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Now you can strengthen your critical-thinking skills as well as your writing abilities as you analyze an assortment of texts and visuals using the unique FRAMES OF MIND: A RHETORICAL READER WITH OCCASIONS FOR WRITING, Second Edition. The book's effective blend of visual analysis and writing activities from well-recognized leaders in the field examines traditional rhetorical patterns not only as methods for effective writing, but also as strategies for critical thinking. Unique "Occasions for Writing" activities lead you through a step-by-step inductive journey of self-discovery that encourages you to write in a rhetorical mode without simply mimicking a piece of writing. Annotated examples at the beginning of each chapter with a distinctive full-color design help clarify concepts. New examples of student essays join this edition's strengthened blend of classic and contemporary readings to provide a variety of engaging examples for your reference and analysis.
1. THE PRACTICE OF WRITING. Why Am I Writing Essays? An Occasion for Writing. Using Your Voice and Finding Your Character. Moving from Evidence to Idea to Essay. Evidence. Idea. Essay. How to Reveal the Discoveries. Analysis. Interpretation. Reflection and Meaning. Making Evidence and Discovery Work Together. 2. AN OCCASION FOR WRITING: A STUDENT'S PROCESS Preparing to Write. Integrating a Visual Text. Moving toward Essay. Creating a Scene. Integrating a Written Text. Writing Thoughtfully. Reflecting (Analysis and Conception). Rhetorical Considerations for Essays. 3. AN INTRODUCTION TO VISUAL UNDERSTANDING. Keeping Your Eyes Open and Learning to See. A Strategy for Visual Understanding. Looking and Responding. Analyzing Images: Categorizing to Make Sense of What You See. Focal Point and Emphasis. Figure-Ground Contrast. Grouping: Proximity & Similarity. Color. Continuation. Line. Closure. Narration or Story. Context. The Whole Composition. Two Annotated Visuals. Chrysler, Drive=Love [Advertisement]. Monumental Posing [Photograph]. Communicating What You See. For Further Reading. A Sample Student Paper. Ryan Pollack, Visible Feelings. 4. ANALYSIS Defining Analysis. How Analysis Functions. Recognizing Analysis. Using Analysis in Writing. Annotated Paragraph: Jill Ker Conway, from Points of Departure. Analysis and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: The New York Times, Neighborly Vultures. SASKIA VERLAAN, PERSPECTIVES ON FEAR. FORMS OF MIND: AN OCCASION FOR ANALYSIS. Ren? Magritte, The Importance of Marvels [painting]. Ren? Magritte, The Treachery of Images [painting].Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus [painting]. ANNIE DILLARD, LIVING LIKE WEASELS. THE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS: AN OCCASION FOR ANALYSIS. Bruce Davidson, Young Interracial Couple [photograph]. Bruce Davidson, Central Park with Boys in Trees [photograph]. Bruce Davidson, Central Park [photograph]. Bruce Davidson, Youth Holding Kitten [photograph]. E. O. WILSON, THE BIRD OF PARADISE: THE HUNTER AND THE POET. POETIC MOMENTS: AN OCCASION FOR ANALYSIS. Yann Arthus-Bertrand, Tree of Life [photograph]. Aron Keesbury, And Eve [poem]. Yann Arthus-Bertrand, Thunderstorm [photograph]. Life Cycle of a Thunderstorm [illustration]. ROLAND BARTHES, TOYS. ANDRE DUBUS, GIVING UP THE GUN. OLIVER SACKS, THE MAN WHO MISTOOK HIS WIFE FOR A HAT. EDGAR ALLAN POE, THE TELL-TALE HEART. 5. DESCRIPTION. Defining Description. How Description Functions. Selecting Details Organizing Details. Recognizing Description. Metaphor. Simile. Using Description in Writing. Annotated Paragraph: Virginia Woolf, from Moments of Being. Description and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: Cynthia Ozick, The Seam of the Snail. RICHARD SELZER, LOVE SICK. THE TRUTH OF MIND: AN OCCASION FOR DESCRIPTION. Parasympathetic and Sympathetic System Diagram [illustration]. Yann Arthus-Bertrand, Heart in Voh [photograph]. Eudora Welty, From One Writer's Beginning [essay excerpt]. E. M. FORSTER, ON NOT LOOKING AT PICTURES. WAYS OF SEEING (AND NOT): AN OCCASION FOR DESCRIPTION. Diego Velásquez, Las Meninas [painting]. Titian, Entombment [painting]. JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, THE MYTH OF THE LATIN WOMAN. FACING RACES: AN OCCASION FOR DESCRIPTION. Mike Mike, The Face of Tomorrow [poster]. JOAN DIDION, GEORGIA O'KEEFFE. VIRGINIA WOOLF, DEATH OF A MOTH. GRETEL EHRLICH, ISLANDS. KATE CHOPIN, THE STORM. 6. NARRATION. Defining Narration. How Narration Functions. Sequence, Causality, and Effect. Choosing Events. Selecting and Ordering Details. Recognizing Narration. First-Person Plural (We). Second-Person Singular and Plural (You). Third-Person Singular and Plural (He/She, They). Other Voices. Using Narration in Writing Annotated Paragraph: Gretel Ehrlich, from A Storm, the Cornfield, and Elk. Narration and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: Roy Reed, Wolf Hunt. E. B. WHITE, ONCE MORE TO THE LAKE. TIME PASSES: AN OCCASION FOR NARRATION. Pond's Extract bottles [photograph]. Horse and Buggy [photograph]. Inboard Motor Boat [illustration]. Gretel Erhlich, Spring [essay excerpt]. TIM O'BRIEN, HOW TO TELL A TRUE WAR STORY. THE LEGACY OF MEMORY: AN OCCASION FOR NARRATION. American Soldiers in the Vietnam War [photograph collection]. MARGARET ATWOOD, WHEN AFGHANISTAN WAS AT PEACE. FORCES THAT SHAPE US: AN OCCASION FOR NARRATION. From the Opera, The Handmaid's Tale [film still]. Old Dutch Cleanser [photograph]. Woman Wearing Traditional Chador [photograph]. Barbie Doll [photograph]. LOREN EISELEY, THE ILLUSION OF THE TWO CULTURES. LANGSTON HUGHES, SALVATION. GEORGE ORWELL, A HANGING. EUDORA WELTY, A WORN PATH. 7. ILLUSTRATION. Defining Illustration. How Illustration Functions. Selecting Examples. Inductive and Deductive Thinking. Recognizing Illustration. Using Illustration in Writing. Annotated Paragraph: Donald A. Norman, from The Design of Everyday Things. Illustration and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: Natalie Goldberg, from Writing Down the Bones. RICHARD LEDERER, ENGLISH IS A CRAZY LANGUAGE. CRAZY OBJECTS: AN OCCASION FOR ILLUSTRATION. Jacques Carelman, Key for Inaccessible Locks [drawing]. Jacques Carelman, Coffeepot for Masochists [drawing]. Jacques Carelman, Converging Tandem Bicycle (Model for Fianc's) [drawing]. BRENT STAPLES, JUST WALK ON BY. PRE-JUDGING PUBLIC SPACE: AN OCCASION FOR ILLUSTRATION. Collection of Hotel Signs [illustration & photograph collection]. K. C. COLE, UNCERTAINTY. THE USES OF UNCERTAINTY: AN OCCASION FOR ILLUSTRATION. Collection of Optical Illusions [Illustrations]. BARBARA EHRENREICH, WHAT I'VE LEARNED FROM MEN. RICHARD CORLISS, GO AHEAD, MAKE HER DAY. BRIAN DOYLE, JOYAS VOLADORAS. PAUL REPS, LEARNING TO BE SILENT. 8. CLASSIFICATION. Defining Classification. How Classification Functions. Recognizing Classification. Using Classification in Writing. Annotated Paragraph: Wendell Berry, from The Gift of Good Land. Classification and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: Thomas Friedman, The Best of Enemies? LUC SANTE, WHAT SECRETS TELL. THE CLASS OF MEMORY: AN OCCASION FOR CLASSIFICATION. Washington, D.C. Memorials and Monuments [photograph collection]. AMY TAN, MOTHER TONGUE. OTHER TONGUES: AN OCCASION FOR CLASSIFICATION. Allen Edmonds, Yo, Vinny [advertisement]. GlaxoSmithKline, Unwanted [advertisement]. Office of National Drug Control Policy, Get Off My Back [advertisement]. DESMOND MORRIS, TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR. BEYOND THE BODY: AN OCCASION FOR CLASSIFICATION. Tattoos [photograph collection]. AARON COPLAND, HOW WE LISTEN. GEORGE ORWELL, THE POLITICS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. BHARATI MUKERHJEE, IMAGINING HOMELANDS. MARGARET ATWOOD, HAPPY ENDINGS. 9. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST. Defining Comparison and Contrast. How Comparison and Contrast Functions. Recognizing Comparison and Contrast. Block Structure. Alternating Structure. A Special Case of Comparison: Analogy. Using Comparison and Contrast in Writing. Annotated Paragraph: Daniel Goleman, from Emotional Intelligence. Comparison and Contrast and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: Leonard Shlain, Athens and Sparta. DAVID MCCULLOUGH, JOHN ADAMS AND THOMAS JEFFERSON. WHO'S FOR YOU?: AN OCCASION FOR COMPARISON AND CONTRAST. Richard Nixon, 1968 Campaign Poster [poster]. Hubert Humphrey, 1968 Campaign Poster [poster]. CARL SAGAN, THE COSMIC CALENDAR. SAFETY: AN OCCASION FOR COMPARISON AND CONTRAST. Safety on Board MD11 [illustration]. Anthony DeVito, TV Turnoff Week [poster]. JOHN CANADAY, TWO FAMILY PORTRAITS: THE PEALES AND THE BELLELLIS. KISSING COUSINS: AN OCCASION FOR COMPARISON AND CONTRAST. Auguste Rodin, The Kiss [sculpture]. Constantin Brancusi, The Kiss [sculpture]. LAURA MILLER, CAT PEOPLE VS. DOG PEOPLE. FRANCIS BACON, OF YOUTH AND AGE. ANNE FADIMAN, NEVER DO THAT TO A BOOK. KAY BOYLE, ASTRONOMER'S WIFE. 10. CAUSE AND EFFECT. Defining Cause and Effect. How Cause and Effect Functions. Causes. Effects. Recognizing Cause and Effect. Multiple Causes. Causal Chains. Interactive Causes. Speculating about Effects. Using Cause and Effect in Writing. Annotated Paragraph: Atul Gawande, from Complications. Cause and Effect and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: Edward Rothstein, The Double-Edged Ax of American Technology. MAXINE HONG KINGSTON, NO NAME WOMAN. FAMILY SECRETS: AN OCCASION FOR CAUSE AND EFFECT. PostSecret Postcards [photograph collection]. Sissela Bok, The Dangers of Secrecy [essay]. STEPHEN JAY GOULD, SEX, DRUGS, DISASTERS, AND THE EXTINCTION OF THE DINOSAURS. THE CAUSES OF CAUSES: AN OCCASION FOR CAUSE AND EFFECT. Richard Saul Wurman, Top 10 Causes of Death in the U.S. by Age [chart]. MALCOLM GLADWELL, THE TIPPING POINT. PROPAGANDA: AN OCCASION FOR CAUSE AND EFFECT. For Freedom's Sake [poster]. Don't Let That Shadow Touch Them [poster]. Wanted! for Murder [poster]. If you talk too much [poster]. BARBARA HOLLAND, NAPS. PICO IYER, WHY WE TRAVEL. HENRY DAVID THOREAU, WHY I WENT TO THE WOODS. TILLIE OLSEN, I STAND HERE IRONING. 11. PROCESS ANALYSIS. Defining Process Analysis. How Process Analysis Functions. Recognizing Process Analysis. Using Process Analysis in Writing. Annotated Paragraph: Ruth Reichl, from Tender at the Bone. Process Analysis and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: Andy Rooney, How to Put Off Doing a Job. HENRY LOUIS GATES, JR., IN THE KITCHEN. THE MONOPOLY OF IDEAS: AN OCCASION FOR PROCESS ANALYSIS. Monopoly Board [photograph]. KITTY BURNS FLOREY, SISTER BERNADETTE'S BARKING DOG. RIDICULOUSNESSING: AN OCCASION FOR PROCESS ANALYSIS. Rube Goldberg, No More Gasoline Problems [cartoon]. Rube Goldberg, The Latest Simple Flyswatter [cartoon]. Rube Goldberg, A Self-Working Corkscrew [cartoon]. PATRICIA HAMPL, TAKING A TURKISH BATH. THE PROCESS OF PROCESS: AN OCCASION FOR PROCESS ANALYSIS. Lemon [photograph]. Lemon Products [photograph collection]. FREDERICK DOUGLASS, LEARNING TO READ AND WRITE. JESSICA MITFORD, BEHIND THE FORMALDEHYDE CURTAIN. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, ARRIVING AT PERFECTION. LORRIE MOORE, HOW TO BECOME A WRITER. 12. DEFINITION. Defining Definition. How Definition Functions. Shifting Vantage Posts, Changing Definitions. Recognizing Definition. Defining Something By What It Is Not. Using Synonyms. Building Your Own Definition. Using Definition in Writing. Annotated Paragraphs: Christopher Livaccari, Scientific Concept. Definition and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: Kenneth Burke, All Living Things Are Critics. GLORIA NAYLOR, THE MEANINGS OF A WORD. LANGUAGE CHANGES OVER TIME: AN OCCASION FOR DEFINITION. Clark Stanley's Snake Oil Liniment [poster]. The Girl Who Lost Her Character [poster]. JOAN DIDION, ROCK OF AGES. ISLANDS OF FREEDOM: AN OCCASION FOR DEFINITION. Floating Island [photograph]. Teepee on Alcatraz during Takeover [photograph]. Floating Island in Context [photograph]. MATTHEW GOULISH, CRITICISM. BOUNDARY CROSSINGS: AN OCCASION FOR DEFINITION. Jerry N. Uelsmann, Tree-house [photograph]. Jerry N. Uelsmann, Inside/Outside [photograph]. LEONARD KRIEGEL, WRITING THE PAIN: REFLECTIONS ON ILLNESS AND MEMORY. ALEX VERNON, ORION IN THE TOWER. SUSAN BROWNMILLER, FEMININITY. RAYMOND CARVER, WHAT WE TALK ABOUT WHEN WE TALK ABOUT LOVE. 13. ARGUMENT. Defining Argument. How Argument Functions. Recognizing Argument. Logos. Ethos. Pathos. Fallacies. Using Argument in Writing. Annotated Paragraphs: Roy Reed, from "Let's Go to the Tape." Argument and the Other Patterns of Inquiry. Annotated Reading: Lucian Truscott III, Have the Guts to Accept Gay Soldiers. THOMAS JEFFERSON, DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. BOYS OF FREEDOM: AN OCCASION FOR ARGUMENT. Associated Press, Two Soldiers and a Boy [photograph]. Time Magazine, A Boy and His Freedom [photograph]. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., LETTER FROM BIRMINGHAM JAIL. CONSIDERING LIBERTY: AN OCCASION FOR ARGUMENT. Keith Carter, Boy with Washington [photograph]. Kirk Anderson, Check Your Liberties [cartoon]. Uncle Sam. JONATHAN SWIFT, A MODEST PROPOSAL. IMMODEST PROPOSAL: AN OCCASION FOR ARGUMENT. Gahan Wilson, No Ark [cartoon]. David Sipress, Everything Was Better [cartoon]. David Sipress, Let Me Be Vague [cartoon]. JUNE JORDAN, NOBODY MEAN MORE TO ME THAN YOU AND THE FUTURE LIFE OF WILLIE JORDAN. PAUL FUSSELL, A WELL REGULATED MILITIA. ANGELA CARTER, PEOPLE AS PICTURES. LUIGI PIRANDELLO, WAR. Appendix A: Finding Evidence and Documenting Sources. Appendix B: Student Model Papers. Glossary of Terms. Credits. Index of Visual & Readings.