Foundations of Clinical Research: Applications to Practice / Edition 1

Foundations of Clinical Research: Applications to Practice / Edition 1

by Leslie Gross Portney, Mary P. Watkins

ISBN-10: 0838510655

ISBN-13: 9780838510650

Pub. Date: 02/28/1993

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

This book serves as a comprehensive reference for a variety of research situations. This edition reflects the popular approaches to analysis and design, and addresses the focus of health-care related research through the 1990s and into the 21st century. Expanded or added topics include outcomes research and the disablement model, validity and diagnostic screening,


This book serves as a comprehensive reference for a variety of research situations. This edition reflects the popular approaches to analysis and design, and addresses the focus of health-care related research through the 1990s and into the 21st century. Expanded or added topics include outcomes research and the disablement model, validity and diagnostic screening, meta-analysis, scales used in survey and outcomes research, logistic regression, measures of reliability, and data management to prepare for computer analysis. For those in the health professions, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, nursing, and exercise physiology.

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Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.35(w) x 9.60(h) x 1.61(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Part IFoundations of Clinical Research1
Chapter 1A Concept of Research3
A Definition of Clinical Research3
Contemporary Perspectives4
Sources of Knowledge7
Types of Research12
The Research Process15
Understanding Method, Content, and Philosophy17
Commentary: Research and Clinical Problem Solving18
Chapter 2The Role of Theory in Clinical Research21
Purposes of Theories22
Components of Theories23
Types of Theories25
Characteristics of Theories26
Theory and Research27
Theory and Law29
Commentary: Applying Theory29
Chapter 3Ethical Issues in Clinical Research33
Integrity of the Researcher33
Protection of Human Rights in Clinical Research34
Institutional Review Board39
Elements of Informed Consent40
Commentary: A Patient Care Perspective45
Part IIConcepts of Measurement47
Chapter 4Principles of Measurement49
Quantification and Measurement50
The Indirect Nature of Measurement50
Rules of Measurement52
Commentary: When Is an Ordinal Measure Not an Ordinal Measure?57
Chapter 5Reliability61
Measurement Error61
Reliability Coefficients64
Types of Reliability66
Pilot Testing75
Commentary: What Is the True Score?75
Chapter 6Validity of Measurements79
Validity and Reliability79
Validity of Inferences80
Face Validity82
Content Validity83
Criterion-Related Validity84
Construct Validity87
Evaluating Diagnostic Procedures92
Measuring Change101
Criterion Referencing and Norm Referencing105
Commentary: The Ongoing Pursuit of Validity107
Part IIIDesign111
Chapter 7The Research Question113
Selecting a Topic114
The Research Problem115
Importance and Feasibility of the Research Question117
Target Population119
The Research Rationale119
Research Objectives123
Reviewing the Literature127
Pilot Testing133
Commentary: Putting the Horse before the Cart133
Chapter 8Sampling137
Populations and Samples137
Sampling Techniques140
Probability Sampling141
Nonprobability Sampling146
Commentary: Sampling, Like Life, is a Compromise150
Chapter 9Experimental Control153
Characteristics of Experiments154
The Research Protocol157
Design Strategies for Controlling Intersubject Differences159
Threats to Validity163
Commentary: The Realities of Clinical Research173
Chapter 10Experimental Design177
Selecting a Design178
Design Notation179
True Experimental Designs179
Repeated Measures Designs187
Quasi-Experimental Designs193
Commentary: The Design Should Fit the Question199
Chapter 11Sequential Clinical Trials203
The Design of a Sequential Trial204
Measuring Preferences205
Sequential Plans for Evaluating Preferences206
Limitations of Sequential Designs215
Commentary: Try It, You'll Like It217
Chapter 12Single-Subject Designs223
Structure of Single-Subject Designs224
Target Behavior227
Experimental Control: Limitations of the A-B Design234
Withdrawal Designs235
Multiple-Treatment Designs238
Multiple-Baseline Designs243
Changing Criterion Design246
Data Analysis in Single-Subject Research249
Generalization of Findings258
Commentary: It's a Start261
Chapter 13Descriptive and Exploratory Research265
Retrospective and Prospective Research266
Descriptive Research267
Exploratory Research277
Commentary: First Things First281
Chapter 14Surveys285
Interviews and Questionnaires286
Design of Surveys287
Constructing Survey Questions293
Delphi Survey310
Analysis of Survey Data311
Informed Consent312
Commentary: They Have a Thousand and One Uses312
Chapter 15Epidemiology317
Descriptive Epidemiology319
Analytic Designs: Observational Studies324
Analytic Designs: Clinical Trials330
Measures of Association332
Evaluating Causality in Observational Studies341
Commentary: A New View of Outcomes341
Chapter 16Other Research Approaches345
Evaluation Research346
Methodological Research351
Secondary Analysis353
Historical Research358
Commentary: Moving Forward360
Part IVAnalysis365
Chapter 17Descriptive Statistics and Measures of Variability367
Frequency Distributions367
Measures of Central Tendency372
Measures of Variability374
The Normal Distribution381
Commentary: Description Only Goes So Far385
Chapter 18Statistical Inference387
Sampling Error389
Confidence Intervals392
Hypothesis Testing397
Errors in Hypothesis Testing399
Type I Error: Level of Significance400
Type II Error: Statistical Power402
Concepts of Statistical Testing404
Parametric versus Nonparametric Statistics409
Commentary: Statistical versus Clinical Significance410
Chapter 19The t-Test413
The Conceptual Basis for Comparing Group Means413
The t-Test for Independent Samples416
The t-Test for Paired Samples422
Inappropriate Use of Multiple t-Tests423
Use of Confidence Intervals to Test Differences between Means425
Commentary: The Significance of Significance426
Chapter 20Analysis of Variance427
Analysis of Variance for Independent Samples: One-Way Classification427
Analysis of Variance: Two-Way Classification432
Analysis of Variance: Three-Way Classification441
Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance442
Commentary: Beyond Analysis of Variance450
Chapter 21Multiple Comparison Tests453
Type I Error Rate: Per Comparison versus Family454
Statistical Ratios for Multiple Comparison Tests455
Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference456
Newman-Keuls Method457
Scheffe's Comparison460
Bonferroni t-Test461
Simple and Complex Contrasts462
Presentation of Results of Multiple Comparisons463
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Factorial Designs463
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Repeated Measures466
Trend Analysis467
Commentary: Choices, Choices, Choices471
Chapter 22Nonparametric Tests for Group Comparisons473
Criteria for Choosing Nonparametric Tests473
Procedure for Ranking Scores475
Test for Two Independent Samples: Mann-Whitney U-Test475
Test for More than Two Independent Samples: Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks478
Tests for Two Correlated Samples: Sign Test and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test482
Test for More than Two Correlated Samples: Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks486
Commentary: Decisions, Decisions, Decisions489
Chapter 23Correlation491
Scatter Plots492
Correlation Coefficients493
Linear versus Curvilinear Relationships493
Criteria for Evaluating Correlation Coefficients494
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient496
Correlation of Ranks: Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient497
Correlation of Dichotomies500
Interpreting Correlation Coefficients505
Commentary: The Stork Was Busy507
Chapter 24Regression509
Linear Regression509
Assumptions for Regression Analysis515
Accuracy of Prediction519
Analysis of Variance of Regression521
Restrictions on the Interpretation of Linear Regression Analysis523
Nonlinear Regression523
Analysis of Covariance527
Commentary: It's Not That Simple534
Chapter 25Analysis of Frequencies: Chi-square537
The Chi-square Statistic538
Goodness of Fit539
Interpreting Significant Effects: Standardized Residuals543
Tests of Independence544
McNemar Test for Correlated Samples551
Coefficients of Association552
Commentary: Uses of Chi-square554
Chapter 26Statistical Measures of Reliability557
Reliability Theory and Measurement Error557
Intraclass Correlation Coefficient560
Internal Consistency: Cronbach's Alpha575
Response Stability577
Alternate Forms: Limits of Agreement581
Commentary: Know Your Reliability Coefficient584
Chapter 27Multivariate Analysis587
Partial Correlation587
Multiple Regression589
Logistic Regression597
Discriminant Analysis603
Factor Analysis607
Multivariate Analysis of Variance615
Commentary: Can We Keep It Simple?618
Chapter 28Data Management621
Recording Data621
Data Coding622
Data Entry623
Data Modification626
Data Management628
Commentary: "Anyone can analyze data, but to really mess things up takes a computer."629
Part VCommunication631
Chapter 29Writing a Research Proposal633
Components of the Research Plan635
Plan for Administrative Support639
Presentation of the Proposal642
Commentary: Review, Revise, Edit, Revise, Review642
Chapter 30Reporting the Results of Clinical Research645
The Journal Article645
The Poster Presentation656
The Oral Presentation658
Commentary: Taking the Final Step661
Chapter 31Evaluating Research Reports663
Analyzing Content of an Article663
Commentary: The Reader's View671
Appendix AStatistical Tables673
Appendix BSummary of Statistical Procedures699
Appendix CPower and Sample Size705
The Effect Size Index705
Power Analysis for the t-Test707
Power Analysis for the Analysis of Variance710
Power Analysis for Correlation714
Power Analysis for Regression715
Power Analysis for Chi-square717
Appendix DTransformation of Data731
Appendix ESample Informed Consent Form735
Glossary of Statistical Symbols and Abbreviations739

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