Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering / Edition 5

Hardcover (Print)
Rent
Rent from BN.com
$42.73
(Save 83%)
Est. Return Date: 06/18/2014
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $147.00
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 40%)
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (14) from $147.00   
  • New (11) from $147.00   
  • Used (3) from $236.14   

Overview

Smith/Hashemi's Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering, 5/e provides an eminently readable and understandable overview of engineering materials for undergraduate students. This edition offers a fully revised chemistry chapter and a new chapter on biomaterials as well as a new taxonomy for homework problems that will help students and instructors gauge and set goals for student learning. Through concise explanations, numerous worked-out examples, a wealth of illustrations & photos, and a brand new set of online resources, the new edition provides the most student-friendly introduction to the science & engineering of materials.

The extensive media package available with the text provides Virtual Labs, tutorials, and animations, as well as image files, case studies, FE Exam review questions, and a solutions manual and lecture PowerPoint files for instructors.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073529240
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 4/9/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 1056
  • Sales rank: 512,982
  • Product dimensions: 8.20 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Chapter 1 Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering 2

1.1 Materials and Engineering 3

1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 6

1.3 Types of Materials 8

1.3.1 Metallic Materials 8

1.3.2 Polymeric Materials 10

1.3.3 Ceramic Materials 11

1.3.4 Composite Materials 13

1.3.5 Electronic Materials 14

1.4 Competition Among Materials 15

1.5 Recent Advances in Materials Science and Technology and Future Trends 17

1.5.1 Smart Materials 17

1.5.2 Nanomaterials 19

1.6 Design and Selection 19

1.7 Summary 20

1.8 Definitions 21

1.9 Problems 22

Chapter 2 Atomic Structure and Bonding 24

2.1 Atomic Structure and Subatomic Particles 25

2.2 Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Atomic Masses 28

2.2.1 Atomic Numbers and Mass Numbers 28

2.3 The Electronic Structure of Atoms 31

2.3.1 Planck's Quantum Theory and Electromagnetic Radiation 31

2.3.2 Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 34

2.3.3 The Uncertainty Principle and Schrodinger's Wave Functions 37

2.3.4 Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Atomic Orbitals 40

2.3.5 The Energy State of Multielectron Atoms 43

2.3.6 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table 44

2.4 Periodic Variations in Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Electron Affinity 49

2.4.1 Trends in Atomic Size 49

2.4.2 Trends in Ionization Energy 49

2.4.3 Trends in Electron Affinity 52

2.4.4 Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals 52

2.5 Primary Bonds 54

2.5.1 Ionic Bonds 55

2.5.2 Covalent Bonds 61

2.5.3 Metallic Bonds 68

2.5.4 Mixed Bonding 70

2.6 Secondary Bonds 71

2.7 Summary 74

2.8 Definitions 75

2.9 Problems 77

Chapter 3 Crystal and Amorphous Structure in Materials 84

3.1 The Space Lattice and UnitCells 85

3.2 Crystal Systems and Bravais Lattices 86

3.3 Principal Metallic Crystal Structures 87

3.3.1 Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) Crystal Structure 89

3.3.2 Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) Crystal Structure 92

3.3.3 Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCC) Crystal Structure 93

3.4 Atom Positions in Cubic Unit Cells 95

3.5 Directions in Cubic Unit Cells 96

3.6 Miller Indices for Crystallographic Planes in Cubic Unit Cells 100

3.7 Crystallographic Planes and Directions in Hexagonal Crystal Structure 105

3.7.1 Indices for Crystal Planes in HCP Unit Cells 105

3.7.2 Direction Indices in HCP Unit Cells 106

3.8 Comparison of FCC, HCP, and BCC Crystal Structures 108

3.8.1 FCC and HCP Crystal Structures 108

3.8.2 BCC Crystal Structure 110

3.9 Volume, Planar, and Linear Density Unit-Cell Calculations 110

3.9.1 Volume Density 110

3.9.2 Planar Atomic Density 111

3.9.3 Linear Atomic Density 113

3.10 Polymorphism or Allotropy 114

3.11 Crystal Structure Analysis 115

3.11.1 X-Ray Sources 116

3.11.2 X-Ray Diffraction 117

3.11.3 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Crystal Structures 119

3.12 Amorphous Materials 125

3.13 Summary 126

3.14 Definitions 127

3.15 Problems 128

Chapter 4 Solidification and Crystalline Imperfections 136

4.1 Solidification of Metals 137

4.1.1 The Formation of Stable Nuclei in Liquid Metals 139

4.1.2 Growth of Crystals in Liquid Metal and Formation of a Grain Structure 144

4.1.3 Grain Structure of Industrial Castings 145

4.2 Solidification of Single Crystals 146

4.3 Metallic Solid Solutions 150

4.3.1 Substitutional Solid Solutions 151

4.3.2 Interstitial Solid Solutions 153

4.4 Crystalline Imperfections 155

4.4.1 Point Defects 155

4.4.2 Line Defects (Dislocations) 156

4.4.3 Planar Defects 159

4.4.4 Volume Defects 162

4.5 Experimental Techniques for Identification of Microstructure and Defects 163

4.5.1 Optical Metallography, ASTM Grain Size, and Grain Diameter Determination 163

4.5.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 168

4.5.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 169

4.5.4 High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) 170

4.5.5 Scanning Probe Microscopes and Atomic Resolution 173

4.6 Summary 176

4.7 Definitions 177

4.8 Problems 178

Chapter 5 Thermally Activated Processes and Diffusion in Solids 186

5.1 Rate Processes in Solids 187

5.2 Atomic Diffusion in Solids 191

5.2.1 Diffusion in Solids in General 191

5.2.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 191

5.2.3 Steady-State Diffusion 193

5.2.4 Non-Steady-State Diffusion 196

5.3 Industrial Applications of Diffusion Processes 198

5.3.1 Case Hardening of Steel by Gas Carburizing 198

5.3.2 Impurity Diffusion into Silicon Wafers for Integrated Circuits 202

5.4 Effect of Temperature on Diffusion in Solids 204

5.5 Summary 208

5.6 Definitions 208

5.7 Problems 209

Chapter 6 Mechanical Properties of Metals I 214

6.1 The Processing of Metals and Alloys 215

6.1.1 The Casting of Metals and Alloys 215

6.1.2 Hot and Cold Rolling of Metals and Alloys 217

6.1.3 Extrusion of Metals and Alloys 221

6.1.4 Forging 222

6.1.5 Other Metal-Forming Processes 224

6.2 Stress and Strain in Metals 225

6.2.1 Elastic and Plastic Deformation 225

6.2.2 Engineering Stress and Engineering Strain 226

6.2.3 Poisson's Ratio 228

6.2.4 Shear Stress and Shear Strain 228

6.3 The Tensile Test and the Engineering Stress-Strain Diagram 230

6.3.1 Mechanical Property Data Obtained from the Tensile Test and the Engineering Stress-Strain Diagram 232

6.3.2 Comparison of Engineering Stress-Strain Curves for Selected Alloys 237

6.3.3 True Stress and True Strain 237

6.4 Hardness and Hardness Testing 239

6.5 Plastic Deformation of Metal Single Crystals 240

6.5.1 Slipbands and Slip Lines on the Surface of Metal Crystals 240

6.5.2 Plastic Deformation in Metal Crystals by the Slip Mechanism 242

6.5.3 Slip Systems 244

6.5.4 Critical Resolved Shear Stress for Metal Single Crystals 249

6.5.5 Schmid's Law 250

6.5.6 Twinning 252

6.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals 254

6.6.1 Effect of Grain Boundaries on the Strength of Metals 254

6.6.2 Effect of Plastic Deformation on Grain Shape and Dislocation Arrangements 256

6.6.3 Effect of Cold Plastic Deformation on Increasing the Strength of Metals 258

6.7 Solid-Solution Strengthening of Metals 259

6.8 Recovery and Recrystallization of Plastically Deformed Metals 261

6.8.1 Structure of a Heavily Cold-Worked Metal before Reheating 262

6.8.2 Recovery 263

6.8.3 Recrystallization 264

6.9 Superplasticity in Metals 268

6.10 Nanocrystalline Metals 270

6.11 Summary 271

6.12 Definitions 272

6.13 Problems 273

Chapter 7 Mechanical Properties of Metals II 280

7.1 Fracture of Metals 281

7.1.1 Ductile Fracture 282

7.1.2 Brittle Fracture 283

7.1.3 Toughness and Impact Testing 286

7.1.4 Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature 286

7.1.5 Fracture Toughness 289

7.2 Fatigue of Metals 291

7.2.1 Cyclic Stresses 295

7.2.2 Basic Structural Changes that Occur in a Ductile Metal in the Fatigue Process 296

7.2.3 Some Major Factors that Affect the Fatigue Strength of a Metal 297

7.3 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate 298

7.3.1 Correlation of Fatigue Crack Propagation with Stress and Crack Length 298

7.3.2 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate versus Stress-Intensity Factor Range Plots 300

7.3.3 Fatigue Life Calculations 302

7.4 Creep and Stress Rupture of Metals 304

7.4.1 Creep of Metals 304

7.4.2 The Creep Test 306

7.4.3 Creep-Rupture Test 307

7.5 Graphical Representation of Creep-and Stress-Rupture Time-Temperature Data Using the Larsen-Miller Parameter 308

7.6 A Case Study in Failure of Metallic Components 310

7.7 Recent Advances and Future Directions in Improving the Mechanical Performance of Metals 313

7.7.1 Improving Ductility and Strength Simultaneously 313

7.7.2 Fatigue Behavior in Nanocrystalline Metals 315

7.8 Summary 315

7.9 Definitions 316

7.10 Problems 317

Chapter 8 Phase Diagrams 322

8.1 Phase Diagrams of Pure Substances 323

8.2 Gibbs Phase Rule 325

8.3 Cooling Curves 326

8.4 Binary Isomorphous Alloy Systems 327

8.5 The Lever Rule 330

8.6 Nonequilibrium Solidification of Alloys 334

8.7 Binary Eutectic Alloy Systems 337

8.8 Binary Peritectic Alloy Systems 345

8.9 Binary Monotectic Systems 350

8.10 Invariant Reactions 351

8.11 Phase Diagrams with Intermediate Phases and Compounds 353

8.12 Ternary Phase Diagrams 357

8.13 Summary 360

8.14 Definitions 361

8.15 Problems 363

Chapter 9 Engineering Alloys 372

9.1 Production of Iron and Steel 374

9.1.1 Production of Pig Iron in a Blast Furnace 374

9.1.2 Steelmaking and Processing of Major Steel Product Forms 375

9.2 The Iron-Carbon System 377

9.2.1 The Iron-Iron-Carbide Phase Diagram 377

9.2.2 Solid Phases in the Fe-Fe3C Phase Diagram 377

9.2.3 Invariant Reactions in the Fe-Fe3C Phase Diagram 378

9.2.4 Slow Cooling of Plain-Carbon Steels 380

9.3 Heat Treatment of Plain-Carbon Steels 387

9.3.1 Martensite 387

9.3.2 Isothermal Decomposition of Austenite 392

9.3.3 Continuous-Cooling Transformation Diagram for a Eutectoid Plain-Carbon Steel 397

9.3.4 Annealing and Normalizing of Plain-Carbon Steels 400

9.3.5 Tempering of Plain-Carbon Steels 401

9.3.6 Classification of Plain-Carbon Steels and Typical Mechanical Properties 405

9.4 Low-Alloy Steels 406

9.4.1 Classification of Alloy Steels 406

9.4.2 Distribution of Alloying Elements in Alloy Steels 408

9.4.3 Effects of Alloying Elements on the Eutectoid Temperature of Steels 409

9.4.4 Hardenability 410

9.4.5 Typical Mechanical Properties and Applications for Low-Alloy Steels 415

9.5 Aluminum Alloys 415

9.5.1 Precipitation Strengthening (Hardening) 417

9.5.2 General Properties of Aluminum and Its Production 424

9.5.3 Wrought Aluminum Alloys 425

9.5.4 Aluminum Casting Alloys 430

9.6 Copper Alloys 432

9.6.1 General Properties of Copper 432

9.6.2 Production of Copper 432

9.6.3 Classification of Copper Alloys 433

9.6.4 Wrought Copper Alloys 433

9.7 Stainless Steels 438

9.7.1 Ferritic Stainless Steels 438

9.7.2 Martensitic Stainless Steels 438

9.7.3 Austenitic Stainless Steels 441

9.8 Cast Irons 442

9.8.1 General Properties 442

9.8.2 Types of Cast Irons 443

9.8.3 White Cast Iron 443

9.8.4 Gray Cast Iron 445

9.8.5 Ductile Cast Irons 446

9.8.6 Malleable Cast Irons 449

9.9 Magnesium, Titanium, and Nickel Alloys 450

9.9.1 Magnesium Alloys 450

9.9.2 Titanium Alloys 452

9.9.3 Nickel Alloys 454

9.10 Special-Purpose Alloys and Applications 455

9.10.1 Intermetallics 455

9.10.2 Shape-Memory Alloys 456

9.10.3 Amorphous Metals 460

9.11 Summary 462

9.12 Definitions 463

9.13 Problems 465

Chapter 10 Polymeric Materials 474

10.1 Introduction 475

Thermoplastics 476

Thermosetting Plastics (Thermosets) 476

10.2 Polymerization Reactions 477

10.2.1 Covalent Bonding Structure of an Ethylene Molecule 477

10.2.2 Covalent Bonding Structure of an Activated Ethylene Molecule 478

10.2.3 General Reaction for the Polymerization of Polyethylene and the Degree of Polymerization 479

10.2.4 Chain Polymerization Steps 479

10.2.5 Average Molecular Weight for Thermoplastics 481

10.2.6 Functionality of a Monomer 482

10.2.7 Structure of Noncrystalline Linear Polymers 482

10.2.8 Vinyl and Vinylidene Polymers 484

10.2.9 Homopolymers and Copolymers 485

10.2.10 Other Methods of Polymerization 488

10.3 Industrial Polymerization Methods 490

10.4 Crystallinity and Stereoisomerism in Some Thermoplastics 492

10.4.1 Solidification of Noncrystalline Thermoplastics 492

10.4.2 Solidification of Partly Crystalline Thermoplastics 492

10.4.3 Structure of Partly Crystalline Thermoplastic Materials 494

10.4.4 Stereoisomerism in Thermoplastics 495

10.4.5 Ziegler and Natta Catalysts 496

10.5 Processing of Plastic Materials 497

10.5.1 Processes Used for Thermoplastic Materials 498

10.5.2 Processes Used for Thermosetting Materials 502

10.6 General-Purpose Thermoplastics 504

10.6.1 Polyethylene 506

10.6.2 Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers 509

10.6.3 Polypropylene 511

10.6.4 Polystyrene 511

10.6.5 Polyacrylonitrile 512

10.6.6 Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN) 513

10.6.7 ABS 513

10.6.8 Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) 515

10.6.9 Fluoroplastics 516

10.7 Engineering Thermoplastics 517

10.7.1 Polyamides (Nylons) 518

10.7.2 Polycarbonate 521

10.7.3 Phenylene Oxide-Based Resins 522

10.7.4 Acetals 523

10.7.5 Thermoplastic Polyesters 524

10.7.6 Polyphenylene Sulfide 525

10.7.7 Polyetherimide 526

10.7.8 Polymer Alloys 526

10.8 Thermosetting Plastics (Thermosets) 527

10.8.1 Phenolics 529

10.8.2 Epoxy Resins 530

10.8.3 Unsaturated Polyesters 532

10.8.4 Amino Resins (Ureas and Melamines) 533

10.9 Elastomers (Rubbers) 535

10.9.1 Natural Rubber 535

10.9.2 Synthetic Rubbers 539

10.9.3 Properties of Polychloroprene Elastomers 540

10.9.4 Vulcanization of Polychloroprene Elastomers 541

10.10 Deformation and Strengthening of Plastic Materials 543

10.10.1 Deformation Mechanisms for Thermoplastics 543

10.10.2 Strengthening of Thermoplastics 545

10.10.3 Strengthening of Thermosetting Plastics 548

10.10.4 Effect of Temperature on the Strength of Plastic Materials 549

10.11 Creep and Fracture of Polymeric Materials 550

10.11.1 Creep of Polymeric Materials 550

10.11.2 Stress Relaxation of Polymeric Materials 552

10.11.3 Fracture of Polymeric Materials 553

10.12 Summary 556

10.13 Definitions 557

10.14 Problems 560

Chapter 11 Ceramics 570

11.1 Introduction 571

11.2 Simple Ceramic Crystal Structures 573

11.2.1 Ionic and Covalent Bonding in Simple Ceramic Compounds 573

11.2.2 Simple Ionic Arrangements Found in Ionically Bonded Solids 574

11.2.3 Cesium Chloride (CsCl) Crystal Structure 577

11.2.4 Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Crystal Structure 578

11.2.5 Interstitial Sites in FCC and HCP Crystal Lattices 582

11.2.6 Zinc Blende (ZnS) Crystal Structure 584

11.2.7 Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) Crystal Structure 586

11.2.8 Antifluorite Crystal Structure 588

11.2.9 Corundum (Al2O3) Crystal Structure 588

11.2.10 Spinel (MgAl2O4) Crystal Structure 588

11.2.11 Perovskite (CaTiO3) Crystal Structure 588

11.2.12 Carbon and Its Allotropes 589

11.3 Silicate Structures 593

11.3.1 Basic Structural Unit of the Silicate Structures 593

11.3.2 Island, Chain, and Ring Structures of Silicates 593

11.3.3 Sheet Structures of Silicates 593

11.3.4 Silicate Networks 595

11.4 Processing of Ceramics 596

11.4.1 Materials Preparation 597

11.4.2 Forming 597

11.4.3 Thermal Treatments 602

11.5 Traditional and Engineering Ceramics 604

11.5.1 Traditional Ceramics 604

11.5.2 Engineering Ceramics 607

11.6 Mechanical Properties of Ceramics 609

11.6.1 General 609

11.6.2 Mechanisms for the Deformation of Ceramic Materials 609

11.6.3 Factors Affecting the Strength of Ceramic Materials 610

11.6.4 Toughness of Ceramic Materials 611

11.6.5 Transformation Toughening of Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) 613

11.6.6 Fatigue Failure of Ceramics 613

11.6.7 Ceramic Abrasive Materials 615

11.7 Thermal Properties of Ceramics 616

11.7.1 Ceramic Refractory Materials 617

11.7.2 Acidic Refractories 618

11.7.3 Basic Refractories 618

11.7.4 Ceramic Tile Insulation for the Space Shuttle Orbiter 618

11.8 Glasses 618

11.8.1 Definition of a Glass 620

11.8.2 Glass Transition Temperature 620

11.8.3 Structure of Glasses 621

11.8.4 Compositions of Glasses 622

11.8.5 Viscous Deformation of Glasses 624

11.8.6 Forming Methods for Glasses 626

11.8.7 Tempered Glass 628

11.8.8 Chemically Strengthened Glass 628

11.9 Ceramic Coatings and Surface Engineering 630

11.9.1 Silicate Glasses 630

11.9.2 Oxides and Carbides 630

11.10 Nanotechnology and Ceramics 631

11.11 Summary 633

11.12 Definitions 634

11.13 Problems 635

Chapter 12 Composite Materials 642

12.1 Introduction 643

12.2 Fibers for Reinforced-Plastic Composite Materials 644

12.2.1 Glass Fibers for Reinforcing Plastic Resins 644

12.2.2 Carbon Fibers for Reinforced Plastics 647

12.2.3 Aramid Fibers for Reinforcing Plastic Resins 649

12.2.4 Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Carbon, Aramid, and Glass Fibers for Reinforced-Plastic Composite Materials 649

12.3 Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic Composite Materials 651

12.3.1 Matrix Materials for Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic Composite Materials 651

12.3.2 Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic Composite Materials 652

12.3.3 Equations for Elastic Modulus of a Lamellar Continuous-Fiber-Plastic Matrix Composite for Isostrain and Isostress Conditions 656

12.4 Open-Mold Processes for Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic Composite Materials 661

12.4.1 Hand Lay-Up Process 661

12.4.2 Spray-Up Process 661

12.4.3 Vacuum Bag-Autoclave Process 662

12.4.4 Filament-Winding Process 663

12.5 Closed-Mold Processes for Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic Composite Materials 664

12.5.1 Compression and Injection Molding 664

12.5.2 The Sheet-Molding Compound (SMC) Process 665

12.5.3 Continuous-Pultrusion Process 666

12.6 Concrete 666

12.6.1 Portland Cement 667

12.6.2 Mixing Water for Concrete 670

12.6.3 Aggregates for Concrete 671

12.6.4 Air Entrainment 671

12.6.5 Compressive Strength of Concrete 672

12.6.6 Proportioning of Concrete Mixtures 672

12.6.7 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete 673

12.6.8 Prestressed Concrete 674

12.7 Asphalt and Asphalt Mixes 676

12.8 Wood 678

12.8.1 Macrostructure of Wood 678

12.8.2 Microstructure of Softwoods 681

12.8.3 Microstructure of Hardwoods 682

12.8.4 Cell-Wall Ultrastructure 683

12.8.5 Properties of Wood 685

12.9 Sandwich Structures 686

12.9.1 Honeycomb Sandwich Structure 688

12.9.2 Cladded Metal Structures 688

12.10 Metal-Matrix and Ceramic-Matrix Composites 689

12.10.1 Metal-Matrix Composites (MMCs) 689

12.10.2 Ceramic-Matrix Composites (CMCs) 691

12.10.3 Ceramic Composites and Nanotechnology 696

12.11 Summary 696

12.12 Definitions 697

12.13 Problems 700

Chapter 13 Corrosion 706

13.1 General 707

13.2 Electrochemical Corrosion of Metals 707

13.2.1 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 710

13.2.2 Standard Electrode Half-Cell Potentials for Metals 710

13.3 Galvanic Cells 712

13.3.1 Macroscopic Galvanic Cells with Electrolytes That Are One Molar 712

13.3.2 Galvanic Cells with Electrolytes That Are Not One Molar 714

13.3.3 Galvanic Cells with Acid or Alkaline Electrolytes with No Metal Ions Present 715

13.3.4 Microscopic Galvanic Cell Corrosion of Single Electrodes 717

13.3.5 Concentration Galvanic Cells 718

13.3.6 Galvanic Cells Created by Differences in Composition, Structure, and Stress 721

13.4 Corrosion Rates (Kinetics) 723

13.4.1 Rate of Uniform Corrosion or Electroplating of a Metal in an Aqueous Solution 724

13.4.2 Corrosion Reactions and Polarization 727

13.4.3 Passivation 730

13.4.4 The Galvanic Series 731

13.5 Types of Corrosion 733

13.5.1 Uniform or General Attack Corrosion 733

13.5.2 Galvanic or Two-Metal Corrosion 733

13.5.3 Pitting Corrosion 734

13.5.4 Crevice Corrosion 737

13.5.5 Intergranular Corrosion 739

13.5.6 Stress Corrosion 741

13.5.7 Erosion Corrosion 744

13.5.8 Cavitation Damage 744

13.5.9 Fretting Corrosion 745

13.5.10 Selective Leaching 745

13.5.11 Hydrogen Damage 746

13.6 Oxidation of Metals 747

13.6.1 Protective Oxide Films 747

13.6.2 Mechanisms of Oxidation 749

13.6.3 Oxidation Rates (Kinetics) 750

13.7 Corrosion Control 752

13.7.1 Materials Selection 752

13.7.2 Coatings 753

13.7.3 Design 754

13.7.4 Alteration of Environment 755

13.7.5 Cathodic and Anodic Protection 756

13.8 Summary 758

13.9 Definitions 758

13.10 Problems 759

Chapter 14 Electrical Properties of Materials 766

14.1 Electrical Conduction in Metals 767

14.1.1 The Classic Model for Electrical Conduction in Metals 767

14.1.2 Ohm's Law 769

14.1.3 Drift Velocity of Electrons in a Conducting Metal 773

14.1.4 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 774

14.2 Energy-Band Model For Electrical Conduction 778

14.2.1 Energy-Band Model for Metals 778

14.2.2 Energy-Band Model for Insulators 780

14.3 Intrinsic Semiconductors 780

14.3.1 The Mechanism of Electrical Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductors 780

14.3.2 Electrical Charge Transport in the Crystal Lattice of Pure Silicon 781

14.3.3 Energy-Band Diagram for Intrinsic Elemental Semiconductors 782

14.3.4 Quantitative Relationships for Electrical Conduction in Elemental Intrinsic Semiconductors 783

14.3.5 Effect of Temperature on Intrinsic Semiconductivity 785

14.4 Extrinsic Semiconductors 787

14.4.1 n-Type (Negative-Type) Extrinsic Semiconductors 787

14.4.2 p-Type (Positive-Type) Extrinsic Semiconductors 789

14.4.3 Doping of Extrinsic Silicon Semiconductor Material 791

14.4.4 Effect of Doping on Carrier Concentrations in Extrinsic Semiconductors 791

14.4.5 Effect of Total Ionized Impurity Concentration on the Mobility of Charge Carriers in Silicon at Room Temperature 794

14.4.6 Effect of Temperature on the Electrical Conductivity of Extrinsic Semiconductors 795

14.5 Semiconductor Devices 797

14.5.1 The pn Junction 798

14.5.2 Some Applications for pn Junction Diodes 801

14.5.3 The Bipolar Junction Transistor 802

14.6 Microelectronics 804

14.6.1 Microelectronic Planar Bipolar Transistors 804

14.6.2 Microelectronic Planar Field-Effect Transistors 805

14.6.3 Fabrication of Microelectronic Integrated Circuits 808

14.7 Compound Semiconductors 815

14.8 Electrical Properties of Ceramics 818

14.8.1 Basic Properties of Dielectrics 818

14.8.2 Ceramic Insulator Materials 820

14.8.3 Ceramic Materials for Capacitors 821

14.8.4 Ceramic Semiconductors 822

14.8.5 Ferroelectric Ceramics 824

14.9 Nanoelectronics 827

14.10 Summary 828

14.11 Definitions 829

14.12 Problems 832

Chapter 15 Optical Properties and Superconductive Material 838

15.1 Introduction 839

15.2 Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum 839

15.3 Refraction of Light 841

15.3.1 Index of Refraction 841

15.3.2 Snell's Law of Light Refraction 843

15.4 Absorption, Transmission, and Reflection of Light 844

15.4.1 Metals 844

15.4.2 Silicate Glasses 845

15.4.3 Plastics 846

15.4.4 Semiconductors 848

15.5 Luminescence 849

15.5.1 Photoluminescence 850

15.5.2 Cathodoluminescence 850

15.6 Stimulated Emission of Radiation and Lasers 852

15.6.1 Types of Lasers 854

15.7 Optical Fibers 856

15.7.1 Light Loss in Optical Fibers 856

15.7.2 Single-Mode and Multimode Optical Fibers 857

15.7.3 Fabrication of Optical Fibers 858

15.7.4 Modern Optical-Fiber Communication Systems 860

15.8 Superconducting Materials 861

15.8.1 The Superconducting State 861

15.8.2 Magnetic Properties of Superconductors 862

15.8.3 Current Flow and Magnetic Fields in Superconductors 864

15.8.4 High-Current, High-Field Superconductors 865

15.8.5 High Critical Temperature (Tc) Superconducting Oxides 867

15.9 Definitions 869

15.10 Problems 870

Chapter 16 Magnetic Properties 874

16.1 Introduction 875

16.2 Magnetic Fields and Quantities 875

16.2.1 Magnetic Fields 875

16.2.2 Magnetic Induction 878

16.2.3 Magnetic Permeability 878

16.2.4 Magnetic Susceptibility 880

16.3 Types of Magnetism 880

16.3.1 Diamagnetism 881

16.3.2 Paramagnetism 881

16.3.3 Ferromagnetism 881

16.3.4 Magnetic Moment of a Single Unpaired Atomic Electron 883

16.3.5 Antiferromagnetism 885

16.3.6 Ferrimagnetism 885

16.4 Effect of Temperature on Ferromagnetism 885

16.5 Ferromagnetic Domains 885

16.6 Types of Energies that Determine the Structure of Ferromagnetic Domains 888

16.6.1 Exchange Energy 888

16.6.2 Magnetostatic Energy 889

16.6.3 Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Energy 889

16.6.4 Domain Wall Energy 890

16.6.5 Magnetostrictive Energy 891

16.7 The Magnetization and Demagnetization of a Ferromagnetic Metal 893

16.8 Soft Magnetic Materials 894

16.8.1 Desirable Properties for Soft Magnetic Materials 895

16.8.2 Energy Losses for Soft Magnetic Materials 895

16.8.3 Iron-Silicon Alloys 896

16.8.4 Metallic Glasses 897

16.8.5 Nickel-Iron Alloys 898

16.9 Hard Magnetic Materials 901

16.9.1 Properties of Hard Magnetic Materials 901

16.9.2 Alnico Alloys 903

16.9.3 Rare Earth Alloys 905

16.9.4 Neodymium-Iron-Boron Magnetic Alloys 907

16.9.5 Iron-Chromium-Cobalt Magnetic Alloys 907

16.10 Ferrites 909

16.10.1 Magnetically Soft Ferrites 909

16.10.2 Magnetically Hard Ferrites 913

16.11 Summary 913

16.12 Definitions 914

16.13 Problems 917

Chapter 17 Biological Materials and Biomaterials 922

17.1 Introduction 923

17.2 Biological Materials: Bone 924

17.2.1 Composition 924

17.2.2 Macrostructure 924

17.2.3 Mechanical Properties 924

17.2.4 Biomechanics of Bone Fracture 927

17.2.5 Viscoelasticity of Bone 927

17.2.6 Bone Remodeling 928

17.2.7 A Composite Model of Bone 928

17.3 Biological Materials: Tendons and Ligaments 930

17.3.1 Macrostructure and Composition 930

17.3.2 Microstructure 930

17.3.3 Mechanical Properties 932

17.3.4 Structure-Property Relationship 933

17.3.5 Constitutive Modeling and Viscoelasticity 934

17.3.6 Ligament and Tendon Injury 938

17.4 Biological Material: Articular Cartilage 938

17.4.1 Composition and Macrostructure 938

17.4.2 Microstructure 939

17.4.3 Mechanical Properties 939

17.4.4 Cartilage Degeneration 940

17.5 Biomaterials: Metals in Biomedical Applications 940

17.5.1 Stainless Steels 942

17.5.2 Cobalt-Based Alloys 942

17.5.3 Titanium Alloys 943

17.5.4 Some Issues in Orthopedic Application of Metals 945

17.6 Polymers in Biomedical Applications 947

17.6.1 Cardiovascular Applications of Polymers 947

17.6.2 Ophthalmic Applications 948

17.6.3 Drug Delivery Systems 950

17.6.4 Suture Materials 950

17.6.5 Orthopedic Applications 950

17.7 Ceramics in Biomedical Applications 951

17.7.1 Alumina in Orthopedic Implants 952

17.7.2 Alumina in Dental Implants 953

17.7.3 Ceramic Implants and Tissue Connectivity 954

17.7.4 Nanocrystalline Ceramics 955

17.8 Composites in Biomedical Applications 957

17.8.1 Orthopedic Applications 957

17.8.2 Applications in Dentistry 958

17.9 Corrosion in Biomaterials 958

17.10 Wear in Biomedical Implants 959

17.11 Tissue Engineering 963

17.12 Summary 964

17.13 Definitions 965

17.14 Problems 966

Appendix I Important Properties of Selected Engineering Materials 971

Appendix II Some Properties of Selected Elements 1026

Appendix III Ionic Radii of the Elements 1028

Appendix IV Selected Physical Quantities and Their Units 1031

References for Further Study by Chapter 1033

Glossary 1036

Answers 1048

Index 1052

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Average Rating 5
( 1 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(1)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously
Sort by: Showing 1 Customer Reviews
  • Posted February 21, 2010

    Easy to navigate and use

    Well organized

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
Sort by: Showing 1 Customer Reviews

If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
Why is this product inappropriate?
Comments (optional)