Forensic Aspects of Chemical and Biological Terrorism

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Contributors in biological and forensic sciences and chemistry offer information to public health and safety personnel. They discuss definitions and identification of chemical and biological weapons used in terrorism; smallpox; injury mechanisms and characteristics, and injury diagnosis and treatment in terrorist bombings; chemical warfare and terrorism agents; the role of medical systems in responding to chemical and biological terrorism; public health aspects and preventive measures; the role of law enforcement and forensic scientists in scene investigation; psychopathy, media, the psychological root of terrorism; the truth about bioterrorism, and other topics. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781930056671
  • Publisher: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, Inc.
  • Publication date: 9/28/2004
  • Edition description: PACKAGE
  • Pages: 503
  • Product dimensions: 8.20 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword xiii
Introduction xv
1. Definitions and Identification of Chemical and Biological Weapons Used in Terrorism 1
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Definitions 3
1.3 Historical Uses of CBW 5
A. Sarin 5
B. Salmonella bacillus 5
C. Anthrax 5
D. Ricin 5
1.4 CBW Agents Available to Terrorists 6
1.5 Consequences of Exposure to CBW 6
1.6 Clinical Syndromes Following Exposure to Biological Agents 8
A. Respiratory syndromes 8
B. Pulmonary syndromes 12
C. Fevers and rashes 14
D. Neurological syndromes 21
1.7 Clinical Syndromes Following Exposure to Chemical Agents 22
A. Pulmonary syndromes 22
B. Eye lesions 27
C. Skin lesions 27
D. Neurological syndromes 29
E. Diagnosis of nerve agent poisoning 31
F. Gastrointestinal symptoms 34
1.8 Autopsies and Special Pathological Findings 36
A. Infections of the respiratory tract 37
B. The effects of chemical agents on the respiratory tract 38
C. The effects of nerve agents 39
Appendix Foiled Osmium Tetroxide Attack Reported 41
Bibliography 43
Endnotes 46
2. Infectious Agents of Bioterrorism 53
2.1 Introduction 53
2.2 Anthrax 54
2.3 Smallpox 56
2.4 Plague 58
2.5 Tularemia 59
2.6 Botulinum Toxin 61
2.7 Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses 62
2.8 Laboratory Preparedness 63
2.9 Conclusion 63
Endnotes 64
3. Smallpox 69
3.1 History 70
A. Terminology 70
B. Ancient history 71
C. European history 72
D. North American history 73
E. Variolation 74
F. Historical vignettes from North America 78
3.2 Smallpox as a Virus 80
A. The eradication of smallpox and its potential re-emergence 81
B. Biodefense implications 84
C. Clinical manifestations 84
D. Typical clinical course 85
E. Clinical types of variola major 89
F. Laboratory findings 96
G. Organ complications 96
H. Complications 97
I. Variola minor 97
J. The effect of immunity 98
Endnotes 99
References 99
Appendix A. Smallpox Prevention 105
References 113
Appendix B. The Treatment of Smallpox 116
References 117
4. Smallpox: Recognition, Prevention of Spread, and Treatment 119
4.1 Smallpox Transmission 121
A. Aerosols versus larger droplets 121
B. Fomites 122
C. Factors affecting transmission 122
4.2 Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis 123
A. Types of smallpox 123
B. Clinical course of smallpox 124
C. Differential diagnosis 126
4.3 Smallpox in Pregnancy 128
4.4 Treatment of Smallpox 128
A. Notification 128
B. Immunization 128
C. Isolation 128
D. Supportive care 129
E. Secondary infection of lesions 129
F. Eye involvement 129
4.5 Treatment of Cowpox, Vaccinia, and Monkeypox 129
A. Possible effectiveness of Cidofovir 129
B. CDC Recommends smallpox vaccination for monkeypox 130
4.6 Vaccination 130
A. Vaccine efficacy in various settings 130
B. Vaccine administration procedure and local response 131
C. Viral shedding from the vaccination site 131
D. Ring vaccination 131
E. People likely to benefit from immunization because they are at high risk of developing smallpox 132
F. People are at higher than usual risk for developing post-vaccination complications 132
G. Smallpox vaccination complications 133
H. Vaccination in pregnancy 136
4.7 Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG) 136
A. Uses: Prophylaxis and treatment of vaccination complications 136
B. Dosages 137
4.8 Conclusions 137
References 138
5. Terrorist Bombings: Injury Mechanisms and Characteristics 141
5.1 Multiple Mechanisms of Injury in Terrorist Bombings 141
A. Penetrating injury 142
B. Chemical warfare 144
C. Biological warfare 144
D. Dirty bombs 144
5.2 The Nature of Blast Waves 144
5.3 Factors Affecting Severity of Blast Injury 146
A. Blast exposure in water 146
B. Nearby structures and enclosed spaces 146
C. Spalling 146
5.4 Specific Blast Injuries 147
A. Ear injury 147
B. Gastrointestinal injury 148
C. Blast lung injury 148
D. Air emboli 148
References 149
6. Terrorist Bombings: Injury Diagnosis and Treatment 151
6.1 The Accident Scene 152
A. Phases of care-giving at a mass casualty bombing scene 152
B. Aspects of bombing scene and ambulance treatment 152
6.2 Initial Emergency Department and Hospital Treatment Priorities 154
A. Airway 154
B. Breathing 154
C. Circulation 159
D. Disability: Neurological 160
6.3 Specific Injuries 160
A. Fractures and dislocations 160
B. Open wounds 161
C. Abdominal injury 161
D. Air emboli 161
E. The ear 162
F. Penetrating injury and retained foreign bodies 163
References 164
7. Chemical Warfare and Terrorism Agents 167
7.1 Introduction 167
7.2 Historical Use of Chemical Agents 169
7.3 Recognition of Chemical Agent (CA) Effects 171
7.4 Smell as a Warning of Chemical Agent Exposure 171
7.5 General Classifications 173
7.6 Chemical Agents by Category 174
7.7 Personal Protection and Law Enforcement Agents 175
7.8 Repellant Agents 175
7.9 Tranquilizing Agents 175
7.10 Nerve Agents 176
A. Sarin 177
B. VX 177
7.11 Blood Agents 178
7.12 Vesicants 179
7.13 Toxins 180
A. Ricin 180
B. Abrin 182
7.14 Cell Poisons 183
7.15 Learning from the Past: Future Chemical Agent Terrorism 184
Endnotes 191
8. Chemical Warfare Agents: Analytical Methods 193
8.1 Introduction 193
8.2 Scope 194
8.3 Specimen Handling 194
8.4 Classification of CWAs 195
A. Casualty agents 195
B. Harassing agents 204
C. Incapacitating agents 206
D. Toxins 207
8.5 Conclusion 211
Endnotes 212
9. The Role of Medical Systems in Responding to Chemical and Biological Terrorism 227
9.1 Introduction 227
9.2 How Should an Event of Chemical or Biological Terrorism Be Detected? 229
A. Chemical terrorism 229
B. Biological terrorism 231
9.3. What Resources Are Needed to Contend with the Event? 233
A. Chemical terrorism 233
B. Biological terrorism 235
9.4. How Should Medical Systems Prepare for Terrorism? 239
9.5 How Should an Event of Chemical or Biological Terrorism Be Reported? 242
9.6 What Safeguards Are There for Privacy? 244
9.7 How Should the Event Be Investigated? 246
9.8 How Can the National Security Be Maintained and Improved? 250
9.9 Conclusion 251
Endnotes 252
10. Public Health Aspects and Preventive Measures 257
10.1 Introduction 257
10.2 Pre-Event Activities 258
A. Surveillance 258
B. Laboratory capabilities 262
C. Training 263
10.3 Post-Event Activities 264
A. Surveillance 265
B. Communication 266
C. Interaction with hospitals and health professionals to accomplish treatment and risk reduction 267
D. Deployment of medical materials 269
E. Segregation of individuals known to be affected or at risk to reduce further spread 270
F. Mental health issues 272
G. Other considerations 272
11. The Role of the Medical Examiner and Coroner in the Investigation of Terrorism 275
12. Medical Examiners, Coroners, and Biologic Terrorism: A Guidebook for Surveillance and Case Management 291
13. Scene Investigation: The Role of Law Enforcement and Forensic Scientists 361
13.1 Introduction 361
A. Initial notification 363
B. Response 364
C. The crime scene 366
13.2. Processing a Crime Scene Containing Biological or Chemical Weapons 368
A. Containment of affected areas 368
B. Decontamination facility 369
C. Scene management 369
13.3 The Role of the Forensic Scientist 372
A. Recognition of a biological or chemical attack 374
B. Identification of victims 374
C. Determination of symptoms and exposure: Manner and cause of death 375
D. Examination of physical evidence and classification and identification of agents 375
E. Tracing the chemical or biological fingerprint 377
F. Linking a suspect to the case 377
13.4 Scene Analysis and Reconstruction 378
13.5 Case Example: Oxford Connecticut, Anthrax Incident 380
A. Information management and notification procedures 380
B. Searching the suspected scene 381
C. Investigative efforts 383
Bibliography 384
14. Psychopathy, Media and the Psychology at the Root of Terrorism 385
14.1 Introduction and Definitions 385
14.2 Media as a Modus Operandi 388
14.3 Terrorist Leaders 391
14.4 Terrorist Followers and Soldiers 398
14.5 Ideology 403
Endnotes 414
15. The Biological and Chemical Threat to Aviation and Transportation Security 421
15.1 Introduction 421
15.2 Biological and Chemical Threats 422
15.3 History and Potential 425
15.4 Airports, Ports, Railroad Stations and Mass Transit 429
15.5 Trace Detection Technologies 431
15.6 Training 434
15.7 Combating Bioterrorism 435
15.8 Conclusion 438
Endnotes 440
16. Bioterrorism and the Law: A National Perspective 441
16.1 Introduction 441
16.2 Lack of Preparedness for the Threat of Bioterrorism 442
16.3 The Need for Law Reform 444
16.4 The Model State Public Health Act 448
16.5 The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act 449
16.6 A Defense of the Model Act 452
A. Federalism 453
B. Declaration of a public health emergency 453
C. Governmental abuse of power 454
D. Libertarianism 454
E. Personal safeguards 456
16.7 Rethinking the Public Good 457
Disclaimer and Acknowledgment 458
Endnotes 458
17. The Truth about Bioterrorism 463
17.1 Introduction 463
17.2 The Fiction 464
A. Fiction #1 464
B. Fiction #2 465
17.3 The Threat of Bioterrorism 466
17.4 Issues and Problems in Protecting Against Bioterrorism 468
17.5 Recommendations 470
References 470
About the Editor 475
About the Authors 477
Index 491
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