Forensic Aspects of Chemical and Biological Terrorism

Forensic Aspects of Chemical and Biological Terrorism

by Cyril H. Wecht
     
 

Contributors in biological and forensic sciences and chemistry offer information to public health and safety personnel. They discuss definitions and identification of chemical and biological weapons used in terrorism; smallpox; injury mechanisms and characteristics, and injury diagnosis and treatment in terrorist bombings; chemical warfare and terrorism agents; the… See more details below

Overview

Contributors in biological and forensic sciences and chemistry offer information to public health and safety personnel. They discuss definitions and identification of chemical and biological weapons used in terrorism; smallpox; injury mechanisms and characteristics, and injury diagnosis and treatment in terrorist bombings; chemical warfare and terrorism agents; the role of medical systems in responding to chemical and biological terrorism; public health aspects and preventive measures; the role of law enforcement and forensic scientists in scene investigation; psychopathy, media, the psychological root of terrorism; the truth about bioterrorism, and other topics. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781930056671
Publisher:
Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, Inc.
Publication date:
09/28/2004
Edition description:
PACKAGE
Pages:
503
Product dimensions:
8.20(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.50(d)

Meet the Author

Table of Contents

Forewordxiii
Introductionxv
1.Definitions and Identification of Chemical and Biological Weapons Used in Terrorism1
1.1Introduction2
1.2Definitions3
1.3Historical Uses of CBW5
A.Sarin5
B.Salmonella bacillus5
C.Anthrax5
D.Ricin5
1.4CBW Agents Available to Terrorists6
1.5Consequences of Exposure to CBW6
1.6Clinical Syndromes Following Exposure to Biological Agents8
A.Respiratory syndromes8
B.Pulmonary syndromes12
C.Fevers and rashes14
D.Neurological syndromes21
1.7Clinical Syndromes Following Exposure to Chemical Agents22
A.Pulmonary syndromes22
B.Eye lesions27
C.Skin lesions27
D.Neurological syndromes29
E.Diagnosis of nerve agent poisoning31
F.Gastrointestinal symptoms34
1.8Autopsies and Special Pathological Findings36
A.Infections of the respiratory tract37
B.The effects of chemical agents on the respiratory tract38
C.The effects of nerve agents39
AppendixFoiled Osmium Tetroxide Attack Reported41
Bibliography43
Endnotes46
2.Infectious Agents of Bioterrorism53
2.1Introduction53
2.2Anthrax54
2.3Smallpox56
2.4Plague58
2.5Tularemia59
2.6Botulinum Toxin61
2.7Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses62
2.8Laboratory Preparedness63
2.9Conclusion63
Endnotes64
3.Smallpox69
3.1History70
A.Terminology70
B.Ancient history71
C.European history72
D.North American history73
E.Variolation74
F.Historical vignettes from North America78
3.2Smallpox as a Virus80
A.The eradication of smallpox and its potential re-emergence81
B.Biodefense implications84
C.Clinical manifestations84
D.Typical clinical course85
E.Clinical types of variola major89
F.Laboratory findings96
G.Organ complications96
H.Complications97
I.Variola minor97
J.The effect of immunity98
Endnotes99
References99
Appendix A.Smallpox Prevention105
References113
Appendix B.The Treatment of Smallpox116
References117
4.Smallpox: Recognition, Prevention of Spread, and Treatment119
4.1Smallpox Transmission121
A.Aerosols versus larger droplets121
B.Fomites122
C.Factors affecting transmission122
4.2Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis123
A.Types of smallpox123
B.Clinical course of smallpox124
C.Differential diagnosis126
4.3Smallpox in Pregnancy128
4.4Treatment of Smallpox128
A.Notification128
B.Immunization128
C.Isolation128
D.Supportive care129
E.Secondary infection of lesions129
F.Eye involvement129
4.5Treatment of Cowpox, Vaccinia, and Monkeypox129
A.Possible effectiveness of Cidofovir129
B.CDC Recommends smallpox vaccination for monkeypox130
4.6Vaccination130
A.Vaccine efficacy in various settings130
B.Vaccine administration procedure and local response131
C.Viral shedding from the vaccination site131
D.Ring vaccination131
E.People likely to benefit from immunization because they are at high risk of developing smallpox132
F.People are at higher than usual risk for developing post-vaccination complications132
G.Smallpox vaccination complications133
H.Vaccination in pregnancy136
4.7Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG)136
A.Uses: Prophylaxis and treatment of vaccination complications136
B.Dosages137
4.8Conclusions137
References138
5.Terrorist Bombings: Injury Mechanisms and Characteristics141
5.1Multiple Mechanisms of Injury in Terrorist Bombings141
A.Penetrating injury142
B.Chemical warfare144
C.Biological warfare144
D.Dirty bombs144
5.2The Nature of Blast Waves144
5.3Factors Affecting Severity of Blast Injury146
A.Blast exposure in water146
B.Nearby structures and enclosed spaces146
C.Spalling146
5.4Specific Blast Injuries147
A.Ear injury147
B.Gastrointestinal injury148
C.Blast lung injury148
D.Air emboli148
References149
6.Terrorist Bombings: Injury Diagnosis and Treatment151
6.1The Accident Scene152
A.Phases of care-giving at a mass casualty bombing scene152
B.Aspects of bombing scene and ambulance treatment152
6.2Initial Emergency Department and Hospital Treatment Priorities154
A.Airway154
B.Breathing154
C.Circulation159
D.Disability: Neurological160
6.3Specific Injuries160
A.Fractures and dislocations160
B.Open wounds161
C.Abdominal injury161
D.Air emboli161
E.The ear162
F.Penetrating injury and retained foreign bodies163
References164
7.Chemical Warfare and Terrorism Agents167
7.1Introduction167
7.2Historical Use of Chemical Agents169
7.3Recognition of Chemical Agent (CA) Effects171
7.4Smell as a Warning of Chemical Agent Exposure171
7.5General Classifications173
7.6Chemical Agents by Category174
7.7Personal Protection and Law Enforcement Agents175
7.8Repellant Agents175
7.9Tranquilizing Agents175
7.10Nerve Agents176
A.Sarin177
B.VX177
7.11Blood Agents178
7.12Vesicants179
7.13Toxins180
A.Ricin180
B.Abrin182
7.14Cell Poisons183
7.15Learning from the Past: Future Chemical Agent Terrorism184
Endnotes191
8.Chemical Warfare Agents: Analytical Methods193
8.1Introduction193
8.2Scope194
8.3Specimen Handling194
8.4Classification of CWAs195
A.Casualty agents195
B.Harassing agents204
C.Incapacitating agents206
D.Toxins207
8.5Conclusion211
Endnotes212
9.The Role of Medical Systems in Responding to Chemical and Biological Terrorism227
9.1Introduction227
9.2How Should an Event of Chemical or Biological Terrorism Be Detected?229
A.Chemical terrorism229
B.Biological terrorism231
9.3.What Resources Are Needed to Contend with the Event?233
A.Chemical terrorism233
B.Biological terrorism235
9.4.How Should Medical Systems Prepare for Terrorism?239
9.5How Should an Event of Chemical or Biological Terrorism Be Reported?242
9.6What Safeguards Are There for Privacy?244
9.7How Should the Event Be Investigated?246
9.8How Can the National Security Be Maintained and Improved?250
9.9Conclusion251
Endnotes252
10.Public Health Aspects and Preventive Measures257
10.1Introduction257
10.2Pre-Event Activities258
A.Surveillance258
B.Laboratory capabilities262
C.Training263
10.3Post-Event Activities264
A.Surveillance265
B.Communication266
C.Interaction with hospitals and health professionals to accomplish treatment and risk reduction267
D.Deployment of medical materials269
E.Segregation of individuals known to be affected or at risk to reduce further spread270
F.Mental health issues272
G.Other considerations272
11.The Role of the Medical Examiner and Coroner in the Investigation of Terrorism275
12.Medical Examiners, Coroners, and Biologic Terrorism: A Guidebook for Surveillance and Case Management291
13.Scene Investigation: The Role of Law Enforcement and Forensic Scientists361
13.1Introduction361
A.Initial notification363
B.Response364
C.The crime scene366
13.2.Processing a Crime Scene Containing Biological or Chemical Weapons368
A.Containment of affected areas368
B.Decontamination facility369
C.Scene management369
13.3The Role of the Forensic Scientist372
A.Recognition of a biological or chemical attack374
B.Identification of victims374
C.Determination of symptoms and exposure: Manner and cause of death375
D.Examination of physical evidence and classification and identification of agents375
E.Tracing the chemical or biological fingerprint377
F.Linking a suspect to the case377
13.4Scene Analysis and Reconstruction378
13.5Case Example: Oxford Connecticut, Anthrax Incident380
A.Information management and notification procedures380
B.Searching the suspected scene381
C.Investigative efforts383
Bibliography384
14.Psychopathy, Media and the Psychology at the Root of Terrorism385
14.1Introduction and Definitions385
14.2Media as a Modus Operandi388
14.3Terrorist Leaders391
14.4Terrorist Followers and Soldiers398
14.5Ideology403
Endnotes414
15.The Biological and Chemical Threat to Aviation and Transportation Security421
15.1Introduction421
15.2Biological and Chemical Threats422
15.3History and Potential425
15.4Airports, Ports, Railroad Stations and Mass Transit429
15.5Trace Detection Technologies431
15.6Training434
15.7Combating Bioterrorism435
15.8Conclusion438
Endnotes440
16.Bioterrorism and the Law: A National Perspective441
16.1Introduction441
16.2Lack of Preparedness for the Threat of Bioterrorism442
16.3The Need for Law Reform444
16.4The Model State Public Health Act448
16.5The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act449
16.6A Defense of the Model Act452
A.Federalism453
B.Declaration of a public health emergency453
C.Governmental abuse of power454
D.Libertarianism454
E.Personal safeguards456
16.7Rethinking the Public Good457
Disclaimer and Acknowledgment458
Endnotes458
17.The Truth about Bioterrorism463
17.1Introduction463
17.2The Fiction464
A.Fiction #1464
B.Fiction #2465
17.3The Threat of Bioterrorism466
17.4Issues and Problems in Protecting Against Bioterrorism468
17.5Recommendations470
References470
About the Editor475
About the Authors477
Index491

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