Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law / Edition 1

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'Forced Justice' is a thorough and incisive examination of school desegregation. As the era of compulsory busing for school desegregation comes to a close, David Armor examines the evidence dispassionately. He finds that the benefits of this policy were usually minuscule, and the cost often enormous.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"The most thorough and incisive examination of school desegregation I am aware of."--Shelby Steele, author, The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195111354
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 10/28/1996
  • Edition description: REPRINT
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.13 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 0.71 (d)

Meet the Author

David J. Armor is Research Professor at The Institute of Public Policy, George Mason University. While writing this book he was Senior Research Scholar of the Social Philosophy and Policy Center of Bowling Green State University, Ohio and Visiting Professor in the Department of Sociology, Rutgers University. Formerly he was Senior Social Scientist at the Rand Corporation and Associate Professor of Sociology at Harvard University. He has also served as an elected member of the Los Angeles Board of Education and Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for military manpower and personnel.

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Table of Contents

Introduction: The Desegregation Dilemma 3
Desegregation and the Law 5
The Harm and Benefit Thesis 8
Housing Segregation and School Desegregation 10
Desegregation Remedies 11
The Future of School Desegregation and Choice 13
1 Desegregation Policy and the Law 17
The Brown Decision and the Civil Rights Act 18
The Evolution of Remedy from Green to Keyes 26
Milliken and the Limits of Liability and Remedy 38
The Issue of Unitary Status 48
A Summary of Desegregation Law 54
2 The Harm and Benefit Thesis 59
History of the Harm and Benefit Thesis 61
Desegregation and Achievement 76
Desegregation and Other Outcomes 98
Status of the Harm and Benefit Thesis 111
3 Housing Segregation and School Desegregation 117
Housing Segregation in School Desegregation Cases 119
The Causes of Residential Segregation 127
The Relation between School and Housing Segregation 146
Housing and School Desegregation Policy 151
4 The Effectiveness of Desegregation Remedies 154
The Scope of Remedies 156
Desegregation Definitions 158
National Trends in School Desegregation 165
Desegregation and White Flight 174
Effectiveness of Alternative Desegregation Plans 180
Community and Parent Views on School Desegregation 195
Desegregation and Resegregation 208
5 The Future of Desegregation and Choice 211
Systems with Desegregation Plans 213
Systems without Desegregation Plans 218
Desegregation and Choice 225
Appendix 235
Notes 239
Bibliography 257
Table of Cases 263
Index 265
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