Formalization of Natural Languages

Sending request ...

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642666674
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 11/12/2011
  • Series: Communication and Cybernetics Series , #15
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1979
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 226
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 0.51 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 1.1 Motivations for Formalizing Natural Languages.- 1.2 Essential Results of Formalizing Natural Languages.- 1.3 Projected Dimensions and Definition of Formalizing Natural Languages.- 1.4 Demarcation Between Natural and Artificial Languages.- 1.5 Limits of Conventional Formalizing Efforts Due to One-Sided References to Languages with Agglutinated Morphologies.- 1.6 New Formalization Approach by Emphasizing the Utilization of Natural Languages with Isolated Morphologies.- 2. Historical Survey on Formalization Efforts of Natural Languages.- 2.1 Conventional Formalizations of Morphology.- 2.2 Conventional Formalizations of Syntax.- 2.3 Conventional Formalizations of Semantics.- 2.4 Formalization Results of Natural Logic.- 2.5 Formalization Results by Basic English.- 2.6 Esperanto, A Formalization Product of Artificial Character.- 2.7 Conventional Information Theory.- 2.8 Corpus Restrictions.- 2.8.1 Corpus Restrictions for Theoretical Purposes.- 2.8.2 Corpus Restrictions for Practical Purposes.- 2.9 Historical Survey of Conventional Efforts to Formalize Natural Languages.- 3. Formalizing Stimuli by Understanding Brain Functions in Living Organisms.- 3.1 Anatomy of Neurons and Organic Memory Structures.- 3.2 Memory Functions of Neuronal Links.- 3.3 Research in Neurolinguistics.- 3.4 Summary.- 4. Analyses of Natural Language Morphology.- 4.1 Permanent Visual Expressions.- 4.1.1 Structure of Graphemes.- 4.1.2 Morphological Characteristics of Graphemes.- 4.1.3 Grapheme Categories.- 4.1.4 Deuter-Graphemes.- 4.1.5 Structure Analyses of Words.- 4.1.6 Structure Analyses of Sentences.- 4.1.7 Differentiated Morphological Agglutinations in Natural Language Carrier Systems.- 4.2 Permanent Visual Expressions with Acute Character.- 4.3 Acute Visual Expressions.- 4.3.1 Manifold Gesture Classifications.- 4.3.2 Lip Kinesthesia.- 4.3.3 Artificialy Intensified Acute Visual Signs.- 4.3.4 Morphological Characteristics of Acute Visual Expressions.- 4.3.5 Gesture Categories.- 4.3.6 Deuter-Gestures.- 4.4 Morphological Identities Between Permanent and Acute Visual Expressions.- 4.5 Phonographical Systems.- 4.5.1 Syllable Alphabets.- 4.5.2 Alphabets with Separated Consonants.- 4.5.3 Expression Repertoires of Shorthand.- 4.5.4 Phonemic Alphabets.- 4.6 Auditive Expressions.- 4.6.1 Acute and Permanent Auditive Expressions.- 4.6.2 Organic Prerequisites to Generate the Human Voice.- 4.6.3 Generative Differences Between Vowels and Consonants.- 4.6.4 Voice Analyses by Sonograms.- 4.6.5 Phonemes and Formants.- 4.7 Possible Expression Units for the Tactile, Olfactoric, and Gustile Perception.- 4.8 Summary.- 5. Synthesis and Formalization of Natural Language Morphology.- 5.1 Formalization of Permanent Visual Expression Morphologies.- 5.1.1 Formalization of Graphemes.- 5.1.2 Standardization of Graphemes to Self-Explanatory Morphologies.- 5.1.3 Formalization of Expression Morphologies Carrying Abstract Content.- 5.1.4 Formalization of Phonographical Morphologies.- 5.1.5 Formalization of Words.- 5.1.6 Formalization of Sentences.- 5.2 Formalization of Acute Visual Expressions.- 5.2.1 Formalization of Gestemes (Gesture Expression Units).- 5.2.2 Standardization of Gestemes to Self-explanatory Structures.- 5.3 Formalization of Acute Auditive Expressions.- 5.4 Morphology Universals of Permanent Visual Expressions.- 5.4.1 Universal Morphologies of Graphemes.- 5.4.2 Universal Morphologies of Words.- 5.4.3 Universal Morphologies of Sentences.- 5.5 Morphology Universals of Acute Expressions.- 5.6 Algorithm of Formalized Morphology (AFM).- 5.7 Summary.- 6. Analyses of Natural Language Syntax.- 6.1 Function Analyses of One Expression Unit.- 6.1.1 A Sign, the Smallest Unit of Natural Language Expression.- 6.1.2 Function of Phonography, Musical Notations, and Sound-Indicating Systems.- 6.1.3 Function of Orthography.- 6.1.4 Function of Logography.- 6.1.5 Function of Ideography.- 6.1.6 Function of Pictography and Delineating Gestures.- 6.1.7 Function of Three-Dimensional Permanent Signs.- 6.2 Function Analyses by the Presyntactical Sign Coordinates.- 6.2.1 Expression Domains.- 6.2.2 Expression Channels.- 6.2.3 Expression Layers.- 6.2.4 Expression Formations.- 6.2.5 Expression Categories.- 6.2.6 Examples of Presyntactical Sign Coordinates.- 6.3 Biao-Ratio, Expression Quotient of Sign Content.- 6.4 Biao-Ratio, A Criterion for the Three Expression Categories.- 6.5 Content Definition of the Meaning Sign.- 6.6 Meaning Words, Syntax Particles, Syntagms.- 6.7 Function Analyses of Syntagms.- 6.7.1 Syntagms in Systems with Agglutinated Morphologies.- 6.7.2 Syntagms in Systems with Isolated Morphologies.- 6.7.3 Syntagms in Air Traffic Control Language.- 6.8 Syntax Universals.- 6.8.1 Universal Syntax Particles.- 6.8.2 Universal Syntax Rules.- 6.8.3 Two Domains of Empty Syntax Particles.- 6.8.4 Frequency Values of Syntax Universals.- 6.9 Summary.- 7. Synthesis and Formalization of Natural Language Syntax.- 7.1 Standardization Tendencies of Coded Expressions Towards a Biao-Ratio 1.- 7.2 Full Biao-Function.- 7.3 Function Formalization of Coded Expressions.- 7.3.1 Function Redundancies of Graphemes in the Roman Alphabet.- 7.3.2 Elimination of Malfunctioning Orthography.- 7.3.3 From Phonography to Phoneme-Writing (Phonemography).- 7.4 Phenomenon of the Chain-Stitch Method.- 7.5 Graded Syntax Universals.- 7.5.1 Progressive Integration of Syntagms.- 7.5.2 Algorithm of Formalized Syntax (AFS).- 7.6 Content-Dependent Context Sensitivity.- 7.7 Summary.- 8. Analyses of Natural Language Content.- 8.1 Newly Born Content Units and Their Classification.- 8.1.1 The Source of New Meanings and its Reference to Content Morphologies.- 8.1.2 Preliminary Examination of Obvious Deficiencies and Truth Values.- 8.1.3 Trustworthiness of Scientific Authors.- 8.1.4 Age-Value Determination of Filed Inventions.- 8.1.5 State-of-the-Art Determination Within a Scientific Field.- 8.1.6 Invention Progress and Invention Level.- 8.1.7 Differentiated Priority Values of Scientific Research Topics.- 8.1.8 Content of the Term Invention.- 8.1.9 Content of the Term Discovery.- 8.2 Classification Systems of Expressions and Their Content.- 8.2.1 Information Classification and its Reference to Content Morphologies.- 8.2.2 Associative Systems to Classify Expression.- 8.2.3 Sound-Related Systems for Expression Classification.- 8.2.4 Classification Systems Related to Expression Volumes.- 8.2.5 Expression Classification by Frequency Values.- 8.2.6 Chronological Systems to Classify Expressions.- 8.3 Analyses of Concreta.- 8.4 Analyses of Abstracta.- 8.5 Summary.- 9. Syntheses and Formalization of Natural Language Content.- 9.1 Vertical Associations of a Deuter.- 9.2 Vectorial Continuity and Vertical Associations in a Componential Inventory.- 9.3 Disposal of One Meaning as a Vertex in a Deuter-Disc.- 9.4 Horizontal Associations of Meanings.- 9.5 The Deuter-Sphere to Represent Vertical and Horizontal Associations of a Content Thesaurus Three Dimensionally.- 9.6 Human-, Individual-, and Partial-Content Thesauri.- 9.7 The Six Subcriteria of One Deuter.- 9.7.1 Identity Value.- 9.7.2 Age Value.- 9.7.3 Association Value.- 9.7.4 Frequency Value.- 9.7.5 Significance Value.- 9.7.6 Truth Value.- 9.8 Definition of One Deuter Representing the Content Unit of Natural Languages.- 9.9 Summary.- 10. Application of Natural Language Formalizations.- 10.1 Associative Functions in the Deuter-Sphere to Simulate Human Thinking.- 10.1.1 Thinking in Isolated Morphologies.- 10.1.2 Thinking in Progressive Agglutinations.- 10.1.3 Algorithm of Formalized Grammar (AFG).- 10.2 Associative Functions in the Deuter-Sphere to Establish Fundamental Definition Patterns of Content.- 10.2.1 Content Definition of a Concrete Noun: Tree.- 10.2.2 Content Definition of an Abstract Noun: Velocity.- 10.2.3 Content Definition of the Abstract Meaning: Word.- 10.2.4 Content Definition of the Abstract Meaning: Sentence.- 10.2.5 A General Pattern to Define the Content of One Meaning.- 10.3 Associative Functions in the Deuter-Sphere to Establish Fundamental Classification Rules of Newly Born Meanings.- 10.3.1 Creation of Natural Meanings by Scientific Research.- 10.3.2 Creation of Artificial Meanings by Inventive Associations.- 10.4 Priority Determination of Research Projects.- 10.5 Fundamental Deuter-Sphere Functions to Conceive Relational Data-Bank Models for Computer Software Concepts.- 10.6 Computer Hardware Realizations of Associative and Analog Memories Based on Deuter-Sphere Functions Including AFG Procedures.- 10.7 Summary.- References.- Author and Subject Index.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star


4 Star


3 Star


2 Star


1 Star


Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation


  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)