Forebrain neurochemical interactions and circuitry involved in effort-related choice.

More About This Textbook


An enormous body of evidence has demonstrated the importance of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in regulated effort-related processes, including exertion of effort and effort-related choice behavior. Although accumbens DA is a vital component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related processes, it is recognized that other brain areas and neurotransmitters must also be involved. An emerging body of evidence indicates that striatal DA systems interact with adenosine A2A receptors, and these interactions may also regulate the behavioral functions of the nucleus accumbens. The first three groups of experiments (Chapters 2-4) demonstrated that adenosine A 2A receptor antagonists can reverse the effects of DA antagonism on effort-related choice, and that nucleus accumbens is an important locus for this interaction. The fourth group of experiments (Chapter 5) characterized the anatomical and neurochemical relationship between nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum (VP), while Chapter 6 focused on the behavioral functions of GABAA receptors in VP. One of the brain areas receiving the greatest input from accumbens is the VP, and the projections from nucleus accumbens to VP are GABAergic. Experiment 5.2 demonstrated that injection of a D2-receptor antagonist in accumbens increased extracellular GABA in VP. On the basis of the results of Chapter 5, it was hypothesized that stimulation of GABAA receptors in the VP would produce behavioral effects on an effort-related choice procedure that closely resemble those produced by interference with accumbens DA transmission. Injections of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into VP, but not a dorsal control site, resulted in behavioral effects similar to those produced by interference with accumbens DA transmission. In summary, the present experiments were designed to characterize both the neurochemical and anatomical components of the neural system that underlie effort-related choice. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists reversed the effects of interference with accumbens DA transmission on effort-related choice behavior, whereas local stimulation of GABAA receptors in VP produced effects that closely resemble those produced by DA antagonists or accumbens DA depletion. The present studies contribute significantly to the characterization of both the neurochemical mechanisms and the anatomical circuitry that are involved in the regulation of effort-related processes.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781109187885
  • Publisher: ProQuest LLC
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eTextbook
  • Pages: 133
  • File size: 7 MB

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star


4 Star


3 Star


2 Star


1 Star


Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation


  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)