From Critical Thinking to Argument

Overview

From Critical Thinking to Argument is a very brief but thorough guide to critical thinking and argument. With only fifteen readings, this affordable guide can stand alone or complement an anthology. Comprising a condensed version of the text portion of the widely adopted Current Issues and Enduring Questions, it draws on the authors’ dual expertise in effective persuasive writing and comprehensive rhetorical strategies to help students move from critical thinking to argumentative and researched writing. This ...

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Overview

From Critical Thinking to Argument is a very brief but thorough guide to critical thinking and argument. With only fifteen readings, this affordable guide can stand alone or complement an anthology. Comprising a condensed version of the text portion of the widely adopted Current Issues and Enduring Questions, it draws on the authors’ dual expertise in effective persuasive writing and comprehensive rhetorical strategies to help students move from critical thinking to argumentative and researched writing. This versatile text features treatment of classic and modern approaches including Aristotelian, Toulmin, and Rogerian argument, as well as a new chapter on analyzing pop culture texts. Like other volumes in the Bedford/St Martin’s popular series of Portable Anthologies and Portable Guides, From Critical Thinking to Argument offers the series’ trademark combination of high quality and great value for teachers of writing and their cost-conscious students.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781457649950
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 9/27/2013
  • Edition description: Fourth Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 416
  • Sales rank: 222,903
  • Product dimensions: 5.40 (w) x 8.20 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Sylvan Barnet, professor of English and former director of writing at Tufts University, is the most prolific and consistently successful college English textbook author in the country. His several texts on writing and his numerous anthologies for introductory composition and literature courses have remained leaders in their field through many editions.

Hugo Bedau, professor of philosophy at Tufts University, has served as chair of the philosophy department and chair of the university’s committee on College Writing. An internationally respected expert on the death penalty, and on moral, legal, and political philosophy, he has written or edited a number of books on these topics. He is the author of Thinking and Writing about Philosophy, Second Edition (Bedford/St. Martin’s).

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Table of Contents

PART I. FROM CRITICAL THINKING TO ARGUMENT AND RESEARCH

1. Critical Thinking

Thinking About Drivers’ Licenses and Photographic Identification

Thinking About another Issue Concerning Drivers’ Licenses: Imagination, Analysis, Evaluation

Writing as a Way of Thinking

A CHECKLIST FOR CRITICAL THINKING

A Short Essay Illustrating Critical Thinking

Alan Dershowitz, Why Fear National ID Cards?

Examining Assumptions

A CHECKLIST FOR EXAMINING ASSUMPTIONS

Five Exercises In Critical Thinking

2. Critical Reading: Getting Started

Active Reading

Previewing

Skimming: Finding the Thesis

Reading with a Pencil: Underlining, Highlighting, Annotating

ÒThis; Therefore, ThatÓ

First, Second, and Third Thoughts

Summarizing and Paraphrasing

]A Note About Paraphrase and Plagiarism

]Last Words (Almost) About Summarizing

Susan Jacoby, A First Amendment Junkie

Summarizing Jacoby, Paragraph By Paragraph

A CHECKLIST FOR GETTING STARTED

Exercise: Letter to the Editor

3. Critical Reading: Getting Deeper Into Arguments

Persuasion, Argument, Dispute

Reason Versus Rationalization

Some Procedures in Argument

Definition

Assumptions

Premises and Syllogisms

Deduction

Sound Arguments

Induction

Evidence

Examples

Authoritative Testimony

Statistics

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING STATISTICAL EVIDENCE

Nonrational Appeals

Satire

Irony

Sarcasm

Humor

Emotional Appeals

A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT

Does All Writing Contain Arguments?

An Example: An Argument and a Look at the Writer’s Strategies


George F. Will, Being Green At Ben and Jerry’s


George F. Wills’s Strategies

4. Visual Rhetoric: Images As Arguments

Some Uses of Images

Appeals to the Eye

Are Some Images Not Fit to Be Shown?

Exercises: Thinking About Images

Reading Advertisements

A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING IMAGES (ESPECIALLY ADVERTISEMENTS)

]Writing About a Political Cartoon

]A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING POLITICAL CARTOONS

]Jackson Smith (Student Essay), Pledging Nothing?

Visuals as Aids to Clarity: Maps, Graphs, Tables, and Pie Charts

A Note on Using Visuals In Your Own Paper

]A CHECKLIST FOR CHARTS AND GRAPHS

5. Writing an Analysis of an Argument

Analyzing an Argument

Examining the Author’s Thesis

Examining the Author’s Purpose

Examining the Author’s Methods

Examining the Author’s Persona

Summary

]A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING A TEXT

]An Argument, Its Elements, and a Student’s Analysis of the Argument

]Nicholas D. Kristof, For Environmental Balance, Pick Up a Rifle

]Betsy Swinton (Student Essay), Tracking Kristof

]An Analysis of the Student’s Analysis

A CHECKLIST FOR WRITING AN ANALYSIS OF AN ARGUMENT

6. Developing an Argument Of Your Own

Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argument

Getting Ideas

The Thesis

]A CHECKLIST FOR A THESIS STATEMENT

Imagining an Audience

The Audience as Collaborator

]A CHECKLIST FOR IMAGINING AN AUDIENCE

The Title

The Opening Paragraphs

Organizing and Revising the Body of the Essay

The Ending

Two Uses of an Outline

Tone and the Writer’s Persona

We, One, or I?

Avoiding Sexist Language

A CHECKLIST FOR ATTENDING TO THE NEEDS OF THE AUDIENCE

Peer Review

A PEER REVIEW CHECKLIST FOR A DRAFT OF AN ARGUMENT

A Student’s Essay, From Rough Notes to Final Version

Emily Andrews, Why I Don’t Spare ÒSpare ChangeÓ


The Essay Analyzed

Exercise

7. Using Sources

Why Use Sources?

Choosing a Topic

Finding Material

Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities

Finding Quality Information on the Web

Finding Articles Using Library Databases

]Locating Books

Evaluating Sources

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING PRINT SOURCES

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Taking Notes

A Note on Plagiarizing, Paraphrasing, and Using Common Knowledge

A CHECKLIST FOR AVOIDING PLAGIARISM

Compiling an Annotated Bibliography

Writing the Paper

Organizing Your Notes

The First Draft

Later Drafts

Choosing a Tentative Title

The Final Draft

Quoting From Sources

The Use and Abuse of Quotations

How to Quote

]A CHECKLIST FOR USING QUOTATIONS RATHER THAN SUMMARIES

Documentation

A Note on Footnotes (and Endnotes)

MLA Format: Citations Within the Text

MLA Format: The List of Works Cited

APA Format: Citations Within the Text

APA Format: The List of References

A CHECKLIST FOR PAPERS USING SOURCES

An Annotated Student Research Paper In MLA Format


Theresa Washington, Why Trials Should Not Be Televised

An Annotated Student Research Paper In APA Format


Laura Deveau,
the Role of Spirituality and Religion In Mental Health

PART II. FURTHER VIEWS ON ARGUMENT

8. A Philosopher’s View: The Toulmin Model

The Claim

Grounds

Warrants

Backing

Modal Qualifiers

Rebuttals

A Model Analysis Using the Toulmin Method

A CHECKLIST FOR USING THE TOULMIN METHOD

]Putting the Toulmin Method to Work: Responding to an Argument

]Michael S. Dukakis and Daniel J. B. Mitchell, Raise Wages, Not Walls

]Thinking With Toulmin’s Method

9. A Logician’s View: Deduction, Induction, Fallacies

Deduction

Induction

Observation and Inference

Probability

Mill’s Methods

Confirmation, Mechanism, and Theory

Fallacies

]Fallacies of Ambiguity

]Fallacies of Presumption

]Fallacies of Relevance

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING AN ARGUMENT FROM A LOGICAL POINT OF VIEW

10. A Psychologist’s View: Rogerian Argument

Rogerian Argument: an Introduction


Carl R. Rogers, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation

A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING ROGERIAN ARGUMENT


]Jane Willy (Student Essay), Is the College Use of American Indian Mascots Racist?

Index of Terms

] new to this edition
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