Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law / Edition 1

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In Forced Justice, David J. Armor explores the benefits and drawbacks of voluntary and involuntary desegregation plans, especially those in communities with "magnet" schools. He finds that voluntary plans, which let parents decide which school program is best for their children, are just as effective in attaining long-term desegregation as mandatory busing, and that these plans generate far greater community support. Armor concludes by proposing a new policy of "equity" choice, which draws upon the best features of both the desegregation and choice movements. This policy promises both improved desegregation and greater educational choices for all, especially for the disadvantaged minority children in urban systems who now have the fewest educational choices. The debate over desegregation policy and its many consequences needs to move beyond academic journals and courtrooms to a larger audience. In addition to educators and policymakers, Forced Justice will be an important book for social scientists, attorneys and specialists in civil rights issues, and all persons concerned about the state of public education.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"A compelling argument for..."equity choice"...and a significant contribution of the discussion of desegregation in America...."—The Indianapolis Star

"Mr. Armor's study debunks the myths underlying 25 years of disastrous judicial activism. Even more significantly, it points the way to a solution—parental choice—that just might help fulfill the promise of equal opportunity for the nation's most disadvantaged schoolchildren."—The Wall Street Journal

"Likely to set off a fresh debate among lawyers, educators and social scientists...."—The New York Times Book Review

"Forced Justice is the most thorough and incisive examination of school desegregation I am aware of. Armor's idea of equity choice is one of those perfectly reasonable solutions to a complex problem that seems embarrassingly obvious once you hear it. This book will change the discussion of school desegregation in America."—Shelby Steele, author, The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America

"As the era of compulsory busing for school desegregation comes to a close, David Armor examines the evidence dispassionately. He finds that the benefits of this policy were usually minuscule, and the cost often enormous. Forced Justice is a persuasive, detailed analysis of one of the most divisive policy initiatives in modern American history. It proves beyond doubt that good intentions are often not enough."—Glenn Loury, Boston University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195111354
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 10/28/1996
  • Edition description: REPRINT
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.13 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 0.71 (d)

Meet the Author

David J. Armor is Research Professor at The Institute of Public Policy, George Mason University. While writing this book he was Senior Research Scholar of the Social Philosophy and Policy Center of Bowling Green State University, Ohio and Visiting Professor in the Department of Sociology, Rutgers University. Formerly he was Senior Social Scientist at the Rand Corporation and Associate Professor of Sociology at Harvard University. He has also served as an elected member of the Los Angeles Board of Education and Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for military manpower and personnel.

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Table of Contents

Introduction: The Desegregation Dilemma 3
Desegregation and the Law 5
The Harm and Benefit Thesis 8
Housing Segregation and School Desegregation 10
Desegregation Remedies 11
The Future of School Desegregation and Choice 13
1 Desegregation Policy and the Law 17
The Brown Decision and the Civil Rights Act 18
The Evolution of Remedy from Green to Keyes 26
Milliken and the Limits of Liability and Remedy 38
The Issue of Unitary Status 48
A Summary of Desegregation Law 54
2 The Harm and Benefit Thesis 59
History of the Harm and Benefit Thesis 61
Desegregation and Achievement 76
Desegregation and Other Outcomes 98
Status of the Harm and Benefit Thesis 111
3 Housing Segregation and School Desegregation 117
Housing Segregation in School Desegregation Cases 119
The Causes of Residential Segregation 127
The Relation between School and Housing Segregation 146
Housing and School Desegregation Policy 151
4 The Effectiveness of Desegregation Remedies 154
The Scope of Remedies 156
Desegregation Definitions 158
National Trends in School Desegregation 165
Desegregation and White Flight 174
Effectiveness of Alternative Desegregation Plans 180
Community and Parent Views on School Desegregation 195
Desegregation and Resegregation 208
5 The Future of Desegregation and Choice 211
Systems with Desegregation Plans 213
Systems without Desegregation Plans 218
Desegregation and Choice 225
Appendix 235
Notes 239
Bibliography 257
Table of Cases 263
Index 265
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