Foundational Issues in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science: Impasse and Solution

Foundational Issues in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science: Impasse and Solution

by M.H. Bickhard, L. Terveen
     
 

ISBN-10: 0444820485

ISBN-13: 9780444820488

Pub. Date: 03/07/1995

Publisher: Elsevier Science

The book focuses on a conceptual flaw in contemporary artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Many people have discovered diverse manifestations and facets of this flaw, but the central conceptual impasse is at best only partially perceived. Its consequences, nevertheless, visit themselves as distortions and failures of multiple research projects - and make

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Overview

The book focuses on a conceptual flaw in contemporary artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Many people have discovered diverse manifestations and facets of this flaw, but the central conceptual impasse is at best only partially perceived. Its consequences, nevertheless, visit themselves as distortions and failures of multiple research projects - and make impossible the ultimate aspirations of the fields.

The impasse concerns a presupposition concerning the nature of representation - that all representation has the nature of encodings: encodingism. Encodings certainly exist, but encodingism is at root logically incoherent; any programmatic research predicted on it is doomed too distortion and ultimate failure.

The impasse and its consequences - and steps away from that impasse - are explored in a large number of projects and approaches. These include SOAR, CYC, PDP, situated cognition, subsumption architecture robotics, and the frame problems - a general survey of the current research in AI and Cognitive Science emerges.

Interactivism, an alternative model of representation, is proposed and examined.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780444820488
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
03/07/1995
Series:
Advances in Psychology Series, #109
Pages:
400
Product dimensions:
0.94(w) x 6.14(h) x 9.21(d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction1
1Programmatic Arguments7
Critiques and Qualifications8
Diagnoses and Solutions8
In-Principle Arguments9
2The Problem of Representation11
Encodingism11
3Consequences of Encodingism19
Logical Consequences19
4Responses to the Problems of Encodings25
False Solutions25
Seductions31
5Current Criticisms of AI and Cognitive Science35
An Aporia35
Encounters with the Issues36
6General Consequences of the Encodingism Impasse47
Representation47
Learning47
The Mental51
Why Encodingism?51
7The Interactive Model55
Basic Epistemology56
Evolutionary Foundations65
Some Cognitive Phenomena66
8Implications for Foundational Mathematics75
Tarski75
Turing80
9Representation: Issues within Encodingism89
Explicit Encodingism in Theory and Practice90
Proliferation of Basic Encodings106
Truth-Valued Versus Non-Truth-Valued118
Procedural Semantics120
Situated Automata Theory123
Non-Cognitive Functional Analysis126
Brian Smith130
Adrian Cussins134
Internal Troubles136
10Representation: Issues about Encodingism145
Some Explorations of the Literature145
A Diagnosis of the Frame Problems214
11Language235
Interactivist View of Communication237
Themes Emerging from AI Research in Language239
12Learning261
Restriction to a Combinatoric Space of Encodings261
Learning Forces Interactivism262
Computational Learning Theory273
Induction274
Genetic AI275
13Connectionism283
Overview283
Strengths286
Weaknesses289
Encodingism292
Critiquing Connectionism and AI Language Approaches296
14Interactivism and Connectionism301
Interactivism as an Integrating Perspective301
Some Interactivist Extensions of Architecture304
15Foundations of an Interactivist Architecture309
The Central Nervous System310
Properties and Potentialities317
16Transcending the Impasse327
Failures of Encodingism327
Interactivism329
Solutions and Resources330
Transcending the Impasse331
References333
Index367

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