Foundations of Physiological Psychology / Edition 7

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Foundations of Physiological Psychology offers a briefer, sixteen chapter introduction to the foundations of physiology, incorporating the latest studies and research in the rapidly changing fields of neuroscience and physiological psychology.


The text uses many human examples, case studies, and MyPsychlab featuring Carlson’s Neuroscience Animations to help make the material interesting and relevant to student readers.


Origins of Physiological Psychology, Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System, Structure of the Nervous System, Psychopharmacology, Methods and Strategies of Research, Vision, Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses, Sleep and Biological Rhythms, Reproductive Behavior, Emotion, Ingestive Behavior, Learning and Memory, Human Communication, Neurological Disorders, Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders, and Autism, Attention-Deficit Disorder, Stress Disorders, and Drug Abuse


Designed as a main text for use in undergraduate courses in Physiological Psychology, Biopsychology, Physiology of Behavior, and Behavioral Neuroscience.

The book contains color illustrations.

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Editorial Reviews

An introductory text covering the foundations--history of the field, structure and functions of neurons, neuroanatomy, and psychopharmacology; perception and movement; motivated behavior; learning and communication; and disorders. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205519408
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
  • Publication date: 6/29/2007
  • Series: MyPsychLab Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 592
  • Product dimensions: 8.76 (w) x 11.16 (h) x 1.12 (d)

Table of Contents

chapter 1 Introduction 1

PROLOGUE Rene’s Inspiration 2

Understanding Human Consciousness: A Physiological Approach 3

Blindsight 4

Split Brains 5

Interim Summary 7

The Nature of Physiological Psychology 8

The Goals of Research 8

Biological Roots of Physiological Psychology 9

Interim Summary 12

Natural Selection and Evolution 13

Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits 13

Evolution of the Human Species 16

Evolution of Large Brains 18

Interim Summary 19

Ethical Issues in Research with Animals 20

Careers in Neuroscience 23

Interim Summary 24

Strategies for Learning 24

EPILOGUE Models of Brain Functions 27

Key Concepts 27

Suggested Readings 28

chapter 2 Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System 29

PROLOGUE Unresponsive Muscles 30

Cells of the Nervous System 31

Neurons 31

Supporting Cells 34

The Blood—Brain Barrier 38

Interim Summary 39

Communication Within a Neuron 40

Neural Communication: An Overview 40

Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons 42

The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces 44

The Action Potential 47

Conduction of the Action Potential 49

Interim Summary 50

Communication Between Neurons 51

Structure of Synapses 52

Release of Neurotransmitter 53

Activation of Receptors 53

Postsynaptic Potentials 55

Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials 56

Effects of Postsynaptic Potentials: Neural Integration 57

Autoreceptors 58

Axoaxonic Synapses 59

Nonsynaptic Chemical Communication 59

Interim Summary 60

EPILOGUE Myasthenia Gravis 61

Key Concepts 62

Suggested Readings 62

chapter 3 Structure of the Nervous System 63

PROLOGUE The Left Is Gone 64

Basic Features of the Nervous System 64

An Overview 65

Meninges 67

The Ventricular System and Production of Cerebrospinal Fluid 69

Interim Summary 70

The Central Nervous System 70

Development of the Central Nervous System 71

The Forebrain 75

The Midbrain 84

The Hindbrain 85

The Spinal Cord 87

Interim Summary 89

The Peripheral Nervous System 89

Spinal Nerves 90

Cranial Nerves 91

The Autonomic Nervous System 91

Interim Summary 94

EPILOGUE Unilateral Neglect 94

Key Concepts 96

Suggested Readings 96

chapter 4 Psychopharmacology 97

PROLOGUE A contaminated Drug 98

Principles of Psychopharmacology 98

Pharmacokinetics 99

Drug Effectiveness 101

Effects of Repeated Administration 103

Placebo Effects 104

Interim Summary 104

Sites of Drug Action 105

Effects on Production of Neurotransmitters 105

Effects on Storage and Release of Neurotransmitters 105

Effects on Receptors 106

Effects on Reuptake or Destruction of Neurotransmitters 107

Interim Summary 108

Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators 108

Acetylcholine 109

The Monoamines 111

Amino Acids 116

Peptides 119

Lipids 120

Nucleosides 121

Soluble Gases 121

Interim Summary 122

EPILOGUE Helpful Hints from a Tragedy 124

Key Concepts 124

Suggested Readings 125

chapter 5 Methods and Strategies of Research 126


Experimental Ablation 128

Evaluating the Behavioral Effects of Brain Damage 128

Producing Brain Lesions 129

Stereotaxic Surgery 130

Histological Methods 132

Tracing Neural Connections 133

Study of the Living Human Brain 137

Interim Summary 139

Recording and Stimulating Neural Activity 140

Recording Neural Activity 141

Recording the Brain’s Metabolic and Synaptic Activity 143

Measuring the Brain’s Secretions 144

Stimulating Neural Activity 145

Behavioral Effects of Electrical Brain Stimulation 147

Interim Summary 148

Neurochemical Methods 149

Finding Neurons That Produce Particular Neurochemicals 149

Localizing Particular Receptors 151

Interim Summary 152

Genetic Methods 153

Twin Studies 153

Adoption Studies 154

Targeted Mutations 154

Antisense Oligonucleotides 154

Interim Summary 155

EPILOGUE Watch the Brain Waves 155

Key Concepts 156

Suggested Readings 156

chapter 6 Vision 157

PROLOGUE Seeing Without Perceiving 158

The Stimulus 159

Anatomy of the Visual System 160

The Eyes 160


Connections Between Eye and Brain 163

Interim Summary 165

Coding of Visual Information in the Retina 166

Coding of Light and Dark 166

Coding of Color 167

Interim Summary 169

Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Striate Cortex 170

Anatomy of the Striate Cortex 170

Orientation and Movement 170

Spatial Frequency 171

Retinal Disparity 172

Color 173

Modular Organization of the Striate Cortex 174

Interim Summary 174

Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex 175

Two Streams of Visual Analysis 175

Perception of Color 177

Perception of Form 178

Perception of Movement 181

Perception of Spatial Location 184

Interim Summary 187

EPILOGUE Case Studies 188

Key Concepts 189

Suggested Readings 189

chapter 7 Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses Audition 190

PROLOGUE All in Her Head? 191

Audition 192

The Stimulus 192

Anatomy of the Ear 192

Auditory Hair Cells and the Transduction of Auditory Information 195

The Auditory Pathway 196

Perception of Pitch 197

Perception of Timbre 199

Perception of Spatial Location 200

Perception of Environmental Sounds 202

Interim Summary 204

Vestibular System 205

Anatomy of the Vestibular Apparatus 206

The Vestibular Pathway 206

Interim Summary 207

Somatosenses 207

The Stimuli 208

Anatomy of the Skin and Its Receptive Organs 208

Perception of Cutaneous Stimulation 209

The Somatosensory Pathways 211

Perception of Pain 212

Interim Summary 214

Gustation 215

The Stimuli 215

Anatomy of the Taste Buds and Gustatory Cells 215

Perception of Gustatory Information 216

The Gustatory Pathway 217

Interim Summary 218

Olfaction 218

The Stimulus

Anatomy of the Olfactory Apparatus

Transduction of Olfactory Information 220

Perception of Specific Odors 221

Interim Summary 222

EPILOGUE Natural Analgesia 223

Key Concepts 224

Suggested Readings 225

chapter 8 Sleep and Biological Rhythms 226

PROLOGUE Waking Nightmares 227

A Physiological and Behavioral Description of Sleep 228

Interim Summary 231

Disorders of Sleep 231

Insomnia 232

Narcolepsy 232

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder 234

Problems Associated with Slow-Wave Sleep 235

Interim Summary 236

Why Do We Sleep? 236

Functions of Slow-Wave Sleep 236

Functions of REM Sleep 239

Interim Summary 240

Physiological Mechanisms of Sleep and Waking 241

Chemical Control of Sleep 241

Neural Control of Arousal 242

Neural Control of Slow-Wave Sleep 245

Neural Control of REM Sleep 247

Interim Summary 251

Biological Clocks 252

Circadian Rhythms and Zeitgebers 252

The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus 253

Control of Seasonal Rhythms: The Pineal Gland and Melatonin 255

Changes in Circadian Rhythms: Shift Work and Jet Lag 256

Interim Summary 258

EPILOGUE Functions of Dreams 258

Key Concepts 258

Suggested Readings 260

chapter 9 Reproduction Behavior 261

PROLOGUE: From Boy to Girl 262

Sexual Development 262

Production of Gametes and Fertilization 262

Development of the Sex Organs 263

Sexual Maturation 266

Interim Summary 268

Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior 269

Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Cycles 269

Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior of Laboratory Animals 270

Organizational Effects of Androgens on Behavior: Masculinization and Defeminization 272

Effects of Pheromones 273

Human Sexual Behavior 275

Sexual Orientation 277

Interim Summary 281

Neural Control of Sexual Behavior 282

Males 282

Females 283

Formation of Pair Bonds 285

Interim Summary 286

Parental Behavior 287

Maternal Behavior of Rodents 287

Hormonal Control of Maternal Behavior 288

Neural Control of Maternal Behavior 289

Neural Control of Paternal Behavior 289

Interim Summary 290

EPILOGUE: From Boy to Girl and Back Again 290

Key Concepts 291

Suggested Readings 292

Additional Resources 292

chapter 10 Emotion 293

PROLOGUE: Intellect and Emotion 294

Emotions as Response Patterns 294

Fear 295

Anger, Aggression, and Impulse Control 299

Interim Summary 305

Communication of Emotions 306

Facial Expression of Emotions: Innate Responses 306

Neural Basis of the Communication of Emotions: Recognition 307

Neural Basis of the Communication of Emotions: Expression 310

Interim Summary 313

Feelings of Emotions 313

The James-Lange Theory 313

Feedback from Simulated Emotions 315

Interim Summary 316

EPILOGUE: Mr. V. Revisited 317

Key Concepts 318

Suggested Readings 318

Additional Resources 318

chapter 11 Ingestive Behavior 319

PROLOGUE: Out of Control 320

Physiological Regulatory Mechanisms 320

Drinking 322

Some Facts About Fluid Balance 322

Two Types of Thirst 323

Interim Summary 326

Eating: Some Facts About Metabolism 327

Interim Summary 330

What Starts a Meal? 330

Signals from the Environment 330

Signals from the Stomach 331

Metabolic Signals 332

Interim Summary 333

What Stops a Meal? 333

Gastric Factors 334

Intestinal Factors 334

Liver Factors 335

Insulin 335

Long-Term Satiety: Signals from Adipose Tissue 336

Interim Summary 336

Brain Mechanisms 337

Brain Stem 337

Hypothalamus 338

Interim Summary 342

Eating Disorders 342

Obesity 343

Anorexia Nervosa/Bulimia Nervosa 348

Interim Summary 350

EPILOGUE: An Insatiable Appetite 352

Key Concepts 353

Suggested Readings 354

Additional Resources 354

chapter 12 Learning and Memory 355

PROLOGUE: Every Day Is Alone 356

The Nature of Learning 356

Interim Summary 360

Synaptic Plasticity: Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression 360

Induction of Long-Term Potentiation 360

Role of NMDA Receptors 362

Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity 364

Long-Term Depression 367

Interim Summary 367

Perceptual Learning 368

Interim Summary 370

Classical Conditioning 370

Interim Summary 372

Instrumental Conditioning 373

Basal Ganglia 373

Reinforcement 375

Interim Summary 377

Relational Learning 378

Human Anterograde Amnesia 378

Spared Learning Abilities 380

Declarative and Nondeclarative Memories 381

Anatomy of Anterograde Amnesia 383

Role of the Hippocampal Formation in Memory Consolidation 385

Episodic and Semantic Memories 386

Spatial Memory 387

Relational Learning in Laboratory Animals 388

Role of Hippocampal Neuogenesis in Learning 393

Interim Summary 393

EPILOGUE: What Causes Confabulation? 394

Key Concepts 395

Suggested Readings 396

Additional Resources 396

chapter 13 Communication 397

PROLOGUE: Can’t Hear Words 398

Speech Production and Comprehension: Brain Mechanisms 398

Lateralization 399

Speech Production 400

Speech Comprehension 403

Aphasia in Deaf People 412

Prosody: Rhythm, Tone, and Emphasis in Speech 413

Stuttering 414

Interim Summary 416

Disorders of Reading and Writing 417

Relation to Aphasia 417

Pure Alexia 418

Toward an Understanding of Reading 419

Toward an Understanding of Writing 424

Developmental Dyslexias 426

Interim Summary 427

EPILOGUE: Speech Sounds and the Left Hemisphere

Key Concepts 429

Suggested Readings 430

Additional Resources 430

chapter 14 Neurological Disorders 431

PROLOGUE: It Started with Her Foot 432

Tumors 432

Seizure Disorders 434

Cerebrovascular Accidents 437

Interim Summary 441

Disorders of Development 442

Toxic Chemicals 442

Inherited Metabolic Disorders 443

Down Syndrome 444

Interim Summary 444

Degenerative Disorders 445

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies 445

Parkinson's Disease 446

Huntington’s Disease 449

Alzheimer's Disease 450

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 454

Multiple Sclerosis 455

Interim Summary 456

Disorders Caused by Infectious Diseases 457

Interim Summary 459

EPILOGUE: Seizure Surgery 459

Key Concepts 460

Suggested Readings 460

Additional Resources 460

CHAPTER 15 Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders 461

PROLOGUE: Anxiety Surgery 462

Schizophrenia 462

Description 462

Heritability 464

Pharmacology of Schizophrenia: The Dopamine Hypothesis 464

Schizophrenia as a Neurological Disorder 465

Interim Summary 474

Major Affective Disorders 475

Description 475

Heritability 476

Physiological Treatments 476

Role of Monamines 480

Evidence for Brain Abnormalities 481

Role of the 5-HT Transporter 483

Role of Circadian Rhythms 484

Interim Summary 487

Anxiety Disorders 488

Panic Disorder 488

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 490

Interim Summary 494

EPILOGUE: Prefrontal Lobotomy 495

Key Concepts 496

Suggested Readings 497

Additional Resources 497

chapter 16 Autistic, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity, Stress, and Substance Abuse Disorders 498

PROLOGUE: A Sudden Craving 499

Autistic Disorder 499

Description 499

Possible Causes 501

Interim Summary 502

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 503

Description 503

Possible Causes 504

Interim Summary 505

Stress Disorders 505

Physiology of the Stress Response 506

Health Effects of Long-Term Stress 507

Effects of Stress on the Brain 508

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 510

Stress and Infectious Diseases 511

Interim Summary 513

Substance Abuse Disorders 514

What Is Addiction 514

Commonly Abused Drugs 520

Heredity and Drug Abuse 526

Therapy for Drug Abuse 528

Interim Summary 530

EPILOGUE: Classically Conditioned Craving 532

Key Concepts 533

Suggest Readings 533

Additional Resources 534


Name Index

Subject Index

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 16, 2009

    Excellent service

    It's the exact book I needed for Biopsychology. It was in excellent condition when it arrived. And I got all my books I ordered from B&N very fast. I will definitely order all my books from this store from now on. I saved a lot of money.

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  • Posted May 9, 2009

    I Also Recommend:

    Foundations of Physiological Psychology

    This book is very good for anybody who wants to learn more about the human brain and its many different functions. I am using this book for an upper division biopsychology class and I have thoroughly enjoyed reading it. It has excellent pictures, diagrams, tables, as well as up-to-date psychology references. Each chapter begins with a Prologue, which starts a story related to the topic the chapter focuses on, and ends with an Epilogue, ending the story started at the beginning and tying what the reader learned into the conclusion. I have learned more about the brain from this book then any other psychology book in the past. I highly recommend this book.

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