Foundational Issues in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science: Impasse and Solution

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The book focuses on a conceptual flaw in contemporary artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Many people have discovered diverse manifestations and facets of this flaw, but the central conceptual impasse is at best only partially perceived. Its consequences, nevertheless, visit themselves as distortions and failures of multiple research projects - and make impossible the ultimate aspirations of the fields.

The impasse concerns a presupposition concerning the nature of representation - that all representation has the nature of encodings: encodingism. Encodings certainly exist, but encodingism is at root logically incoherent; any programmatic research predicted on it is doomed too distortion and ultimate failure.

The impasse and its consequences - and steps away from that impasse - are explored in a large number of projects and approaches. These include SOAR, CYC, PDP, situated cognition, subsumption architecture robotics, and the frame problems - a general survey of the current research in AI and Cognitive Science emerges.

Interactivism, an alternative model of representation, is proposed and examined.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780444820488
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 3/7/1995
  • Series: Advances in Psychology Series, #109
  • Pages: 400
  • Product dimensions: 0.94 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 9.21 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction 1
1 Programmatic Arguments 7
Critiques and Qualifications 8
Diagnoses and Solutions 8
In-Principle Arguments 9
2 The Problem of Representation 11
Encodingism 11
3 Consequences of Encodingism 19
Logical Consequences 19
4 Responses to the Problems of Encodings 25
False Solutions 25
Seductions 31
5 Current Criticisms of AI and Cognitive Science 35
An Aporia 35
Encounters with the Issues 36
6 General Consequences of the Encodingism Impasse 47
Representation 47
Learning 47
The Mental 51
Why Encodingism? 51
7 The Interactive Model 55
Basic Epistemology 56
Evolutionary Foundations 65
Some Cognitive Phenomena 66
8 Implications for Foundational Mathematics 75
Tarski 75
Turing 80
9 Representation: Issues within Encodingism 89
Explicit Encodingism in Theory and Practice 90
Proliferation of Basic Encodings 106
Truth-Valued Versus Non-Truth-Valued 118
Procedural Semantics 120
Situated Automata Theory 123
Non-Cognitive Functional Analysis 126
Brian Smith 130
Adrian Cussins 134
Internal Troubles 136
10 Representation: Issues about Encodingism 145
Some Explorations of the Literature 145
A Diagnosis of the Frame Problems 214
11 Language 235
Interactivist View of Communication 237
Themes Emerging from AI Research in Language 239
12 Learning 261
Restriction to a Combinatoric Space of Encodings 261
Learning Forces Interactivism 262
Computational Learning Theory 273
Induction 274
Genetic AI 275
13 Connectionism 283
Overview 283
Strengths 286
Weaknesses 289
Encodingism 292
Critiquing Connectionism and AI Language Approaches 296
14 Interactivism and Connectionism 301
Interactivism as an Integrating Perspective 301
Some Interactivist Extensions of Architecture 304
15 Foundations of an Interactivist Architecture 309
The Central Nervous System 310
Properties and Potentialities 317
16 Transcending the Impasse 327
Failures of Encodingism 327
Interactivism 329
Solutions and Resources 330
Transcending the Impasse 331
References 333
Index 367
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