Fooled by Randomness: The Hidden Role of Chance in the Markets and in Life / Edition 1

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This book is about luck -- or more precisely how we perceive and deal with luck in business and life. Set against the backdrop of the most conspicuous forum in which luck is mistaken for skill -- the world of trading -- Fooled by Randomness is a captivating insight into one of the least understood factors in all our lives. Writing in an entertaining and narrative style, the author succeeds in tackling and explaining three major intellectual issues: the problem of induction, the survivorship biases, and our genetic unfitness to the modern world.

The book is populated with an array of characters, some of whom have grasped, in their own way, the significance of chance: Yogi Berra, the baseball legend; Karl Popper, the philosopher of knowledge; Solon, the Ancient World's wisest man; the modern financier George Soros; and the Greek voyager Ulysses. In addition we meet the fictional Nero, who seems to understand the role of randomness in his trading life, but who also falls victim to his own superstitious foolishness.

But the most recognizable character of all remains unnamed -- the lucky fool in the right place at the right time. The embodiment of the "Survival of the Least Fit." Such individuals attract devoted followers who believe in their guru's insights and methods. But no one can replicate what is obtained through chance. A monkey banging on a keyboard may eventually produce the Iliad, but would you sign him to write the sequel? Are we capable of distinguishing the fortunate charlatan from the genuine visionary? Must we always try to uncover non-existent messages in random events? It may be impossible to guard ourselves against the vagaries of the Goddess Fortuna, but after reading Fooled by Randomness we can be a little better prepared.

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Editorial Reviews

Marco Avellaneda
Intelligent, honest, and revealing. There exists a distinct Taleb way of thinking and it is contagious.
Robert J. Shiller
I really liked this book. . . It is fun to read, refreshingly independently-minded and at the same time playful.
Donald Geman
Taleb's book is mathematically sound as well as entertaining and informative for the general public, which is quite an achievement . . .
Victory Niederhoffer
Whether you agree with Mr. Taleb or not, his book will leave you with many suggestive queries.
Paul Wilmott
A blast of common sense. From classical to modern philosophers, via cab drivers, businessmen, and dentists . . .
Peter L. Bernstein
. . . Taleb will grab you. As a non-random consequence, your understanding of life (and your money will expand exponentially.
Publishers Weekly
In this look at financial luck, hedge fund manager Taleb (Dynamic Hedging) addresses the apparently irrational movement of money markets around the world. Using his own investing experience and examples of others' successes and disappointments, he discusses theories like Monte Carlo math (easy; considered cheating by purists) and the concept of Russian roulette. Taleb tells interesting, well-wrought stories about individual behavior: "While Nero has succeeded beyond his wildest dreams, both personally and intellectually, he is starting to consider himself as having missed a chance somewhere." While serious investors and mathematics enthusiasts will be intrigued, readers looking for practical investment strategies will be disappointed by this rambling intellectual discourse. Tables. 40,000-copy first printing; $150,000 marketing budget. (Oct. 30) Copyright 2001 Cahners Business Information.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587990717
  • Publisher: South-Western
  • Publication date: 10/1/2001
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 220
  • Product dimensions: 6.26 (w) x 9.14 (h) x 0.89 (d)

Read an Excerpt


Mosques in the Clouds

This book is about luck disguised and perceived as non-luck (that is, skills) and, more generally, randomness disguised and perceived as non-randomness (that is, determinism). It manifests itself in the shape of the lucky fool, defined as a person who benefited from a disproportionate share of luck but attributes his success to some other, generally very precise, reason. Such confusion crops up in the most unexpected areas, even science, though not in such an accentuated and obvious manner as it does in the world of business. It is endemic in politics, as it can be encountered in the shape of a country's president discoursing on the jobs that "he" created, "his" recovery, and "his predecessor's" inflation.

We are genetically still very close to our ancestors who roamed the savannah. The formation of our beliefs is fraught with superstitions—even today (I might say, especially today). Just as one day some primitive tribesman scratched his nose, saw rain falling, and developed an elaborate method of scratching his nose to bring on the much-needed rain, we link economic prosperity to some rate cut by the Federal Reserve Board, or the success of a company with the appointment of the new president "at the helm". Bookstores are full of biographies of successful men and women presenting their specific explanation on how they made it big in life (we have an expression, "the right time and the right place" to weaken whatever conclusion can be inferred from them).

This confusion strikes people of different persuasions; the literature professor invests a deep meaning into a mere coincidental occurrence of wordpatterns, while the financial statistician proudly detects "regularities" and "anomalies" in data that are plain random.

At the cost of appearing biased, I have to say that the literary mind can be intentionally prone to the confusion between noise and meaning, that is, between a randomly constructed arrangement and a precisely intended message. However, this causes little harm; few claim that art is a tool of investigation of the Truth—rather than an attempt to escape it or make it more palatable. Symbolism is the child of our inability and unwillingness to accept randomness; we give meaning to all manner of shapes; we detect human figures in inkblots. I saw mosques in the clouds announced Arthur Rimbaud the 19th-century French symbolic poet. This interpretation took him to "poetic" Abyssinia (in East Africa), where he was brutalized by a Christian Lebanese slave dealer, contracted syphilis, and lost a leg to gangrene. He gave up poetry in disgust at the age of 19, and died anonymously in a Marseilles hospital ward while still in his thirties. But it was too late. European intellectual life developed what seems to be an irreversible taste for symbolism—we are still paying its price, with psychoanalysis and other fads.

Regrettably, some people play the game too seriously; they are paid to read too much into things. All my life I have suffered the conflict between my love of literature and poetry and my profound allergy to most teachers of literature and "critics". The French poet Paul Valery was surprised to listen to a commentary of his poems that found meanings that had until then escaped him (of course, it was pointed out to him that these were intended by his subconscious).

More generally, we underestimate the share of randomness in about anything, a point that may not merit a book—except when it is the specialist who is the fool of all fools. Disturbingly, science has only recently been able to handle randomness (the growth in available information has been exceeded by the expansion of noise). Probability theory is a young arrival in mathematics; probability applied to practice is almost nonexistent as a discipline.

Consider the left and the right columns of Table P. 1. The best way to summarize the major thesis of this book is that it addresses situations (many of them tragicomical) where the left column is mistaken for the right one. The sub-sections also illustrate the key areas of discussion on which this book will be based.

Table P.1 Table of Confusion
Presenting the central distinctions used in the book

Belief, conjecture—Knowledge, certitude
Anecdote, coincidence—Causality, law

Lucky idiot—Skilled investor
Survivorship bias—Market outperformance

Volatility—Return (or drift)
Stochastic variable—Deterministic variable


None (literary critics do not seem to have a name for things they do not understand)—Symbol

Epistemic probability—Physical probability
Synthetic proposition—Analytic proposition

The reader may wonder whether the opposite case might not deserve some attention, that is, the situations where non-randomness is mistaken for randomness. Shouldn't we be concerned with situations where patterns and messages may have been ignored? I have two answers. First, I am not overly worried about the existence of undetected patterns. We have been reading lengthy and complex messages in just about any manifestation of nature that presents jaggedness (such as the palm of a hand, the residues at the bottom of Turkish coffee cups, etc.). Armed with home supercomputers and chained processors, and helped by complexity and "chaos" theories, the scientists, semi-scientists, and pseudoscientists will be able to find portents. Second, we need to take into account the costs of mistakes; in my opinion, mistaking the right column for the left one is not as costly as an error in the opposite direction. Even popular opinion warns that bad information is worse than no information at all.

However interesting these areas could be, their discussion would be a tall order. In addition, they are not my current professional specialty. There is one world in which I believe the habit of mistaking luck for skill is most prevalent—and most conspicuous—and that is the world of trading. By luck or misfortune, that is the world in which I operate. It is my profession, and as such it will form the backbone of this book. It is what I know best. In addition, business presents the best (and most entertaining) laboratory for the understanding of these differences. For it is the area of human undertaking where the confusion is greatest and its effects the most pernicious. For instance, we often have the mistaken impression that a strategy is an excellent strategy, or an entrepreneur a person endowed with "vision", or a trader an excellent trader, only to realize that 99.9% of their past performance is attributable to chance, and chance alone. Ask a profitable investor to explain the reasons for his success; he will offer some deep and convincing interpretation of the results. Frequently, these delusions are intentional and deserve to bear the name "charlatanism".

If there is one cause for this confusion between the left and the right sides of our table, it is our inability to think critically—we may enjoy presenting conjectures as truth. We are wired to be like that. We will see that our mind is not equipped with the adequate hardware to handle probabilities; such infirmity even strikes the expert, sometimes just the expert. A critical mind, on the other hand, is someone who has the guts, when confronting a given set of information, to attribute a large share of its possible cause to the left column.

The 19th-century cartoon character, pot-bellied bourgeois Monsieur Prudhomme, carried around a large sword with a double intent: primarily to defend the Republic against its enemies, and secondarily to attack it should it stray from its course. In the same manner, this book has two purposes: to defend science (as a light beam across the noise of randomness), and to attack the scientist when he strays from his course (most disasters come from the fact that individual scientists do not have an innate understanding of standard error or a clue about critical thinking). As a practitioner of uncertainty I have seen more than my share of snake-oil salesmen dressed in the garb of scientists. The greatest fools of randomness will be found among these.

This author hates books that can be easily guessed from the table of contents—but a hint of what comes next seems in order. The book is composed of three parts. The first is an introspection into Solon's warning, as his outburst on rare events became my lifelong motto. In it we meditate on visible and invisible histories. The second presents a collection of probability biases I encountered (and suffered from) in my career in randomness—ones that continue to fool me. The third concludes the book with the revelation that perhaps ridding ourselves of our humanity is not in the works; we need tricks, not some grandiose moralizing help. Again the elders can help us with some of their ruses.

Copyright © 2001 Nassim Nicholas Taleb

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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments
Chapter Summaries
Prologue 1
Pt. I Solon's Warning - Skewness, Asymmetry, Induction 7
1 If You're So Rich Why Aren't You So Smart? 11
2 A Bizarre Accounting Method 26
3 A Mathematical Meditation on History 40
4 Randomness, Nonsense, and the Scientific Intellectual 60
5 Survival of the Least Fit - Can Evolution Be Fooled by Randomness? 68
6 Skewness and Asymmetry 84
7 The Problem of Induction 99
Pt. II Monkeys on Typewriters - Survivorship and Other Biases 111
8 Too Many Millionaires Next Door 117
9 It Is Easier To Buy and Sell Than Fry an Egg 125
10 Loser Takes All - On the Nonlinearities of Life 142
11 Randomness and Our Brain: We Are Probability Blind 149
Pt. III Wax in my Ears - Living With Randomitis 169
12 Gamblers' Ticks and Pigeons in a Box 175
13 Carneades Comes to Rome: On Probability and Skepticism 182
14 Bacchus Abandons Antony 191
Epilogue: Solon Told You So 196
Notes 197
Index 198
About Texere 204
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Customer Reviews

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( 43 )
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See All Sort by: Showing 1 – 20 of 44 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted April 8, 2006


    We are experiencing a dramatic shift in America where individuals are assuming greater risks. The old defined retirement benefits plans are being replaced by defined contribution plans (i.e. 401k plans). Under these contribution plans, it is the employee who makes the investments decisions and faces a loss in retirement wealth when these investments sour. Job security is not what it once was. Our future well being is becoming increasingly dependent on random events. This makes the topic in Taleb¿s ¿Fooled by Randomness¿ very timely. In order to make good decisions, we need to be both financially and statistically literate. Taleb¿s book gets us off to a good start. All too often we mistake random events with deterministic ones particularly when judging a person¿s past performance. If this book is worth buying it is because of the Table P.1 that summarizes how we can make faulty judgments by ¿being fooled by randomness.¿ After this, it deteriorates. He does not explain important concepts correctly, and he tries to give the impression that nobody accounts for randomness. He criticizes mathematicians for ignoring randomness, even though there is an entire field in mathematics devoted to understanding randomness. Taleb is confused. Risk adverse individuals attempt to avoid the potential ill effects of randomness however, this does not mean that they avoid the understanding of randomness. Randomness can be synonymous with vulnerability. The book is filled with contradictions where he says one thing and a few pages later reverses himself. For a PhD he has an amazingly poor grasp of probability theory. No wonder he does not like mathematicians, he does not understand the discipline. Although he claims that financial markets are unpredictable, he claims to have a trading strategy that guarantees him positive profits. Go figure. No where in his book does he discuss the concept of conditional expectation. His fictional characters are not convincing. The ¿risk averse¿ Nero is supposedly buying Treasuries when he could get a higher and equally safe after tax return with buying municipal bonds. The worst part of this book is the moral implications. All of life is uncontrolled randomness. Our decisions and our efforts do not matter and there is no role for personal responsibility. People who do try to explain randomness or who try to take responsibility are personally attacked. After writing this book, Taleb appeared on CNBC TV. He told the announcer that if a person comes into your office and uses the word ¿standard deviation¿, you should throw him out. The announcer asked Taleb why this should be done. And Taleb responded, ¿Because everything is not normally distributed.¿ Do I need to say anything more?

    7 out of 7 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 11, 2007

    Facts and.... falacy

    The author has his own ax to grind. His personal view is that markets are random. The more accepted view is that markets are chaotic. The difference, while subtle, is rewarding, both mathematically and financially. Taleb manages one or more funds which, as I understand it, are based on his view of the market. I have heard assorted reports as to the success of said funds. The short version is that his avowed approach requires huge amounts of patience and very large capitalization. That said, mathematically, his approach is sensible... in the long term. But as Keyens said, in the long run, we are all dead.

    2 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted July 26, 2009

    more from this reviewer

    Great Book

    What a great book! For all of us hard decision makers out there, this book really helps the psyche and will to "just do it." If you are looking for a book that will help you lose control and gain mental health, this is a good one.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted July 20, 2009

    Bring Sanity to Your Portfolio

    I would recommend those books for investors, who are above the beginning stage. This books emphasizes the role of planning for the unpredictable in your portfolio. This books could have more examples of the historical application of his view. Also, the author does come off conceited throughout the book, even though he admits that he does have his flaws later.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 30, 2007


    If you can get past the first half of the book, where the author comes off as a very conceited and know-it-all type person, the book is well worth the time and money. I am an avid trader in stocks, currencies and futures, as well as an enthusiastic poker player. It addresses a lot of crucial ideas that people (most notably investors) today rarely have an understanding of, especially when it comes to probability.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 17, 2005

    A book review while 'standing on one leg'

    What are some of the book¿s good points ? It communicates our deep flaws as decision-makers in a thoughtful and humane manner. It amusingly discusses `Risk Managers¿ as being clueless concerning randomness. The story of `Solon¿ is priceless in that it communicates true foundations for people who want to be risk managers regardless of its proximity to their business cards. Wittgenstein¿s Ruler story will change the way you think about econometrics, if you ever thought about it at all. It succinctly communicates the essence of why Karl Popper is worth understanding ¿. and does the same for simulation using the Russian roulette story. It inspired at least one entrepreneur.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 12, 2014


    This is a great book

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 1, 2013


    Great book

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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 17, 2012

    Excellent book about markets and about life

    Nassim Taleb brings out some of the most interesting and insightful ideas and observations that I've seen in a long time. If you read this book and "The Black Swan" it will change the way you look at the world around you and help you protect yourself from the vagaries of our unpredictable markets. It sheds light on why unpredictable events are so unpredictable, but also on why, at the same time, we are addicted to predictions and explanations, even though they are useless and impossible.

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  • Posted November 2, 2011

    How would i know

    I cannot rate and review a book i have NEVER received. I will not be doing any additional business with Barnes and Noble. I do not have any difficulty getting my books from Amazon, which i will be doing business with in the future. If you are going to do business with someone, make sure they are reliable, as this company, obviously is not! You got my money, but i do not have my book.

    0 out of 5 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted July 5, 2011

    Seemed a little random

    I thought the book kind of rambled with a lot of anectdotal stories. He seems quite conceited in a humble sort of way and it grates on you after a while. There were a lot of interesting examples that explain most people's misunderstanding of probability. I think the way he explains the bigger payoffs/risks of big chance strategies vs the smaller payoffs/less risks, more pedestrian, yet more predictable strategies is the key point of the book (i.e. one out thousands of actors is successful and becomes a multimillionaire, the rest are poor waiters, but almost everyone that goes to school to be a dentist will make a respectable, reliable income. The total payoff for dentists if better than the total payoff for actors and more equitably distributed.) Frankly, by the end of the book, I could hardly wait for it to be over.

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  • Posted March 20, 2010

    Good Read

    Simply put, this book breaks down many of our preconceived notions of probability.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 2, 2009

    I Also Recommend:

    A Real Wow Book

    This may be the best self improvement book I have ever read -- even though the book is not marketed as such. It's an eye opening experience and one I learned a lot from. Just in my day to day life there is a tendency to rationalize bad decisions and attribute luck to my own skill. Getting a grip on what I can control and what is random can only help me make better quality decisions in all aspects of my life. Essential reading for anyone who want to understand how to compete more effectively.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 29, 2004

    Waste of Time

    This book is a complete waste to read. The analysis and arguments are extremely dull and elementary and are written in a very pedantic style. It is more one man's personal insults to all those who have far exceeded him in trading the markets. There is nothing of value in this book.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 14, 2004


    Taleb doesn't put as much math in the book as I'd like, or expected, but the point he gets across is awesome. Seemingly anecdotal, at times, he incorporates lots of stories which range from Roman rulers to traders on the exchange floor. Absolutely excellent.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 27, 2001


    The narrator may come across as having a big ego, but he is absolutely charming. He lulls you into his world with a totally different logic. He sees randomness where you suspect none and convinces you.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 19, 2001

    Managing Unpredictable Variations in Order to Prosper!

    Every person who is interested in investing should read this book! In investing, few can tell the difference between being lucky and smart. Being successful in the short term can come from either source. If it is coming from unrecognized sources of luck, however, the behavior that the investor associates with success can sink the ship. The cautionary tale of Long-Term Capital Management is cited in the book as an example of this point. ¿If you¿re so rich, why aren¿t you smart?¿ is the wonderful reversal here on the old saw. I see this effect all the time in my consulting practice with helping companies understand how their decisions affect their stock price. A large percentage of people feel that they know all the answers when their stock price is rising. They keep doing the same things when the stocks are falling. Few survive to still have top jobs when the cycle shifts again. Then a new group of self-confident people take over who often don¿t know any more than those who preceded them. It¿s just that their track records look better. Fooled by Randomness will help make you more knowledgeably humble about what you can expect to accomplish with investments. Not only do fewer than one percent outperform the market averages over long time periods, the ones who do are probably often being aided by luck as well. ¿Get thee to the index funds as soon as possible¿ is the message that most should take away from this book. Better yet, buy them when multiples are low! The book¿s fundamental point is that there is tremendous volatility in any investment. Ignore that volatility to your peril. At the same time, you should be cautious about how well you understand the volatility. Stocks at their lows can still go to zero. There are all kinds of events that can happen, that have not done so yet. When they do, throw out all the old rules of investing. The terrorist attacks on the United States last week are probably an example of this. So each investment must be made as though you could be totally wrong. This means that you have to manage your risk exposure to events you don¿t even know how to expect. I loved his example of the joint probabilities of having a rare disease if you get a positive result on a test for that disease. Even most doctors apparently don¿t know how to evaluate that one. If even well educated people cannot quantify two known risks occurring simultaneously in their own field, how can investors be expected to make good decisions? Dr. Taleb has some very good advice for how to handle the psychology of being able to do this. He upholds the Stoic ideal -- ¿the attempt by man to get even with probability¿ which encourages ¿wisdom, upright dealing, and courage.¿ This means not chasing the latest investment fad or fashion, not looking at your investments very often, and being open to both sides of any idea (it could go wrong as well as right --what are the consequences of both?). I especially liked his idea of watching CNBC with the sound off so that the ¿experts¿ seem humorous and you are less likely to hear and follow their advice. Even more poignant was his advice not to live on Park Avenue where living with all of the arrogant, temporarily lucky can make you feel small. Instead, live somewhere that the results of your cautious approach will cause you to be the envy of all. Dr. Taleb impressed me with his willingness to tell stories on himself about how quickly he can become superstitious when things are going well, take on excess risks, and start looking too short term. After all, we are only human! The importance of this book can only be appreciated if you go back and think about your biggest investing successes. How much was luck versus skill? A good way to test is to see if the same approach has continued to work for you whenever you use it. Another good test is to see how often it would have backfired in the past. In my research on good decision mak

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 26, 2008

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    Posted July 8, 2010

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    Posted December 28, 2010

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