Forming Winning Strategies: An Integrated Theory of Habitual Domains

Overview

Sooner or later, people develop a fairly stable set of ways for thinking, judging and responding; this is called one's habitual domain. Our habitual domains (HDs) grow and go wherever we go and have great impact on our behavior and decision making. When we are vital and growing our HDs are expanding and flexible; and when we find ourselves in ruts, not growing, it is because our HDs have become rigid and inflexible, as in death. This book discusses all aspects of habitual domains: their foundations, expansion, ...

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Overview

Sooner or later, people develop a fairly stable set of ways for thinking, judging and responding; this is called one's habitual domain. Our habitual domains (HDs) grow and go wherever we go and have great impact on our behavior and decision making. When we are vital and growing our HDs are expanding and flexible; and when we find ourselves in ruts, not growing, it is because our HDs have become rigid and inflexible, as in death. This book discusses all aspects of habitual domains: their foundations, expansion, dynamics and applications to various nontrivial decision problems in our lives, including effective decision making, effective goal setting, cooperation, conflict resolution, negotiation and career management. Based on an integration of psychology, system science, management and common sense and wisdom, the book provides a simple but unified set of tools in terms of habitual domains and the behavior mechanism. The tools can be applied to expand and sharpen our capacity for knowing ourselves, our coworkers, our rivals, and our environments, and to form winning strategies for solving our problems. To make the book fun to read and the concepts introduced easy to understand and apply, the book is written in plain language with many lively and interesting examples as illustrations. The first half of the book focuses on general descriptions of the behavior mechanism and habitual domains, the second half on applications.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642647802
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 392
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.86 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 1.1 Main Objectives.- 1.2 Main Features.- 1.3 Suggestions for the Best Use of this Book.- 2. Behavior Mechanism Part 1: Brain, Memory and Thoughts.- 2.1 Overview.- 2.1.1 Bases for Interpreting Events.- 2.1.2 Unfavorable Discrepancies.- 2.1.3 Attention Allocation.- 2.1.4 The Least Resistance Principle.- 2.1.5 External Information.- 2.1.6 A Sketch of the Behavior Mechanism.- 2.2 Circuit Pattern Hypothesis (H1).- 2.3 Unlimited Capacity Hypothesis (H2).- 2.4 Efficient Restructuring Hypothesis (H3).- 2.5 Analogy/Association Hypothesis (H4).- 2.6 Further Reading.- 3. Behavior Mechanism Part 2: Charges, Attention, and Actions.- 3.1 Goal Setting and State Evaluation.- 3.1.1 Goals.- 3.1.2 Goal Setting and State Evaluation.- 3.1.3 Goal Setting and State. Evaluation Hypothesis (H5).- 3.2. Charge Structures and Attention Allocation.- 3.2.1 Charge Structures.- 3.2.2 Attention Allocation.- 3.2.3 Charge Structures and Attention Allocation Hypothesis (H6).- 3.3 Discharge Hypothesis (H7).- 3.4 Information Input Hypothesis (H8).- 3.5 Summary and Conclusion.- 3.5.1 A Summary of Eight Hypotheses.- 3.5.2 Some Paradoxical Observations.- 3.6 (Appendix) The Ordering of Charge Structures.- 3.7 Further Reading.- 4. Common Behavior Tendencies and Applications.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Social Comparison Theory.- 4.2.1 Introductory Examples.- 4.2.2 Main Concept.- 4.2.3 Applications.- 4.3 Halo Effect.- 4.3.1 Main Concept.- 4.3.2 Applications.- 4.4 Self-Projection Effect.- 4.4.1 Main Concept.- 4.4.2 Applications.- 4.5 Proximity Theory.- 4.5.1 Main Concept.- 4.5.2 Applications.- 4.6 Reciprocation Behavior.- 4.6.1 Main Concept.- 4.6.2 Applications.- 4.7 Similarity Effects.- 4.7.1 Main Concept.- 4.7.2 Applications.- 4.8 Scapegoating Behavior.- 4.8.1 Main Concept.- 4.8.2 Applications.- 4.9 Responsibility Diffusion in Group Behavior.- 4.9.1 Main Concept.- 4.9.2 Applications.- 4.10 Further Reading.- 5. Habitual Domains: Formation and Properties.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Formation of Habitual Domains.- 5.3 Decomposition of Habitual Domains.- 5.3.1 Classification of Habitual Domains.- 5.3.2 Elements of Habitual Domains.- 5.4 Paradoxical Properties of Habitual Domains.- 5.4.1 Simplicity vs. Complexity.- 5.4.2 Stability vs. Dynamics.- 5.4.3 Consistency vs. Contrariness.- 5.4.4 Absorption vs. Rejection of External Information.- 5.5 Degree of Habitual Domain Expansion.- 5.5.1 Zero Degree Expansion.- 5.5.2 First Degree Expansion.- 5.5.3 Second Degree Expansion.- 5.6 Further Reading.- 6. Habitual Domains: Expansion and Interactions.- 6.1 Methods for Expansion of Habitual Domains.- 6.1.1 Active Learning.- 6.1.2 Projecting from a Higher Position.- 6.1.3 Self Awareness.- 6.1.4 Active Association.- 6.1.5 Changing the Relevant Parameters.- 6.1.6 Retreating.- 6.1.7 Changing the Environment.- 6.1.8 Brain Storming.- 6.2 Ideas That Catch Our Attention.- 6.2.1 Ideas that Could Change Charge Structure.- 6.2.2 Ideas that Could Trigger Echoing in Memory.- 6.2.3 Ideas that Arrive at the Right Time.- 6.2.4 Right Ways of Presenting.- 6.2.5 Credibility of the Ideas.- 6.3 Ideas that are Hard to Catch Our Attention.- 6.3.1 Ideas that Have No Effect on Charge Structures.- 6.3.2 Ideas that are Contrary to Our Beliefs.- 6.3.3 Ideas that Arrive at the Wrong Time.- 6.3.4 Wrong Ways of Presenting.- 6.3.5 Low Credibility.- 6.4 Proper Attitudes in the Interaction of Habitual Domains.- 6.4.1 Cultivate the State for Attracting Good Ideas.- 6.4.2 Judge and Absorb Right Ideas.- 6.4.3 Offer Ideas and Operators Effectively.- 6.5 Expansion and Learning Process.- 6.6 Summary of Habitual Domain Concepts.- 6.7 Further Reading.- 7. Understanding Decision Making.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Nontrivial Decision Examples.- 7.3 Decision Elements.- 7.3.1 Decision Alternatives.- 7.3.2 Decision Criteria.- 7.3.3 Decision Outcomes.- 7.3.4 Preference.- 7.3.5 Information Inputs.- 7.4 Decision Environments.- 7.4.1 A Part of the Behavior Mechanism.- 7.4.2 Stages of Decision Processes.- 7.4.3 Players in the Decision Processes.- 7.4.4 Unknowns in Decision Processes.- 7.5 Further Reading.- 8. Effective Decision Making.- 8.1 Decision Cycles.- 8.2 Cores of Habitual Domains.- 8.3 Learning Processes.- 8.3.1 Implanting.- 8.3.2 Nurturing.- 8.3.3 Habituating.- 8.4 Competence Sets and Classes of Decision Problems.- 8.4.1 Routine Problems.- 8.4.2 Mixed Routine Problems.- 8.4.3 Fuzzy Problems.- 8.4.4 Challenging Problems.- 8.5 Confidence, Risk Taking and Ignorance.- 8.6 Effective Decision Making.- 8.7 Decision Assistance.- 8.8 (Appendix) Decision Situation and Competence Sets.- 8.9 Further Reading.- 9. Effective Goal Setting and Performance.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Performance Factors.- 9.3 A General Principle of Effective Goal Setting.- 9.4 Control Variables in Goal Setting.- 9.4.1 Selection of Goals.- 9.4.2 Goal Levels.- 9.5 Control Variables in Support Systems.- 9.5.1 Working Environment Controls.- 9.5.2 Training, Assistance and Supervision.- 9.5.3 Result, Monitoring and Feedback.- 9.5.4 Reward Systems.- 9.6 Decomposition Principle.- 9.7 Implementation.- 9.7.1 Planning and Calculating.- 9.7.2 Training and Execution.- 9.7.3 Maintaining and Renewing.- 9.8 Some Empirically Known Results.- 9.8.1 Goal Acceptance.- 9.8.2 Goal Difficulty.- 9.8.3 Goal Specificity.- 9.8.4 Knowledge of Results.- 9.8.5 Rewards.- 9.8.6 Participative vs. Assigned Goals.- 9.8.7 Support Systems.- 9.8.8 Ability.- 9.8.9 Effective Time.- 9.9 Further Reading.- 10. Knowing Habitual Domains.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Personal Habitual Domains-An Introduction.- 10.3 Habitual Domains on Behavior Functions.- 10.3.1 Memory.- 10.3.2 Knowledge and Skill Sets.- 10.3.3 Physiological Condition.- 10.3.4 Goal Setting.- 10.3.5 State Evaluation.- 10.3.6 Charge Structures.- 10.3.7 Attention Allocation.- 10.3.8 Information Interaction with the External World.- 10.4 Habitual Domains on Events.- 10.5 Habitual Domains on External Interactions.- 10.5.1 Identification Spheres.- 10.5.2 Role Maps.- 10.5.3 Attitude Toward the External World.- 10.6 General Application Procedures.- 10.7 Organization Habitual Domains.- 10.8 Nine Principles for Deep Knowledge.- 10.9 Further Reading.- 11. Understanding Games, Cooperation and Conflicts.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Cooperation and Conflict in Simplicity.- 11.2.1 Harmony in Self-interest and Group-Interest.- 11.2.2 Inconsistence of Self-interest and Group-Interest.- 11.2.3 Preemptive Moves in Interactions.- 11.2.4 Dynamic Games.- 11.3 Complex World of Conflicts and Cooperation.- 11.3.1 Living Domains and Awareness of Engagements.- 11.3.2 Forms of Engagements.- 11.3.3 The Rules.- 11.3.4 The Players.- 11.4 Further Reading.- 12. Restructuring Games and Forming Winning Strategies.- 12.1 Restructuring Interplays-Second Order Games.- 12.1.1 Players’ Charge Structures are the Driving Forces.- 12.1.2 Procedures for Effective Restructuring.- 12.1.3 Reframing Game Situations by Decision Elements.- 12.2 Observations from the Behavior Mechanism.- 12.2.1 Charge Structures Drive Interactions.- 12.2.2 Perceptions Generate Charges and Actions.- 12.2.3 Least Resistance Principle for Discharge.- 12.2.4 Players’ Own Domains are the Main Concern.- 12.3 Conflict Maps for Conflict Assessment.- 12.3.1 Perspective Maps.- 12.3.2 Situation Maps.- 12.3.3 HD Maps of the Players.- 12.4 Forming Winning Strategies and Applications.- 12.4.1 Forming Winning Strategies.- 12.4.2 Making People Like Us.- 12.4.3 Making Suggestions Effectively.- 12.4.4 Bargaining and Negotiation.- 12.4.5 Direct Conflict and War.- 12.5 Further Reading.- 13. Career Management.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Career Evolutions and Stages.- 13.2.1 A Basic Form of Career Evolution.- 13.2.2 Renewal and Complex Forms of Career Evolution.- 13.3 Taking Charge of Career Stages.- 13.3.1 Forming an Ideal Career Path.- 13.3.2 Obtaining a Good Job.- 13.3.3 Performance and Advancement.- 13.3.4 Coping with Problems in Various Career Stages.- 13.3.5 Business Success Rules of Conarroe.- 13.4 A Case Study.- 13.5 Further Reading.- 14. Ideal Habitual Domains.

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