Table of Contents
(NOTE: Each chapter begins with Focus on Learning and concludes with The Chapter in Review, Key Terms, Questions for Review, Testing What You Have Learned, and Internet Companion.)
A View of Earth. The Earth Sciences. Resources and Environmental Issues. The Nature of Scientific Inquiry. Studying Earth Science.
UNIT 1: EARTH MATERIALS.
1. Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks.
Minerals Versus Rocks. Composition and Structure of Minerals. Properties of Minerals. Mineral Groups. Mineral Resources.
2. Rocks: Materials of the Lithosphere.
The Rock Cycle. Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire.” Weathering of Rocks to Form Sediment. Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks. Metamorphic Rocks: Changed in Form.
UNIT 2: EARTH'S EXTERNAL PROCESSES.
3. Landscapes Fashioned by Water.
Earth's External Processes. Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity. The Water Cycle. Running Water. Base Level. Work of Streams. Stream Valleys. Floods and Flood Control. Drainage Basins and Patterns. Water Beneath the Surface. Distribution and Movement of Groundwater. Springs. Wells. Artesian Wells. Environmental Problems of Groundwater. The Geologie Work of Groundwater.
4. Glacial and Arid Landscapes.
Glaciers: A Part of Two Basic Cycles. How Glaciers Move. Glacial Erosion. Glacial Deposits. Glaciers of the Ice Age. Some Indirect Effects of Ice Age Glaciers. Deserts. Basin and Range: The Evolution of a Desert Landscape. Wind Erosion. Wind Deposits.
UNIT 3: EARTH'S INTERNAL PROCESSES.
5. Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory.
Continental Drift: An Idea before Its Time. Plate Tectonics: A Modern Version of an Old Idea. Plate Boundaries. Testing the Plate Tectonics Model. The Driving Mechanism: Still Under Investigation.
6. Restless Earth: Earthquakes, Geologic Structures, and Mountain Building.
What Is an Earthquake? Earthquake Waves. Finding Where Earthquakes Occur. Earthquake Magnitude. Destruction from Earthquakes. Earthquakes East of the Rockies. Can Earthquakes Be Predicted? Earthquakes and Earth's Interior. Geologic Structures.
7. Fires Within: Igneous Activity.
The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions. What Is Extruded during Eruptions? Volcano Types. Volcanic Landforms. Intrusive Igneous Activity. Igneous Activity and Plate Tectonics.
UNIT 4: DECIPHERING EARTH'S HISTORY.
8. Geologic Time.
Some Historical Notes about Geology. Relative Dating—Key Principles. Correlation of Rock Layers. Fossils: Evidence of Past Life. Dating with Radioactivity. The Geologic Time Scale. Difficulties in Dating the Geologic Time Scale.
UNIT 5: THE GLOBAL OCEAN.
9. Oceans: The Last Frontier.
The Vast World Ocean. Composition of Seawater. The Ocean's Layered Structure. Mapping the Ocean Floor. Continental Margins. Submarine Canyons and Turbidity Currents. Deep Ocean Basin Floor. Mid-Ocean Ridges. Coral Reefs and Atolls. Seafloor Sediments.
10. The Restless Ocean.
Surface Currents. Deep-Ocean Circulation. Tides. Waves Modify the Shoreline. Wave Erosion. Wave Refraction. Moving Sand along the Beach. Shoreline Features. Shoreline Erosion Problems. Emergent and Submergent Coasts.
UNIT 6: THE ATMOSPHERE.
11. Heating the Atmosphere.
Weather and Climate. Composition of the Atmosphere. Height and Structure of the Atmosphere. Earth-Sun Relationships. Mechanisms of Heat Transfer. Paths Taken by Incoming Solar Radiation. Heating the Atmosphere: The Greenhouse Effect. Global Warming. Temperature Measurement and Data. Why Temperatures Vary: The Controls of Temperature.
12. Clouds and Precipitation.
Changes of State. Humidity: Water Vapor in the Air. The Basis of Cloud Formation: Adiabatic Cooling. Processes That Lift Air. The Weathermaker: Atmosphere Stability. Condensation and Cloud Formation. Fog. Precipitation.
13. The Atmosphere in Motion.
Understanding and Measuring Air Pressure. Air Pressure and Wind. Cyclones and Anticyclones. General Circulation of the Atmosphere. Circulation in the Midlatitudes. Local Winds. How Wind Is Measured.
14. Weather Patterns and Severe Weather.
Air Masses. Fronts. The Middle-Latitude Cyclone. Thunderstorms. Tornadoes. Hurricanes.
UNIT 7: EARTH'S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE.
15. The Nature of the Solar System.
Ancient Astronomy. The Birth of Modern Astronomy. The Planets: An Overview. Origin of the Solar System. Earth's Moon. The Planets: A Short Tour. Minor Members of the Solar System.
16. Beyond the Solar System.
Properties of Stars. Interstellar Matter. Stellar Evolution. Stellar Remnants. The Milky Way Galaxy. Galaxies. Red Shifts. The Big Bang.
Appendix A: Metric and English Units Compared.
Appendix B: Mineral Identification Key.
Appendix C: Relative Humidity and Dew Point Tables.
Appendix D: Earth's Grid System.