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Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis

Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis

by Gerald F. Harris, Peter A. Smith, Richard M. Marks

ISBN-10: 0849339715

ISBN-13: 9780849339714

Pub. Date: 08/22/2007

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Human motion analysis or gait analysis is used throughout the country and the world in clinics for pre-surgical planning and postsurgical follow-up. Only recently have technological advances truly begun to meet medical needs by supplying more accurate analytical data from which to make educated assessments of dynamic foot and ankle pathology. A comprehensive overview


Human motion analysis or gait analysis is used throughout the country and the world in clinics for pre-surgical planning and postsurgical follow-up. Only recently have technological advances truly begun to meet medical needs by supplying more accurate analytical data from which to make educated assessments of dynamic foot and ankle pathology. A comprehensive overview of current and emerging methods is necessary for practitioners to effectively integrate the new techniques into better pre-treatment planning, surgical and rehabilitative care, and post-treatment follow-up.

Originating as a one-day workshop sponsored by the Shriner's Hospitals and the National Institutes of Health, Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis: Clinical Treatment and Technology provides a single source reference for the latest technologies and their clinical applications. With contributions from an international panel of experts from orthopaedic, rehabilitation, engineering, academic, medical-industrial, and clinical disciplines, this text focuses on the relevant scientific advances with an emphasis on applications, limitations, and problems to be solved. Divided into two parts, the text begins by presenting basic and advanced clinical applications and opportunities in foot and ankle motion analysis in both pediatric and adult cases. The second part introduces the technological advances themselves from a quantitative perspective. Modeling concepts, seminal developments, and novel approaches are described along with emerging horizons related to mechanical paradigms, imaging, kinetics, robotics and simulation, tri-planar force sensing, and more. The book also includes a chapter of references and sources of support for future research and development prospects.

Clinical and research applications in motion analysis have resulted in better functional assessment, fewer, more effective surgeries, and longer-term follow-up care. Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis: Clinical
Treatment and Technology
provides a basis for expanding these contributions to the broader community of practitioners caring for both adult and pediatric patients.

Product Details

Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
Biomedical Engineering Series
Product dimensions:
6.12(w) x 9.25(h) x 1.40(d)

Table of Contents

Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis: Evolutionary Perspectives and Introduction, G.F. Harris and M.D. Jenders
Historical Perspective
Introduction to the Text

Part 1: Clinical Applications and Opportunities
Section A Pediatric Foot and Ankle
Clinical Applications of Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis in Children, P.A. Smith, S.Hassani, A.N. Graf, and G.F. Harris
Gait Analysis
Foot Motion
Biomechanical Models
Normal Foot and Ankle Motion
Clinical Challenges
Cerebral Palsy
Equinus Foot Deformities
Planovalgus Foot Deformities
Varus Foot Deformities
Congenital Clubfoot
Other Neuromuscular Foot Deformities
Severe Flatfoot
Tarsal Coalition

Functional Gait Analysis in Children Following Clubfoot Releases, M.Khazzam, J.Y. Roh, J.T. Long, P.A. Smith, S.Hassani, G.F. Harris, A.N. Graf, and K.N. Kuo
Congenital Clubfoot Pathoanatomy
Clinical Assessment
Radiographic Examination
Treatment Options
Gait Analysis for Assessment of Outcome Following Clubfoot Correction
Results of Lower Body Gait Analysis

Dynamic Plantar Pressure Characteristics and Clinical Applications in Patients with Residual Clubfoot, X.C. Liu and J.Thometz

Three Dimensional MRI Modeling of Normal and Surgically Treated Clubfeet, V.Talwalkar, C.Tylkowski, C.Roche, B. Mattingly, P.A. Hardy, and D. Pienkowski
Dynamic Foot Pressure in the Early Evolution of Foot Deformities in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy, C. Church, N. Lennon, S. Coleman, J. Henley, M. Nagai, and F. Miller
Plantar Pressure Based Quantitative Assessment of Subtalar Arthrodesis in the Rehabilitation of the Planovalgus Foot Deformity, Z.O. Abu-Faraj, G.F. Harris, and P.A. Seith
Plantar Pressures: A Clinical Background
Cerebral Palsy and the Planovalgus Foot
Materials and Methods
Chemodenervation and Motion Assessment, S. Sienko Thomas and J.D. Ackman
Botulinum Toxin Type A
Mouse Models of Spasticity
Children with Cerebral Palsy
Assessment of the Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A
Musculoskeletal Modeling
Case Studies

Equinovarus Foot: EMG Analysis and Clinical Outcome, M. Aiona, R. Dorociak, M. Nichols, and R. Pierce
Normal Anatomy/Kinesiology of Foot and Ankle
Equinovarus Foot Pathomechanics
Clinical Implications of Equinovarus Foot
EMG Assessment of Equinovarus Foot Study
Study Population
Comparisons with Current Literature and Indications for Surgery

Lower Extremity Characterization of Walker Assisted Gait in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy, K.M. Baker, L. Lu, S.S. Klos, K. Reiners, J.D. Ackman, J. Klein, J.P. Schwab, and G.F. Harris

Response to Balance Perturbation : A Strategy for Pediatric Assessment, A. Graf, J. Krzak, and G.F. Harris

Section B Adult Foot and Ankle
Gait Analysis in Posterior Tendon Dysfunction: Pre and Postoperative Analysis Compared to a Normal Population, R.M. Marks, J.T. Long, and G.F. Harris
Posterior Tibial Tendon Anatomy and Biomechanics
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Classification
Treatment Options for PTTD
Current Investigation of PTTD Gait

Hallux Valgus: A Pre and Postoperative Analysis of Gait, A. Gottstein Frea, J. T. Long, M. Khazzam, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris
Clinical Presentation
Previous Studies
Case Examples

Hallux Rigidus: A Pre and Postoperative Analysis of Gait, J. Schwab, M.Khazzam, J.T. Long, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris
Anatomy and Pathology
Clinical Presentation and Evaluation
Previous Motion Analysis Studies
Case Examples

Pre-Operative and Post-Operative Gait Analysis of the Rheumatoid Forefoot, K. Maskala, J.T. Long, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harras
Background and Significance
Critical Studies
Test Methods

Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis of Patients with Ankle Arthritis, M. Khazzam, J.T. Long, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris
Ankle Anatomy and Biomechanics
Ankle Arthritis
Clinical Assessment

Gait Analysis After Total Ankle Arthroplasty, J.W. Brodsky, F.E. Pollo, and B.S. Baum
Materials and Methods
Surgical Procedure
Gait Analysis
Gait Analysis Results
Dynamic Poly-EMG in Gait Analysis for the Assessment of Equinovarus Foot, A. Esquenazi

The Challenge of the Diabetic Foot, M.S. Pinzur
The Problem and the Challenge
The Normal Adult Foot
Pathophysiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers
Prevention of Diabetic Foot Ulcers
The Challenge of the Diabetic Foot
The Biomechanics of the Diabetic Foot, W. Ledoux
Etiology of Diabetic Neuropathic Ulceration
The Effect of Diabetes on Soft Tissue Characteristics
The Effect of Diabetes on the Kinematics and Kinetics of Gait
The Effect of Diabetes on Foot Deformities
The Relationship between Foot Structure and Plantar Pressure
The Relationship between Foot Structure and Ulceration
The Relationship between Plantar Pressure and Ulceration
The Relationship between Shear Stress and Ulceration

Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Fifth Metatarsal Jones Fracture, E.S. Rohr, J.E. Johnson, L. Zhao, and G. F. Harris
Part 2: Technical Developments and Emerging Opportunities
Section C Foot and Ankle Modeling
A System for the Analysis of Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Gait, S.M. Kidder, F.S. Abuzzahab, G.F. Harris, and J.E. Johnson
Validation of a Multi-Segment Foot and Ankle Kinematic Model for Pediatric Gait, K.A. Myers, M. Wang, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris

Measurement of Foot Kinematics and Plantar Pressure in Children Using the Oxford Foot Model, J. Stebbins, M. Harrington, T. Theologis, N.Thompson, C. Giacomozzi, and V. Macellari
The Design, Development, and Initial Evaluation of a Multi-Segment Foot Model for Routine Clinical Gait Analysis, R.B. Davis, E.G. Jameson, J.R. Davids, L.M. Christopher, B.M. Rogozinski, and J.P. Anderson
Foot Model / Analysis – Clinical Requirements
Currently Available Multi-Segment Foot Models
Shriners Hospitals for Children Greenville Foot Model

Reliability of a Clinically Practical Multi-Segment Foot Marker Set / Model, J. Henley, J. Richards, D. Hudson, C. Church, S. Coleman, L . Kersetter, and F. Miller

A Multi-Segment, 3D Kinematic Model of the Foot and Ankle, K.R. Kaufman, H.P. Kitaoka, D.K. Hansen, D.A. Morrow, and B.R. Kotajarvi
A Spatial Linkage Model of the Ankle Complex, D. Marinkovich

Multi-Segment Foot Biomechanics in Dynamic Hindfoot Varus, M.R. Walker, F.L. Buczek, K.M. Cooney, N.A. Sharkey, and J.O. Sanders
Future Directions

Section D Technical Advances in Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis
The Accuracy and Utility of Virtual Markers, M.H. Schwartz and A. Rozumalski
Virtual Shapes

Determination of Subject-Specific Ankle Joint Axes from Measured Foot Motion, S.J. Piazza and G.S. Lewis
Optimization-Based Location of Two Axes
“Subtalar Isolation” Method for Subtalar Joint Location
Dynamic Radiographic Measurement of 3D Skeletal Motion, J.D. Yamokoski and S.A. Banks
State of the Art
Application to the Ankle Joint System
The Future of Dynamic Radiographic Measurements
Exploring the Frontiers of in vivo Multi-Body Ankle Dynamics Using Fast-PC MRI, F.T. Sheehan, A.R. Seisler, and K.L. Siegel

Kinetic Measures of the Foot: Overcoming Current Obstacles, B. MacWilliams

Tri-Axial Plantar Force Sensor: Design, Calibration, Characterization, and Subject Testing, E.J. Miller, D.C. Jeutter, R.J. Stango, and G.F. Harris

Quasi-Stiffness of the Ankle During Able-Bodied Walking at Different Speeds: Implications for Design of Prostheses, A.H. Hansen, S.A. Gard, and D.S. Childress
Development of an Advanced Biofidelic Lower Extremity Prosthesis, M. White, B.J. Hafner, and W.J. Whatley
Establishing Design Parameters
Tension Band Design

Robotic Technology in Gait Simulation and Foot Mechanics, J.C. Otis
Dynamic Cadaver Modeling
Robotic Technology

Section E Research Support
Support for Rehabilitation Research on Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis, L.A. Quatrano and H. Khan
The National Institutes of Health (NIH)


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