Fossil Fuels, Oil Companies, and Indigenous Peoples: Strategies of Multinational Oil Companies, States and Ethnic Minorities. Impact on Environment,


This book is a study of oil production that focuses on the places from which oil is extracted, and on the problems, both environmental and human, created in those places. It consists of eight case-studies, all of them attempting to answer these questions: What can indigenous people do when faced with the destruction of their natural and social habitats? And how do oil companies respond to the various forms of local and indigenous resistance to their activities? The case studies deal with oil-producing regions in ...

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This book is a study of oil production that focuses on the places from which oil is extracted, and on the problems, both environmental and human, created in those places. It consists of eight case-studies, all of them attempting to answer these questions: What can indigenous people do when faced with the destruction of their natural and social habitats? And how do oil companies respond to the various forms of local and indigenous resistance to their activities? The case studies deal with oil-producing regions in Alaska, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea and West Siberia and encompass 18 indigenous population groups.

Tobias Haller is a researcher at the Institute of Anthropology at the University of Zurich (Switzerland). Annja Bloechlinger, Markus John, Esther Marthaler and Sabine Ziegler are members of INFOE (Switzerland).

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements     V
Preface to the Original edition     VII
Preface to the English edition     XII
Introduction     13
Who are the Indigenous Peoples?     13
The Relation of Indigenous Peoples to Land     14
Indigenous Peoples, Cultural Diversity, and Biodiversity     15
Indigenous Peoples and Resource Management     16
Indigenous Peoples, Forest Conservation and Climate Protection     16
Social Systems and Political Organisation of Indigenous Peoples     16
The Present Situation and the Demands of Indigenous Peoples     17
An Excursus on Indigenousness in Africa     18
Literature     20
The Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Exploitation     23
The Impact on Ecosystems     23
Ecosystem Differences and the Varied Impact of Damage Caused by Oil     25
Damage During the Seismic Phase     27
Damage During the Drilling of Test Wells and the Production Phase     28
Abandoned Drilling Sites     30
Literature     32
Impact on Human Health     32
Impact on Organisms     33
Available Data     35
Consequences for the Oil Companies     36
Conclusion     36
Literature     37
Case Studies     39
Nigeria     41
Introduction     41
History and Current Context     42
Indigenous Peoples: The Ogoni     49
The Ecosystem: The Niger Delta     57
Traditional Resource Use     60
National Economy     62
Oil Exploitation     65
Environmental and Social Impact     69
Strategies of the Indigenous     76
Strategies of the Oil Companies and the State     86
Conclusion     94
Update     96
Literature     99
Papua New Guinea     103
Introduction     103
History and Current Context     104
Indigenous Peoples: The Foe and Fasu     108
Ecosystem: Lake Kutubu     112
Traditional Resource Use     114
National Economy     117
Oil Production     119
Environmental and Social Impact     121
Reactions and the Strategies of the Indigenous     126
Strategies of the State and Oil Companies     130
Conclusion     133
Update      135
Literature     136
West Siberia     139
Introduction     139
History and Current Context     139
Indigenous Groups: Khanty, Mansi and Nenets     145
Ecosystem: Taiga and Tundra of West Siberia     149
Traditional Resource Use     152
National Economy     156
Oil Exploitation     158
Environmental and Social Impact     164
Strategies of the Indigenous     168
Strategies of the State and the Oil Companies     178
Conclusion     184
Update     186
Literature     188
Alaska     191
Introduction     191
History and Current Context     192
Indigenous Peoples: The Inupiat     194
Ecosystem: The North Slope Borough     196
Traditional Resource Use     199
National Economy     208
Oil Exploitation     208
Environmental and Social Impact     213
Indigenous Strategies     222
Strategies of the Oil Companies and the State     225
Conclusion     228
Update     229
Literature     233
Venezuela      235
Introduction     235
History and Current Context     235
Indigenous Peoples: The Bari and Yukpa     245
Ecosystem: The Sierra de Perija     249
Traditional Resource Use     252
National Economy     255
Oil Exploitation     259
Environmental and Social Impact     263
Strategies of the Indigenous Peoples     266
Strategies of the State and the Oil Companies     271
Conclusion     277
Update     277
Literature     280
Ecuador     283
Introduction     283
History and Current Context     283
The Indigenous Groups of the Oriente (Quichua, Waorani, Achuar, Shuar, Shiwiar, Siona, Secoya, Cofan)     287
Ecosystem of the Oriente     300
Traditional Resource Use     303
National Economy     309
Oil Production     312
Environmental and Social Impact     316
Reactions and Strategies of the Indigenous and the NGOs     328
Strategies of the Oil Companies and the State     350
Conclusion     362
Update     366
Literature     367
Peru      369
Introduction     369
History and Current Context     371
Indigenous Groups in Madre de Dios (Harakmbut, Arawak, Pano, Tacana)     375
Ecosystem of Madre de Dios     380
Traditional Resource Use     382
National Economy     386
Oil Production and Seismic Exploration     388
Environmental and Social Impact     392
Strategies of the Indigenous and the NGOs     395
Strategies of the Oil Companies and the State     402
Conclusion     408
Literature     410
Colombia     413
Introduction     413
History and Current Context     413
Indigenous Peoples: The U'wa     417
Ecosystem: The North-Eastern Cordilleras     421
Traditional Resource Use     423
National Economy     426
Oil Exploitation     427
Environmental and Social Impact     435
Strategies of the Indigenous     438
Strategies of the Oil Companiesand of the State     442
Conclusion     448
Update     451
Literature     453
International Framework and Institutions     455
World Trade and Oil: Debt, Inequalities and Prospects for the Future     457
Introduction     457
Inequalities in Consumption and Production     460
Oil Producing Countries     462
The Future of the Oil Market     463
Bibliography     468
Oil and the World Trade Organisation (WTO)     469
Introduction     469
The WTO's Rules     470
The WTO and Oil     474
Conformity with Environmental and Social Standards     475
Trade Barriers Concerning the Environmental and Human Rights Issues     477
The WTO and NGOs     478
Options for Action on the Level of the WTO     479
Options for Action on the National and International Levels     481
Summary     481
Bibliography     483
The Role of the World Bank in Oil Projects     484
Introduction     484
The World Bank - the Institution     485
The World Bank's General Position on Development     486
Energy Politics and Loans for the Oil Industry     487
The World Bank's Strategies     488
Influence on the Conduct of Governments     488
Environmental Standards     489
The World Bank's Position on Indigenous Peoples     492
Oil Projects Financed by the World Bank in Indigenous Areas     493
The Development of the North Priobskoye Oil Field in West Siberia     493
Oil Production in the Doba Basin (Chad) and the Pipeline through Cameroon     495
Observance of the World Bank Guidelines     502
Conclusion     503
Literature     504
The Strategies of the Oil Companies     507
The Strategies of the Oil Companies     509
The Oil Companies: Introduction and General Overview     509
The Origin of the Multinational Corporations and their Position in the Global Economy     509
Organisational Structure and Central Aspects of Multinational Companies     510
Oil Companies and the OPEC     511
Digression: Cost Issues for Oil Companies     512
The Oil Companies' Structure and the Image they Present     513
Corporate Structures     513
Company Objectives and Philosophies     517
Political and Geo-historical Conditions     519
The Colonial Legacy and the New States     520
Transnational Corporations and State Structures     520
State-defined Structural Conditions Relevant to the Companies     521
The Strategies of the Companies at the Local Level     527
Nigeria / Ogoni and Various other Groups in the Niger Delta, River State     528
Papua New Guinea / Foi and Fasu     529
Russia (West Siberia) (Khanty, Mansi, Nenets)     529
Alaska / Inupiat     530
Venezuela / Bari and Yukpa     531
Ecuador / Various Ethnic Groups in the Oriente     531
Peru / Various Ethnic Groups in Madre de Dios and Camisea     535
Colombia / U'wa     536
Conclusion from the Comparison and Commentary on the Tables     536
Literature     542
Indigenous Peoples' Strategies     543
Indigenous Peoples' Strategies     545
Introduction     545
Mobilisation and Resistance of the Affected Population     546
Initial Hypothesis     546
Ecosystem Aspects     550
Endogenous Factors     553
Civil Society: Media, the Public and International Organisations     561
Testing the Initial Hypothesis     564
The Problem of Collective Action     567
Introduction     567
The Problem of Collective Action     567
Successful Collective Action against Oil Companies by Indigenous Peoples     573
Summary      576
Literature     577
Conclusion     579
Conclusion and Outlook     581
Hypotheses on Successful Indigenous Strategies     583
General Conditions for Success     584
Conditions for Successful Indigenous Organisations     584
Instruments and Strategies     585
Measures Taken and Strategies Employed So Far     586
Possible Future Strategies     588
Literature     591
Oilwatch - A Network of the South that Monitors Oil Production     593
Project Underground     596
Glossary     597
Index     604
Addresses of important NGOs working on issues related to oil     609
Infoe Publications
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