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Table of Contents
1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1
1.1 The Nature of Chemistry 2
1.2 A Scientific Approach to Problem Solving 3
1.3 The Particulate Nature of Matter 5
1.4 Classifying Matter 7
Review 9
Review Questions 10
Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises 11
Answers to Practice Exercises 12
2 Standards for Measurement 13
2.1 Scientific Notation 14
2.2 Measurement and Uncertainty 15
2.3 Significant Figures 16
2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations 18
2.5 The Metric System 21
2.6 Dimensional Analysis: A ProblemSolving Method 27
2.7 Measurement of Temperature 30
2.8 Density 34
Review 37
Review Questions 38
Paired Exercises 39
Additional Exercises 41
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice
Exercises 43
3 Elements and Compounds 44
3.1 Elements 45
3.2 Introduction to the Periodic Table 49
3.3 Compounds and Formulas 52
Review 57
Review Questions 58
Paired Exercises 59
Additional Exercises 60
Challenge Exercises, Answers to
Practice Exercises 61
4 Properties of Matter 62
4.1 Properties of Substances 63
4.2 Physical and Chemical Changes 65
4.3 Learning to Solve Problems 68
4.4 Energy 68
4.5 Heat: Quantitative Measurement 70
4.6 Energy in the Real World 72
Review 74
Review Questions 75
Paired Exercises 76
Additional Exercises 77
Challenge Exercises, Answers to
Practice Exercises 78
Chapters 1–4 review 79
5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure 82
5.1 Dalton’s Model of the Atom 83
5.2 Electric Charge 84
5.3 Subatomic Parts of the Atom 85
5.4 The Nuclear Atom 87
5.5 Isotopes of the Elements 89
5.6 Atomic Mass 92
Review 93
Review Questions 94
Paired Exercises 95
Additional Exercises 96
Challenge Exercise, Answers to
Practice Exercises 97
6 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds 98
6.1 Common and Systematic Names 99
6.2 Elements and Ions 100
6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds 103
6.4 Naming Binary Compounds 105
6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 109
6.6 Acids 111
Review 114
Review Questions 115
Paired Exercises 116
Additional Exercises 117
Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 118
Chapters 5–6 review 119
7 Quantitative Composition of Compounds 121
7.1 The Mole 122
7.2 Molar Mass of Compounds 126
7.3 Percent Composition of Compounds 129
7.4 Calculating Empirical Formulas 133
7.5 Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula 135
Review 138
Review Questions, Paired Exercises 139
Additional Exercises 141
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 142
8 Chemical Equations 143
8.1 The Chemical Equation 144
8.2 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 145
8.3 Types of Chemical Equations 150
8.4 Heat in Chemical Reactions 156
8.5 Global Warming: The Greenhouse Effect 159
Review 161
Review Questions, Paired Exercises 163
Additional Exercises 165
Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 166
9 Calculations from Chemical Equations 167
9.1 Introduction to Stoichiometry 168
9.2 Mole–Mole Calculations 170
9.3 Mole–Mass Calculations 173
9.4 Mass–Mass Calculations 174
9.5 Limiting Reactant and Yield Calculations 176
Review 182
Review Questions, Paired Exercises 183
Additional Exercises 185
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 187
Chapters 7–9 review 188
10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 191
10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 192
10.2 The Bohr Atom 193
10.3 Energy Levels of Electrons 195
10.4 Atomic Structures of the First 18 Elements 198
10.5 Electron Structures and the Periodic Table 201
Review 206
Review Questions 207
Paired Exercises 208
Additional Exercises 210
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 211
11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 212
11.1 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 213
11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 216
11.3 The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 217
11.4 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds 222
11.5 The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons 224
11.6 Electronegativity 226
11.7 Lewis Structures of Compounds 229
11.8 Complex Lewis Structures 232
11.9 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 234
11.10 Molecular Shape 235
Review 239
Review Questions 240
Paired Exercises 241
Additional Exercises 243
Challenge Exercises 244
Answers to Practice Exercises 245
Chapters 10–11 review 246
12 The Gaseous State of Matter 248
12.1 Properties of Gases 249
12.2 Boyle’s Law 252
12.3 Charles’ Law 256
12.4 Avogadro’s Law 259
12.5 Combined Gas Laws 260
12.6 Ideal Gas Law 264
12.7 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 267
12.8 Density of Gases 270
12.9 Gas Stoichiometry 270
Review 274
Review Questions 276
Paired Exercises 277
Additional Exercises 279
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 281
13 Liquids 282
13.1 States of Matter: A Review 283
13.2 Properties of Liquids 283
13.3 Boiling Point and Melting Point 286
13.4 Changes of State 288
13.5 Intermolecular Forces 290
13.6 Hydrates 295
13.7 Water, a Unique Liquid 297
Review 300
Review Questions 301
Paired Exercises 302
Additional Exercises 303
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 304
14 Solutions 305
14.1 General Properties of Solutions 306
14.2 Solubility 307
14.3 Rate of Dissolving Solids 311
14.4 Concentration of Solutions 312
14.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions 320
14.6 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure 325
Review 327
Review Questions 328
Paired Exercises 329
Additional Exercises 332
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 333
Chapters 12–14 review 334
15 Acids, Bases, and Salts 337
15.1 Acids and Bases 338
15.2 Reactions of Acids and Bases 342
15.3 Salts 343
15.4 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 344
15.5 Introduction to pH 349
15.6 Neutralization 352
15.7 Writing Net Ionic Equations 354
15.8 Acid Rain 356
Review 357
Review Questions, Paired Exercises 359
Additional Exercises 361
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 362
16 Chemical Equilibrium 363
16.1 Rates of Reaction 364
16.2 Chemical Equilibrium 365
16.3 Le Châtelier’s Principle 366
16.4 Equilibrium Constants 373
16.5 Ion Product Constant for Water 374
16.6 Ionization Constants 376
16.7 Solubility Product Constant 378
16.8 Buffer Solutions: The Control of pH 381
Review 383
Review Questions 384
Paired Exercises 385
Additional Exercises 387
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 389
17 Oxidation–Reduction 390
17.1 Oxidation Number 391
17.2 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations 395
17.3 Balancing Ionic Redox Equations 398
17.4 Activity Series of Metals 401
17.5 Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells 403
Review 407
Review Questions 409
Paired Exercises 410
Additional Exercises 412
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 413
Chapters 15–17 review 414
18 Nuclear Chemistry 417
18.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 418
18.2 Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, and Gamma Rays 421
18.3 Radioactive Disintegration Series 424
18.4 Measurement of Radioactivity 426
18.5 Nuclear energy 427
18.6 Mass–Energy Relationship in Nuclear Reactions 433
18.7 Biological Effects of Radiation 434
Review 436
Review Questions 437
Paired Exercises 438
Additional Exercises 439
Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 440
19 Introduction to Organic Chemistry 441
19.1 The Beginnings of Organic Chemistry 442
19.2 Why Carbon? 442
19.3 Alkanes 445
19.4 Alkenes and Alkynes 452
19.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 456
19.6 Hydrocarbon Derivatives 459
19.7 Alcohols 461
19.8 Ethers 465
19.9 Aldehydes and Ketones 467
19.10 Carboxylic Acids 469
19.11 Esters 471
19.12 Polymers—Macromolecules 473
Review 474
Review Questions, Paired Exercises 477
Additional Exercises 481
Answers to Practice Exercises 482
20 Introduction to Biochemistry 483
20.1 Chemistry in Living Organisms 484
20.2 Carbohydrates 484
20.3 Lipids 488
20.4 Amino Acids and Proteins 492
20.5 Enzymes 497
20.6 Nucleic Acids, DNA, and Genetics 499
Review 504
Review Questions and Exercises 505
Answers to Practice Exercises 507
Chapters 18–20 review 508
Appendices
I. Mathematical and Review A1
II. Using a Scientific Calculator A10
III. Units of Measurement A14
IV. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various
Temperatures A15
V. Solubility Table A16
VI. Answers to Selected Exercises A17
VII. Answers to Putting It Together Review
Exercises A33
Glossary G1
index I1