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From Warfare to Welfare: Defense Intellectuals and Urban Problems in Cold War America

Overview

During the early decades of the Cold War, large-scale investments in American defense and aerospace research and development spawned a variety of problem-solving techniques, technologies, and institutions. From systems analysis to reconnaissance satellites to think tanks, these innovations did not remain exclusive accessories of the defense establishment. Instead, they readily found civilian applications in both the private and public sector. City planning and management were no...

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From Warfare to Welfare: Defense Intellectuals and Urban Problems in Cold War America

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Overview

During the early decades of the Cold War, large-scale investments in American defense and aerospace research and development spawned a variety of problem-solving techniques, technologies, and institutions. From systems analysis to reconnaissance satellites to think tanks, these innovations did not remain exclusive accessories of the defense establishment. Instead, they readily found civilian applications in both the private and public sector. City planning and management were no exception.

Jennifer Light argues that the technologies and values of the Cold War fundamentally shaped the history of postwar urban America. From Warfare to Welfare documents how American intellectuals, city leaders, and the federal government chose to attack problems in the nation's cities by borrowing techniques and technologies first designed for military engagement with foreign enemies. Experiments in urban problem solving adapted the expertise of defense professionals to face new threats: urban chaos, blight, and social unrest. Tracing the transfer of innovations from military to city planning and management, Light reveals how a continuing source of inspiration for American city administrators lay in the nation's preparations for war.

Johns Hopkins University Press

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Editorial Reviews

Professional Geographer
An exceptionally useful contribution to the history of American cities, a book that takes seriously and does much to document the historical relationship between militarism and urban geography.

— Matthew Farish

Technology and Culture
As historians of American cities stumble across missile experts straying far from their silos, they will find guidance in this careful account of a peculiar moment in urban policy.

— Zachary M. Schrag

Journal of Military History
A very interesting book about the way in which American institutions get bamboozled into adopting popular fads and trends that ought to be scrutinized more carefully.

— Roger W. Lotchin

Choice

Light stands some of the conventional Cold War wisdom on its head... This study not only closes the loop between business management and the military back to the civilian sector, but also reminds readers of the continuing nature of unintended consequences that flow from expert technological obsessions when allied to policy making.

New Media and Society
If the volume tells us something new and important about the history of planning, it is at the same time a cautionary tale, one that might well offer lessons to those today who are proposing many related technologies—geographic information systems, remote surveillance systems and the like—as a means for solving urban and military problems.

— Michael R. Curry

Journal of Planning Education and Research

A compelling historical narrative that exposes a little-known linkage between defense and civilian affairs: the urban-planning applications of technologies and management styles that were developed originally for national defense.

Peace and Change

In this superbly written intellectual history, Jennifer Light describes the impact on urban planning of the cybernetic revolution, which advanced a general theory of biological and machine communications after World War II.

Journal of Cold War Studies
Light has made an important contribution by showing how defense intellectuals contributed to the creation and promotion of cybercities.

— Nils Gilman

Urban History
This well-written study introduces a new and important cast of urban decision-makers to the story of post-war urban America.

— Margaret Pugh O'Mara

American Historical Review
A strong and useful contribution to American Cold War history, and perhaps even more to an understanding of the nature of American power after the Cold War.

— Campbell Craig

Peace & Change
In this superbly written intellectual history, Jennifer Light describes the impact on urban planning of the cybernetic revolution, which advanced a general theory of biological and machine communications after World War II.
Professional Geographer - Matthew Farish

An exceptionally useful contribution to the history of American cities, a book that takes seriously and does much to document the historical relationship between militarism and urban geography.

Technology and Culture - Zachary M. Schrag

As historians of American cities stumble across missile experts straying far from their silos, they will find guidance in this careful account of a peculiar moment in urban policy.

Journal of Military History - Roger W. Lotchin

A very interesting book about the way in which American institutions get bamboozled into adopting popular fads and trends that ought to be scrutinized more carefully.

New Media and Society - Michael R. Curry

If the volume tells us something new and important about the history of planning, it is at the same time a cautionary tale, one that might well offer lessons to those today who are proposing many related technologies—geographic information systems, remote surveillance systems and the like—as a means for solving urban and military problems.

Journal of Cold War Studies - Nils Gilman

Light has made an important contribution by showing how defense intellectuals contributed to the creation and promotion of cybercities.

Urban History - Margaret Pugh O'Mara

This well-written study introduces a new and important cast of urban decision-makers to the story of post-war urban America.

American Historical Review - Campbell Craig

A strong and useful contribution to American Cold War history, and perhaps even more to an understanding of the nature of American power after the Cold War.

Choice

Light stands some of the conventional Cold War wisdom on its head... This study not only closes the loop between business management and the military back to the civilian sector, but also reminds readers of the continuing nature of unintended consequences that flow from expert technological obsessions when allied to policy making.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780801882739
  • Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
  • Publication date: 8/15/2005
  • Pages: 304
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.79 (d)

Meet the Author

Jennifer S. Light is an associate professor of communication studies, history, and sociology at Northwestern University.

Johns Hopkins University Press

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Introduction 1
1 Planning for the Atomic Age: Creating a Community of Experts 10
Pt. I Command, Control, and Community
2 The City as a Communication System 35
3 Cybernetics and Urban Renewal 55
Pt. II Cities in the Space Age
4 Urban Intelligence Gathering 95
5 Moon-Shot Management for American Cities 124
Pt. III The Urban Crisis as National Security Crisis
6 Cable as a Cold War Technology 163
7 Wired Cities 195
Conclusion 231
Notes 239
Note on Sources 275
Index 281
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