The Foundations of Dual Language Instruction / Edition 6

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Overview

The Foundations of Dual Language Instruction is a practical, comprehensive, objective look at dual language instruction and the social, political, historical, and educational issues of teaching second language learners in today’s diverse classrooms. With its emphasis on English language learners, the book provides descriptions of effective programs and instructional strategies that can be used in the classroom. Included are sections on the history and legal underpinnings of schooling in two languages, language policy in the U.S. and around the world, considerations of changing demographics and implications for educators, and the dynamics of culture in schooling.

In this new, reorganized Sixth Edition . . .

Updated information in Chapter 7, “Second Language Instruction,” presents program models and instructional strategies to fully familiarize readers with Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) and how it is used in classrooms to support effective instruction for L2 learners.

Readers are familiarized with the important developments in World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment standards (WIDA) and new consortia that are focusing on proficiency testing (Chapter 8).

Teachers see how to close the achievement gap through expanded information and reflections on their roles.

Key questions at the beginning of each chapter provide a better focus for readers.

Updated references and research ensures that readers get the most up-to-date information available.

Links to sources of up-to-date information are plentiful in each chapter through the addition of web and media resources.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132685160
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/15/2012
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 224
  • Sales rank: 386,990
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Judith Lessow-Hurley is a professor in the Elementary Education Department at San Jose State University. Her areas of expertise are bilingual and multicultural education. She works primarily with pre-service teachers, most of whom teach significant numbers of second language learners from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. Professor Lessow-Hurley has worked with professional educators across the country and internationally. Along with her expertise in the education of English language learners, she has studied religious diversity in the context of First Amendment protections for religious freedoms in a pluralist democracy. She is also the author of Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners (ASCD, 2002).

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

Education in more than one language has many historical precedents and is necessary and common around the world today. Population changes in the United States are resulting in a virtual flood of public school children whose needs cannot be met without dual language instruction. In addition, our national economic welfare and political security require that we prepare all children with more than one language so they can cope with a shrinking world and an interdependent global economy. Therefore, dual language instruction should be a routine component of schooling for every child. This book is a basic text for teachers in training. It is not a book about methodology. The term bilingual methods is misleading and often gives rise to confusion and misconstruction. There are, after all, no "bilingual" tangrams, math blocks, or even books or activity sheets.

In the normal course of instructional events, all competent teachers can design objectives, organize materials, structure activities, and devise evaluation strategies. Any good teacher doing those things can answer the questions: "What are you doing?" and "Why are you doing that?" A dual language classroom teacher performs the same tasks but must also include language as a variable in all aspects of planning.

What and why are basic questions for all teachers, but the dual language teacher must answer an additional and difficult question: "What language are you using to teach each particular child, at any given time, in any particular subject?" While this question is methodological in part, the answer results not only from the nature of the task at hand butalso from an interplay of theoretical knowledge about language and culture, state and federal mandates, and administrative decisions about program design.

The foundations of dual language instruction comprise, therefore, a complex mosaic involving theory, research, and discourse from several different areas of scholarship and inquiry. To understand how language works in an educational setting, it must be objectified and identified as a tool to be manipulated for instructional purposes, much as we manipulate books, maps, and other instructional aids. To develop this awareness, we must turn to linguistics for information about the nature of language; to psycholinguistics for information about language and the mind; to sociolinguistics for information about how language works in society; and to psychology, sociology, and anthropology for insights into human interaction and culture.

The purposes of this book are twofold and may at first appear to be contradictory. First, dual language instruction must be removed from its controversal political environment. Misinformation about dual language instruction permeates the public mind and, all too often, the teaching profession itself.

Opposition to bilingual education is the result of several common misconceptions. The first misconception relates to time. Schooling in general, and language learning in particular, are slow processes. In the post-modem era, we have become preoccupied with speed and are often impatient with educational programs that do not yield overnight results. However, human development proceeds at its usual pace, regardless of changes in technology that result in speed and cost savings in other areas of endeavor. It takes time to develop proficiency in a language and particularly to reach a level of competence adequate to the demands of schooling. An too often, programs are judged on results obtained in two or three years—and it's not surprising that such results fail to demonstrate dramatic success.

Second, many people regard language learning as a difficult and frustrating endeavor. This attitude is usually the result of having experienced traditional, grammarbased approaches to language teaching. It is common to hear people say, "I took three years of French (or Spanish, or German) in high school, and I can't speak a word." Most of the people who say that would like to speak another language, but the main thing they learned from language class is that it's hard to do! It's not surprising that they are skeptical about the possibility that an educational program can produce bilingualism without pain.

Finally, and perhaps most dynamically, using languages other than English in public schools empowers minority communities and provides marginalized or excluded groups with a voice in schooling. Despite constant demands for reform in schooling, most of us resist change: alterations in the status quo—in schools and society—albeit for the better, are disquieting. Bilingual education has become a flash point in the current political climate, which targets minorities and attempts to blame them for a host of social and economic woes.

So the first item of business for this book is to take an unemotional look at dual language instruction and examine its component parts in a scholarly fashion. Having done that, however, we must next reinsert it into the social environment and develop an understanding of the politics of dual language instruction and the controversy it inspires.

Many people are surprised to learn that bilingual environments are common around the world and that learning in more than one language is the norm rather than the exception. Dual language instruction in the United States is not new. It enjoyed a significant period of popularity in the nineteenth century. Chapter I presents a historical and international overview of bilingualism and dual language education and sets the stage for later discussions of politics and policy. Chapter 2 explains the concept of a program model, details the different models prevalent in the United States today, and describes the competencies required of dual language educators. This chapter also clarifies the distinction between bilingual and multicultural education.

Language is as essential to us as the air we breathe and is equally invisible. On one hand, it is difficult to see; on the other, it is a source of powerful emotion. Because teachers need an objective understanding of language and of bilingualism, Chapters 3, 4, and 5 are devoted to fundamental aspects of language. As a starting point in the process of creating a vision of language as an instructional tool, Chapter 3 offers a definition of language and description of its subsystems. Because discussion of language is so often obscured by attitudes, biases, and emotional attachments, Chapter 3 also analyzes and attempts to defuse people's common language biases. This chapter also includes a discussion of the debate about Ebonics, or African American Language, which has recently been the subject of public debate.

Strategies for teaching languages must be based on what we know about how languages are learned. Chapter 4 reviews current theories of first language development and second language acquisition. Chapter 5 describes language ability, explains how it can be assessed, and includes a discussion of bilingualism as individuals.

While no one seems to deny that knowing more than one language is beneficial for children whose first language is English, controversy surrounds the idea of providing first language instruction for limited English proficient children in the United States. Chapter 6 develops a five-point rationale for providing primary language instruction to limited English proficient children which emphasizes the work of Jim Cummins, whose analysis of school-related proficiency has laid much of the groundwork for current thinking in this area. In addition, Chapter 6 describes approaches for providing primary language support in the classroom, depending on program models.

Many program models include some type of direct second language instruction. Chapter 7 discusses the historical development of several approaches to second language instruction and recent innovations in the field. Also included are discussions of specially designed academic instruction in English, which simultaneously addresses content instruction, second language development, and the development of literacy and biliteracy.

Language is a natural focus for the study of dual language instruction, but language is inextricably tied to culture. The increasing heterogeneity of our school population demands increasing attention to cultural diversity. Many school administrators and classroom teachers make a sincere attempt to respond to ethnic diversity through holiday observances, inclusion of ethnic foods in school menus, and selection of materials that reflect different fife-styles. Although positive, these well-intentioned responses to diversity remain essentially superficial.

A culturally responsive classroom must reach beyond surface or artifact culture and attend to the basic differences in the way children from different backgrounds understand, communicate, and learn. Teachers must understand the nature of culture, its relationship to language, and the relationship of specific cultures to the culture of U.S. schools. Chapter 8 outlines a definition of culture, giving examples of its characteristics and manifestations. Chapter 9 describes four analyses of the relationships between culture and school achievement, with emphasis on the contextual interaction model and the recent work of John Ogbu and Carlos Cortes.

Dual language instruction requires educational planning that is not only based on theoretical considerations but that is also within the framework of federal and state law. The legal foundations for bilingual education are constantly changing. Most recently, California has outlawed the use of primary languages in public school classrooms, and the status of that initiative may impact the entire nation. Chapter 10 provides an updated review of the legislative and judicial foundations of dual language instruction, with special attention to the federal Bilingual Education Act (Title VII), the U.S. Supreme Court's 1974 decision in Lau v. Nichols and subsequent legislation and case law.

Finally, all schooling in the United States takes place in a political context. Dual language instruction manipulates language and culture for instructional purposes. The emotional relationships that people have to language and culture result in a particularly charged reaction to bilingual education. Chapter 11, the final chapter, analyzes the politics of bilingualism and discusses language and its relationship to the ideas and ideals of American identity. This edition includes a discussion of language endangerment, and newly developing theories regarding the connections between language and cultural diversity and the health of our biosphere.

As a text for teachers in training, this book is intended to be simple; given the scope of the subject, it is necessarily superficial in many areas. With this in mind, annotated suggestions for further reading have been included at the end of each chapter, so that readers may pursue their particular interests in depth. In addition, each chapter is followed by questions for thought and suggested hands-on activities to provide students with first-hand insights into and experience in the concepts presented.

While this book attempts to provide an objective review of theory, research, and practice in dual language instruction, the reader will quickly note that I have a strong bias. When I started teaching in a bilingual demonstration program in the late 1960s, our program provided Spanish instruction for monolingual English-speaking children of all backgrounds and Spanish maintenance with English as a second language for Hispanic children whose English was limited. Our program had a strong community base and moved effectively toward the goal of making all our children bilingual and biliterate in English and Spanish.

It is ironic that the growing legislative support we hoped for was the undoing of programs such as ours. Faced with mandates for services for large numbers of limited English proficient children, school districts decided that two-way programs (as they are now called) were a dispensable luxury. There can be no doubt that the needs of limited English proficient children are an immediate first-order priority. But until we inculcate an understanding of the value of bilingualism in the general population, all programs will always be vulnerable and insecure. As a bilingual person and a bilingual teacher, it is my unshakable conviction that dual language instruction benefits all children.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to extend my gratitude to the following individuals who served as reviewers for the second edition of this text:

Ida Tamargo Bilbow, Georgian Court College
Sara Di Carlo Urnpierre, Penn State University
Sylvia Carrizales, California State Polytechnic University,
Pomona Ardath Lee, Sonoma State University
JoAnne Mullen, University of Northern Colorado
Migdalia Romero, Hunter College
Cherif Sadki, SUNY-Brockport
Milagros Seda, University of Texas at El Paso
In addition, I would like to thank my colleagues in the bilingual education community for their support and encouragement, and my husband—for everything.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 — National Unity and Diversity and the Languages We Speak

Introduction

Key Questions

Changing Demographics

Immigration

Immigration: A Historical Perspective

Other Demographic Factors

Implications for Teachers

A Changing National Narrative

Unity, Diversity and Language

Language Parochialism

Language Elitism

Language Restrictionism

Implications for Schooling

Restrictions on Bilingual Programs

Outcomes

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 2 — Historical and International Perspectives on Language Education

Introduction

Key Questions

Historical Perspectives

The Ancient World

The Modern World

Dual Language Instruction in the United States: A History

The Nineteenth Century

The Twentieth Century

Multilingualism in the U.S.: Looking Forward

Language Planning, Language Policy and Schooling

Language Suppression

Language Revitalization

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 3 — Aspects of Language

Introduction

Key Questions

The Study of Language

What Is Language?

Subsystems of Language

The Phonological System

The Morphological System

Syntax

Semantics

Pragmatics

Other Aspects of Communication

Implications for Teachers

Language Attitudes

Are Some Languages Better Than Others?

Are Some Languages More Expressive Than Others?

Language Varieties

Standard

Dialect

Pidgins and Creoles

Register

Is It Slang?

More Than One Language

What Is Bilingualism?

Code-Switching

Bilingualism: A Handicap or a Talent?

The Ebonics Debate

Language Loss

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 4 — Language Development

Introduction

Key Questions

First Language Development: Memorizing or Hypothesizing?

Rule Finding

First language Development and Comprehensible Input

Child-Directed Speech

The Social and Cultural Contexts of Language Acquisition

Input Modification

Order of Acquisition

Children as Sociolinguists

Second Language Acquisition

The Effect of Age

The Effect of Personality

The Social Factors

Integrative Models of Second Language Acquisition

The Acquisition-Learning Distinction

Language Learners and Language Speakers Interact

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 5 — Dual Language Program Models

Introduction

Key Questions

What Is a Program Model?

Transitional Program Models

What Is the Goal of a Transitional Program?

Transitional Programs: A Lot Better Than Nothing

Maintenance and Enrichment Programs

Immersion Programs

The Results of Immersion: The Canadian Experience

Immersion Programs in the United States

Dual Language Instruction in Private Schools

Bilingual Teachers

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 6 — Primary Language Instruction for English Learners

Introduction

A Rationale for Primary Language Instruction

Transfer of Concepts and Skills

How Does Transfer Work?

Primary Language Development and Second Language Acquisition

Students Need to Develop CALP

Effects of Bilingualism on Achievement

Primary Language Instruction and Self-Concept

Overall, What Does the Research Indicate?

If Primary Language Instruction, Then How?

Separation of Languages

Concurrent Translation

Preview-Review

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 7 — Second Language Instruction

Introduction

Key Questions

A Note About Terminology

Early Viewpoints on Second Language Instruction

The Search for Alternative Approaches

Modern Approaches to Second Language Instruction

The Audiolingual Approach

Other Recent Approaches

Modifying Instruction for Second Language Learners

Academic Language

Linking Language to Content: A Rationale

Linking Language to Content: How?

Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)

Literacy and Biliteracy

What is Literacy?

Biliteracy

How Can Teachers Support Biliteracy?

Literacy and the Second Language Learner

How Can Schools Promote Biliteracy?

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 8 — Assessment and English Learners

Introduction

Testing Second Language Learners: General Issues

Reliability

Validity

Content Bias

Can You Eliminate Content Bias Using Translation?

Construct Bias

Procedure

Norming

Language Proficiency

What is Language Proficiency?

Models of Language Proficiency

Academic Language Proficiency

How is Language Proficiency Assessed?

Standards-based Language Proficiency Assessment

The Need for Multidimensional Approaches to Assessment

Standardized Achievement Testing

Diagnostic Testing for Placement in Special Programs

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 9 — Legal Foundations of Dual Language Instruction

Introduction

Key Questions

The Historical Context for Dual Language Instruction: World War II and Beyond

World War II and Foreign Language Instruction

World War II and Civil Rights

Brown v. the Board of Education (1954)

Who Governs Education?

Federal Involvement in Education

The Bilingual Education Act (Title VII)

Discretionary Funding

Title VII and Policy

Lau v.Nichols (1974)

Interpretation of Lau

Effects of Lau

Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974

No Child Left Behind

NCLB Funding

NCLB Pros and Cons

State Laws Regarding Bilingual Education

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 10 — Aspects of Culture

Introduction

What Is Culture?

What Are the Key Characteristics of Culture?

Culture is Dynamic

Culture is Creative

Culture is Continuous

Culture is Learned

Culture is Shared

Culture is a Struggle for Survival

How Is Culture Manifested?

Clothing and Decoration

Housing

Time Orientation

Spatial Orientation

Culture and Language

What is Multicultural Education?

What is the Connection Between Bilingual Education and Multicultural Education?

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Chapter 11 — Culture, Schooling and Achievement

Introduction

Key Questions

Explaining the Achievement Gap: Four Approaches

Genetic Inferiority

Cultural Deficit

Cultural Mismatch

Contextual Interaction

Status, Power and School Success

Contextual Interaction as a Solution to Differential Achievement

What Teachers Can Do

Summary

Questions to Think About and Discuss

Activities

Suggestions for Further Reading

Web and Media Resources

Read More Show Less

Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE

Education in more than one language has many historical precedents and is necessary and common around the world today. Population changes in the United States are resulting in a virtual flood of public school children whose needs cannot be met without dual language instruction. In addition, our national economic welfare and political security require that we prepare all children with more than one language so they can cope with a shrinking world and an interdependent global economy. Therefore, dual language instruction should be a routine component of schooling for every child. This book is a basic text for teachers in training. It is not a book about methodology. The term bilingual methods is misleading and often gives rise to confusion and misconstruction. There are, after all, no "bilingual" tangrams, math blocks, or even books or activity sheets.

In the normal course of instructional events, all competent teachers can design objectives, organize materials, structure activities, and devise evaluation strategies. Any good teacher doing those things can answer the questions: "What are you doing?" and "Why are you doing that?" A dual language classroom teacher performs the same tasks but must also include language as a variable in all aspects of planning.

What and why are basic questions for all teachers, but the dual language teacher must answer an additional and difficult question: "What language are you using to teach each particular child, at any given time, in any particular subject?" While this question is methodological in part, the answer results not only from the nature of the task at handbutalso from an interplay of theoretical knowledge about language and culture, state and federal mandates, and administrative decisions about program design.

The foundations of dual language instruction comprise, therefore, a complex mosaic involving theory, research, and discourse from several different areas of scholarship and inquiry. To understand how language works in an educational setting, it must be objectified and identified as a tool to be manipulated for instructional purposes, much as we manipulate books, maps, and other instructional aids. To develop this awareness, we must turn to linguistics for information about the nature of language; to psycholinguistics for information about language and the mind; to sociolinguistics for information about how language works in society; and to psychology, sociology, and anthropology for insights into human interaction and culture.

The purposes of this book are twofold and may at first appear to be contradictory. First, dual language instruction must be removed from its controversal political environment. Misinformation about dual language instruction permeates the public mind and, all too often, the teaching profession itself.

Opposition to bilingual education is the result of several common misconceptions. The first misconception relates to time. Schooling in general, and language learning in particular, are slow processes. In the post-modem era, we have become preoccupied with speed and are often impatient with educational programs that do not yield overnight results. However, human development proceeds at its usual pace, regardless of changes in technology that result in speed and cost savings in other areas of endeavor. It takes time to develop proficiency in a language and particularly to reach a level of competence adequate to the demands of schooling. An too often, programs are judged on results obtained in two or three years—and it's not surprising that such results fail to demonstrate dramatic success.

Second, many people regard language learning as a difficult and frustrating endeavor. This attitude is usually the result of having experienced traditional, grammarbased approaches to language teaching. It is common to hear people say, "I took three years of French (or Spanish, or German) in high school, and I can't speak a word." Most of the people who say that would like to speak another language, but the main thing they learned from language class is that it's hard to do! It's not surprising that they are skeptical about the possibility that an educational program can produce bilingualism without pain.

Finally, and perhaps most dynamically, using languages other than English in public schools empowers minority communities and provides marginalized or excluded groups with a voice in schooling. Despite constant demands for reform in schooling, most of us resist change: alterations in the status quo—in schools and society—albeit for the better, are disquieting. Bilingual education has become a flash point in the current political climate, which targets minorities and attempts to blame them for a host of social and economic woes.

So the first item of business for this book is to take an unemotional look at dual language instruction and examine its component parts in a scholarly fashion. Having done that, however, we must next reinsert it into the social environment and develop an understanding of the politics of dual language instruction and the controversy it inspires.

Many people are surprised to learn that bilingual environments are common around the world and that learning in more than one language is the norm rather than the exception. Dual language instruction in the United States is not new. It enjoyed a significant period of popularity in the nineteenth century. Chapter I presents a historical and international overview of bilingualism and dual language education and sets the stage for later discussions of politics and policy. Chapter 2 explains the concept of a program model, details the different models prevalent in the United States today, and describes the competencies required of dual language educators. This chapter also clarifies the distinction between bilingual and multicultural education.

Language is as essential to us as the air we breathe and is equally invisible. On one hand, it is difficult to see; on the other, it is a source of powerful emotion. Because teachers need an objective understanding of language and of bilingualism, Chapters 3, 4, and 5 are devoted to fundamental aspects of language. As a starting point in the process of creating a vision of language as an instructional tool, Chapter 3 offers a definition of language and description of its subsystems. Because discussion of language is so often obscured by attitudes, biases, and emotional attachments, Chapter 3 also analyzes and attempts to defuse people's common language biases. This chapter also includes a discussion of the debate about Ebonics, or African American Language, which has recently been the subject of public debate.

Strategies for teaching languages must be based on what we know about how languages are learned. Chapter 4 reviews current theories of first language development and second language acquisition. Chapter 5 describes language ability, explains how it can be assessed, and includes a discussion of bilingualism as individuals.

While no one seems to deny that knowing more than one language is beneficial for children whose first language is English, controversy surrounds the idea of providing first language instruction for limited English proficient children in the United States. Chapter 6 develops a five-point rationale for providing primary language instruction to limited English proficient children which emphasizes the work of Jim Cummins, whose analysis of school-related proficiency has laid much of the groundwork for current thinking in this area. In addition, Chapter 6 describes approaches for providing primary language support in the classroom, depending on program models.

Many program models include some type of direct second language instruction. Chapter 7 discusses the historical development of several approaches to second language instruction and recent innovations in the field. Also included are discussions of specially designed academic instruction in English, which simultaneously addresses content instruction, second language development, and the development of literacy and biliteracy.

Language is a natural focus for the study of dual language instruction, but language is inextricably tied to culture. The increasing heterogeneity of our school population demands increasing attention to cultural diversity. Many school administrators and classroom teachers make a sincere attempt to respond to ethnic diversity through holiday observances, inclusion of ethnic foods in school menus, and selection of materials that reflect different fife-styles. Although positive, these well-intentioned responses to diversity remain essentially superficial.

A culturally responsive classroom must reach beyond surface or artifact culture and attend to the basic differences in the way children from different backgrounds understand, communicate, and learn. Teachers must understand the nature of culture, its relationship to language, and the relationship of specific cultures to the culture of U.S. schools. Chapter 8 outlines a definition of culture, giving examples of its characteristics and manifestations. Chapter 9 describes four analyses of the relationships between culture and school achievement, with emphasis on the contextual interaction model and the recent work of John Ogbu and Carlos Cortes.

Dual language instruction requires educational planning that is not only based on theoretical considerations but that is also within the framework of federal and state law. The legal foundations for bilingual education are constantly changing. Most recently, California has outlawed the use of primary languages in public school classrooms, and the status of that initiative may impact the entire nation. Chapter 10 provides an updated review of the legislative and judicial foundations of dual language instruction, with special attention to the federal Bilingual Education Act (Title VII), the U.S. Supreme Court's 1974 decision in Lau v. Nichols and subsequent legislation and case law.

Finally, all schooling in the United States takes place in a political context. Dual language instruction manipulates language and culture for instructional purposes. The emotional relationships that people have to language and culture result in a particularly charged reaction to bilingual education. Chapter 11, the final chapter, analyzes the politics of bilingualism and discusses language and its relationship to the ideas and ideals of American identity. This edition includes a discussion of language endangerment, and newly developing theories regarding the connections between language and cultural diversity and the health of our biosphere.

As a text for teachers in training, this book is intended to be simple; given the scope of the subject, it is necessarily superficial in many areas. With this in mind, annotated suggestions for further reading have been included at the end of each chapter, so that readers may pursue their particular interests in depth. In addition, each chapter is followed by questions for thought and suggested hands-on activities to provide students with first-hand insights into and experience in the concepts presented.

While this book attempts to provide an objective review of theory, research, and practice in dual language instruction, the reader will quickly note that I have a strong bias. When I started teaching in a bilingual demonstration program in the late 1960s, our program provided Spanish instruction for monolingual English-speaking children of all backgrounds and Spanish maintenance with English as a second language for Hispanic children whose English was limited. Our program had a strong community base and moved effectively toward the goal of making all our children bilingual and biliterate in English and Spanish.

It is ironic that the growing legislative support we hoped for was the undoing of programs such as ours. Faced with mandates for services for large numbers of limited English proficient children, school districts decided that two-way programs (as they are now called) were a dispensable luxury. There can be no doubt that the needs of limited English proficient children are an immediate first-order priority. But until we inculcate an understanding of the value of bilingualism in the general population, all programs will always be vulnerable and insecure. As a bilingual person and a bilingual teacher, it is my unshakable conviction that dual language instruction benefits all children.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to extend my gratitude to the following individuals who served as reviewers for the second edition of this text:

Ida Tamargo Bilbow, Georgian Court College
Sara Di Carlo Urnpierre, Penn State University
Sylvia Carrizales, California State Polytechnic University,
Pomona Ardath Lee, Sonoma State University
JoAnne Mullen, University of Northern Colorado
Migdalia Romero, Hunter College
Cherif Sadki, SUNY-Brockport
Milagros Seda, University of Texas at El Paso
In addition, I would like to thank my colleagues in the bilingual education community for their support and encouragement, and my husband—for everything.

Read More Show Less

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