Formalization of Natural Languages

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642666674
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Series: Communication and Cybernetics Series , #15
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1979
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 0.51 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 1.1 Motivations for Formalizing Natural Languages.- 1.2 Essential Results of Formalizing Natural Languages.- 1.3 Projected Dimensions and Definition of Formalizing Natural Languages.- 1.4 Demarcation Between Natural and Artificial Languages.- 1.5 Limits of Conventional Formalizing Efforts Due to One-Sided References to Languages with Agglutinated Morphologies.- 1.6 New Formalization Approach by Emphasizing the Utilization of Natural Languages with Isolated Morphologies.- 2. Historical Survey on Formalization Efforts of Natural Languages.- 2.1 Conventional Formalizations of Morphology.- 2.2 Conventional Formalizations of Syntax.- 2.3 Conventional Formalizations of Semantics.- 2.4 Formalization Results of Natural Logic.- 2.5 Formalization Results by Basic English.- 2.6 Esperanto, A Formalization Product of Artificial Character.- 2.7 Conventional Information Theory.- 2.8 Corpus Restrictions.- 2.8.1 Corpus Restrictions for Theoretical Purposes.- 2.8.2 Corpus Restrictions for Practical Purposes.- 2.9 Historical Survey of Conventional Efforts to Formalize Natural Languages.- 3. Formalizing Stimuli by Understanding Brain Functions in Living Organisms.- 3.1 Anatomy of Neurons and Organic Memory Structures.- 3.2 Memory Functions of Neuronal Links.- 3.3 Research in Neurolinguistics.- 3.4 Summary.- 4. Analyses of Natural Language Morphology.- 4.1 Permanent Visual Expressions.- 4.1.1 Structure of Graphemes.- 4.1.2 Morphological Characteristics of Graphemes.- 4.1.3 Grapheme Categories.- 4.1.4 Deuter-Graphemes.- 4.1.5 Structure Analyses of Words.- 4.1.6 Structure Analyses of Sentences.- 4.1.7 Differentiated Morphological Agglutinations in Natural Language Carrier Systems.- 4.2 Permanent Visual Expressions with Acute Character.- 4.3 Acute Visual Expressions.- 4.3.1 Manifold Gesture Classifications.- 4.3.2 Lip Kinesthesia.- 4.3.3 Artificialy Intensified Acute Visual Signs.- 4.3.4 Morphological Characteristics of Acute Visual Expressions.- 4.3.5 Gesture Categories.- 4.3.6 Deuter-Gestures.- 4.4 Morphological Identities Between Permanent and Acute Visual Expressions.- 4.5 Phonographical Systems.- 4.5.1 Syllable Alphabets.- 4.5.2 Alphabets with Separated Consonants.- 4.5.3 Expression Repertoires of Shorthand.- 4.5.4 Phonemic Alphabets.- 4.6 Auditive Expressions.- 4.6.1 Acute and Permanent Auditive Expressions.- 4.6.2 Organic Prerequisites to Generate the Human Voice.- 4.6.3 Generative Differences Between Vowels and Consonants.- 4.6.4 Voice Analyses by Sonograms.- 4.6.5 Phonemes and Formants.- 4.7 Possible Expression Units for the Tactile, Olfactoric, and Gustile Perception.- 4.8 Summary.- 5. Synthesis and Formalization of Natural Language Morphology.- 5.1 Formalization of Permanent Visual Expression Morphologies.- 5.1.1 Formalization of Graphemes.- 5.1.2 Standardization of Graphemes to Self-Explanatory Morphologies.- 5.1.3 Formalization of Expression Morphologies Carrying Abstract Content.- 5.1.4 Formalization of Phonographical Morphologies.- 5.1.5 Formalization of Words.- 5.1.6 Formalization of Sentences.- 5.2 Formalization of Acute Visual Expressions.- 5.2.1 Formalization of Gestemes (Gesture Expression Units).- 5.2.2 Standardization of Gestemes to Self-explanatory Structures.- 5.3 Formalization of Acute Auditive Expressions.- 5.4 Morphology Universals of Permanent Visual Expressions.- 5.4.1 Universal Morphologies of Graphemes.- 5.4.2 Universal Morphologies of Words.- 5.4.3 Universal Morphologies of Sentences.- 5.5 Morphology Universals of Acute Expressions.- 5.6 Algorithm of Formalized Morphology (AFM).- 5.7 Summary.- 6. Analyses of Natural Language Syntax.- 6.1 Function Analyses of One Expression Unit.- 6.1.1 A Sign, the Smallest Unit of Natural Language Expression.- 6.1.2 Function of Phonography, Musical Notations, and Sound-Indicating Systems.- 6.1.3 Function of Orthography.- 6.1.4 Function of Logography.- 6.1.5 Function of Ideography.- 6.1.6 Function of Pictography and Delineating Gestures.- 6.1.7 Function of Three-Dimensional Permanent Signs.- 6.2 Function Analyses by the Presyntactical Sign Coordinates.- 6.2.1 Expression Domains.- 6.2.2 Expression Channels.- 6.2.3 Expression Layers.- 6.2.4 Expression Formations.- 6.2.5 Expression Categories.- 6.2.6 Examples of Presyntactical Sign Coordinates.- 6.3 Biao-Ratio, Expression Quotient of Sign Content.- 6.4 Biao-Ratio, A Criterion for the Three Expression Categories.- 6.5 Content Definition of the Meaning Sign.- 6.6 Meaning Words, Syntax Particles, Syntagms.- 6.7 Function Analyses of Syntagms.- 6.7.1 Syntagms in Systems with Agglutinated Morphologies.- 6.7.2 Syntagms in Systems with Isolated Morphologies.- 6.7.3 Syntagms in Air Traffic Control Language.- 6.8 Syntax Universals.- 6.8.1 Universal Syntax Particles.- 6.8.2 Universal Syntax Rules.- 6.8.3 Two Domains of Empty Syntax Particles.- 6.8.4 Frequency Values of Syntax Universals.- 6.9 Summary.- 7. Synthesis and Formalization of Natural Language Syntax.- 7.1 Standardization Tendencies of Coded Expressions Towards a Biao-Ratio 1.- 7.2 Full Biao-Function.- 7.3 Function Formalization of Coded Expressions.- 7.3.1 Function Redundancies of Graphemes in the Roman Alphabet.- 7.3.2 Elimination of Malfunctioning Orthography.- 7.3.3 From Phonography to Phoneme-Writing (Phonemography).- 7.4 Phenomenon of the Chain-Stitch Method.- 7.5 Graded Syntax Universals.- 7.5.1 Progressive Integration of Syntagms.- 7.5.2 Algorithm of Formalized Syntax (AFS).- 7.6 Content-Dependent Context Sensitivity.- 7.7 Summary.- 8. Analyses of Natural Language Content.- 8.1 Newly Born Content Units and Their Classification.- 8.1.1 The Source of New Meanings and its Reference to Content Morphologies.- 8.1.2 Preliminary Examination of Obvious Deficiencies and Truth Values.- 8.1.3 Trustworthiness of Scientific Authors.- 8.1.4 Age-Value Determination of Filed Inventions.- 8.1.5 State-of-the-Art Determination Within a Scientific Field.- 8.1.6 Invention Progress and Invention Level.- 8.1.7 Differentiated Priority Values of Scientific Research Topics.- 8.1.8 Content of the Term Invention.- 8.1.9 Content of the Term Discovery.- 8.2 Classification Systems of Expressions and Their Content.- 8.2.1 Information Classification and its Reference to Content Morphologies.- 8.2.2 Associative Systems to Classify Expression.- 8.2.3 Sound-Related Systems for Expression Classification.- 8.2.4 Classification Systems Related to Expression Volumes.- 8.2.5 Expression Classification by Frequency Values.- 8.2.6 Chronological Systems to Classify Expressions.- 8.3 Analyses of Concreta.- 8.4 Analyses of Abstracta.- 8.5 Summary.- 9. Syntheses and Formalization of Natural Language Content.- 9.1 Vertical Associations of a Deuter.- 9.2 Vectorial Continuity and Vertical Associations in a Componential Inventory.- 9.3 Disposal of One Meaning as a Vertex in a Deuter-Disc.- 9.4 Horizontal Associations of Meanings.- 9.5 The Deuter-Sphere to Represent Vertical and Horizontal Associations of a Content Thesaurus Three Dimensionally.- 9.6 Human-, Individual-, and Partial-Content Thesauri.- 9.7 The Six Subcriteria of One Deuter.- 9.7.1 Identity Value.- 9.7.2 Age Value.- 9.7.3 Association Value.- 9.7.4 Frequency Value.- 9.7.5 Significance Value.- 9.7.6 Truth Value.- 9.8 Definition of One Deuter Representing the Content Unit of Natural Languages.- 9.9 Summary.- 10. Application of Natural Language Formalizations.- 10.1 Associative Functions in the Deuter-Sphere to Simulate Human Thinking.- 10.1.1 Thinking in Isolated Morphologies.- 10.1.2 Thinking in Progressive Agglutinations.- 10.1.3 Algorithm of Formalized Grammar (AFG).- 10.2 Associative Functions in the Deuter-Sphere to Establish Fundamental Definition Patterns of Content.- 10.2.1 Content Definition of a Concrete Noun: Tree.- 10.2.2 Content Definition of an Abstract Noun: Velocity.- 10.2.3 Content Definition of the Abstract Meaning: Word.- 10.2.4 Content Definition of the Abstract Meaning: Sentence.- 10.2.5 A General Pattern to Define the Content of One Meaning.- 10.3 Associative Functions in the Deuter-Sphere to Establish Fundamental Classification Rules of Newly Born Meanings.- 10.3.1 Creation of Natural Meanings by Scientific Research.- 10.3.2 Creation of Artificial Meanings by Inventive Associations.- 10.4 Priority Determination of Research Projects.- 10.5 Fundamental Deuter-Sphere Functions to Conceive Relational Data-Bank Models for Computer Software Concepts.- 10.6 Computer Hardware Realizations of Associative and Analog Memories Based on Deuter-Sphere Functions Including AFG Procedures.- 10.7 Summary.- References.- Author and Subject Index.

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