applications, revolutionizing the chlor-alkali industry and transforming production methods of some of the world’s highest-production commodity chemicals: chlorine, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide.
Fluorinated ionomer polymers form impermeable membranes that conduct electricity, properties that have been put to use in large-scale electrochemical applications, revolutionizing the chlor-alkali industry and transforming production methods of some of the world’s highest-production commodity chemicals: chlorine, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. The use of fluorinated ionomers such as Nafion® have removed the need for mercury and asbestos in these processes and led to a massive reduction in electricity usage in these highly energy-intensive processes. Polymers in this group have also found uses in fuel-cells, metal-ion recovery, water electrolysis, plating, surface treatment of metals, batteries, sensors, drug release technologies, gas drying and humidification, and super-acid catalysis used in the production of specialty chemicals. Walther Grot, who invented Nafion® while working for DuPont, has written this book as a practical guide to engineers and scientists working in electrochemistry, the fuel cell industry and other areas of application. His book is a unique guide to this important polymer group and its applications, in membranes and other forms. The 2e expands this handbook by over a third, with new sections covering developments in electrolysis and membranes, additional information about the synthesis and science of the polymer group, and an enhanced provision of reference data.
An essential reference for scientists working with electrolysis and electrochemical processes (the use of this polymer group in industrial chemistry processes is credited with a 1% reduction in global electricity usage) Covers the techniques involved in the growing range of applications for fluorinated ionomers, including fuel cells, batteries and drug delivery The only book on this important polymer group, written by Walther Grot, the inventor of the leading fluorinated ionomer, Nafion® from DuPont
Table of Contents
1Introduction 1.1Polymers 1.2Physical Shapes 1.3References 2History 2.1References 3Manufacture 3.1Introduction 3.2Perfluorinated Ionomers 3.3Polymerization 3.4Fabrication 3.5Hydrolysis and Acid Exchange 3.6Finishing and Testing 3.7Liquid Compositions 3.8Fluorinated Ionomers with Phosphonic or Sulfonyl Imide Functional Groups 3.9Partially Fluorinated Ionomers 3.10Composite Materials of Ionomers and Inorganic Oxides 3.11Composite Materials of Ionomers and a Porous Matrix 3.12Remanufactured Membranes 3.13References 4Properties 4.1Properties of the Precursor Polymers 4.2Properties of the Ionic Forms 4.3Morphology 4.4Transport Properties 4.5Optical Properties 4.6Thermal Properties 4.7Stability 4.8References 5Applications 5.1Electrolysis 5.2Sensors and Actuators 5.3Dialysis 5.4Gas and Vapor Diffusion 5.5Protective Clothing 5.6Catalysis 5.7References 6Fuel Cells and Batteries 6.1Introduction 6.2Operating Parameters 6.3Ionomer Stability 6.4Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) 6.5Manufacture of MEAs 6.6Rechargeable Flow Through Batteries 6.7References 6.8Further Reading 7Commercial Membrane Types 7.1Unreinforced Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Films 7.2Reinforced Perfluorinated Membranes 8Economic Aspects 8.1Chlor-Alkali Cells 8.2Fuel Cells 8.3References 9Experimental Methods 9.1Infrared Spectra 9.2Hydrolysis, Surface Hydrolysis and Staining 9.3Other Reactions of the Precursor Polymer 9.4Ion Exchange Equilibrium 9.5Determination of EW by Titration or Infrared Analysis 9.6Determining Melt Flow 9.7Distinguishing the Precursor Polymer from Various Ionic Forms 9.8Fenton’s Test for Oxidative Stability 9.9Examination of a Membrane 9.10Determining the Permselectivity 9.11Measuring Pervaporation Rates 9.12Simple Electrolytic Cells 9.13References 10Heat Sealing and Repair 10.1Reference 11Handling and Storage 11.1Handling the Film 11.2Pretreatment 11.3Installation 11.4Sealing and Gasketing 12Toxicology, Safety and Disposal 12.1Toxicology 12.2Safety 12.3Disposal 12.4References Appendix AA Chromic Acid Regeneration System Appendix BLaboratory Chlor-alkali Cell Appendix CSolution Cast Nafion Film Appendix DPlastic-Based Bipolar Plates Suppliers and Resources Glossary and Web Sites Index
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