Full House

Full House

by Stephen Jay Gould
     
 

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Gould shows why a more accurate way of understanding our world is to look at a given subject within its own context, to see it as a part of a spectrum of variation and then to reconceptualize trends as expansion or contraction of this “full house” of variation, and not as the progress or degeneration of an average value, or single thing.  See more details below

Overview

Gould shows why a more accurate way of understanding our world is to look at a given subject within its own context, to see it as a part of a spectrum of variation and then to reconceptualize trends as expansion or contraction of this “full house” of variation, and not as the progress or degeneration of an average value, or single thing.

Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly - Publisher's Weekly
A veteran intellectual daredevil, Gould (Dinosaur in a Haystack) climbs further out on a thought-limb than ever before in this paradigm-shattering book. "I am asking my readers," he proclaims, "finally and truly to cash out the deepest meanings of the Darwinian revolution and to view natural reality as composed of varying individuals in populations." The implications of this view are enormous. The most cherished idea Gould challenges is that progress is characteristic of the history of life. In so doing, he undercuts a premise fundamental not only to most religious systems but also to the ideas of many evolutionists (he goes after E.O. Wilson here as vigorously as he does M. Scott Peck). Rather than encompassing a progression from simplicity toward complexity, evolution, says Gould, simply embraces a "full house" of a variety of organisms. Humanity is not a pinnacle of evolution, but an "utterly unpredictable, partly random, and entirely contingent" blip in a distribution pattern. Though Gould relies on much statistical evidence and analysis, he knows how to sugar the pill; for instance, by applying his reasoning to a lengthy, fascinating discussion of the increased rarity of the .400 hitter in baseball. Gould's thinking is solid, but careful readers will note that it is based on fundamental assumptions, including that biological mutation drives evolution, and that matter is primary to mind. The second assumption has received forceful scientific challenge in this century, particularly from quantum physicists. Still, Gould elegantly lays down a gauntlet here, and readers should rush to witness the first thrust in what may become a royal scientific duel. Author tour. (Sept.)
Library Journal
In his first single-subject book of original writing since Wonderful Life (LJ 9/1/89), Harvard paleontologist Gould examines trends in natural variation throughout organic evolution, thereby discrediting the abstract ideas of eternal forms, fixed essences, and intrinsic progress. His insightful study even applies to sports systems, accounting for the apparent extinction of .400 hitting in baseball. In light of fossil evidence and overwhelming biodiversity, he concludes that there is no linear pattern or ultimate design to evolution. Instead, life is a spreading web or a branching bush; variation, rather than progression, is nature's expression of excellence. Consequently, our species is not the inevitable end-goal of evolution. It remains for Gould to consider in his next book the ethical and theological implications of his nonprogressive and naturalistic world view. (Are bacteria really as important as human beings?) Gould's book is rather a dense read for the average patron, but his ideas are important. Recommended for all academic and public library science collections. [Previewed in Prepub Alert, LJ 5/15/96.]H. James Birx, Canisius Coll., Buffalo, N.Y.
Ray Olson
In his first book-length essay since "Wonderful Life" (1989), Gould explains two seemingly disparate problems by the same method of analysis. The issues: the disappearance of the .400 hitter in baseball and the notion that biological evolution represents a progression from bacteria to humans. Both phenomena could be more satisfactorily illuminated, Gould feels, if examined in light of Darwin's perception that variety, not distinctiveness, is the theme of life. As a preface to such examination, Gould discusses the interpretation of trends and presents two small case studies--his own experience with a doubtfully treatable cancer and the evolution of horses--in which the consideration of individual variation leads to true conclusions that contradict a central tendency: Gould survived cancer, and the modern horse is evolutionarily a dead end, not an epitome. Finally, Gould tackles his two big cases, in both asking us to take the "full house" of factors into account; that is, the development of all the arts involved in baseball, not just of hitting, and in the matter of evolution, the volume and variety of all species throughout geological time, not just the specializations of vertebrates. So doing, we discover that baseball is better than ever, not that hitters have degenerated, and that progress in evolution is a delusion, for bacteria are now, as they always have been, the real central tendency--the most prolific form of life. Humans constitute a very minor variation in the grand symphony of life, and progress is a cultural, not a scientific, quality. Gould says he has "nurtured" this book, "my adored and wayward boy," for 15 years. If its publication is like the homecoming of the prodigal, go kill the fatted calf.
Kirkus Reviews
Now hear this: Evolution is not progressive. We (humans) are not the be-all and end-all of nature's plan. You've heard these lines before: They are quintessentially Gould.

In this short volume Gould (Dinosaur in a Haystack, 1995, etc.) elaborates on this theme. Among the examples he advances is one that should prove dear to the hearts of baseball fans: Why, Gould asks, are there no .400 hitters anymore? The answer requires looking not at batting but at how the game of baseball has varied over time. There has been a general improvement in play so that the normal curve of batting averages no longer has a tail trailing off to the right where the few .400 stars were to be found. Instead, in Gould's phrase, we have hit a right wall—a boundary reflecting the limits of human performance. A second, longer, and more complex example deals with evolutionary data. If we eliminated human hubris, we would see that it is bacteria that were in the beginning, are now, and ever will be the most populous and successful kingdom—virtually at the left wall boundary in terms of minimally complex organisms capable of life. Over time, there was nothing else for life to do but to expand to the right. However, using fossil records, Gould demonstrates that there was no directionality: Descendants didn't always get more complex—they could just as easily revert to less complex forms. What befuddles the issue is the matter of cultural "evolution"—a word Gould would strike in favor of the word "change." Cultural inventions (including reading and writing) have enabled great leaps of technical "progress" in nanoseconds of time, reckoned by evolutionary standards. As a species, however, we remain an anomalous tail in the full house of life on earth. So we should accept our place with becoming humility.

Gould fans will be charmed at the cogency and cleverness of his arguments—but expect a wall of opposition from pious and diehard progressivists.

Washington Post Book World

Bacteria and baseball. Few authors besides Stephen Jay Gould could write convincingly about both...Wandering about [Full House's] well-decorated rooms, nooks, and attics is a pleasure left to the reader.
— John Allen Paulos

Washington Post Book World - John Allen Paulos
Bacteria and baseball. Few authors besides Stephen Jay Gould could write convincingly about both...Wandering about [Full House's] well-decorated rooms, nooks, and attics is a pleasure left to the reader.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780674063396
Publisher:
Harvard University Press
Publication date:
11/29/2011
Sold by:
Barnes & Noble
Format:
NOOK Book
Pages:
256
File size:
1 MB

Meet the Author

Stephen Jay Gould was the Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology at Harvard University and Vincent Astor Visiting Professor of Biology at New York University. A MacArthur Prize Fellow, he received innumerable honors and awards and wrote many books, including Ontogeny and Phylogeny and Time's Arrow, Time's Cycle (both from Harvard).

Brief Biography

Date of Birth:
September 10, 1941
Date of Death:
May 20, 2002
Place of Birth:
New York, New York
Place of Death:
Boston, Massachusetts
Education:
B.S., Antioch College, 1963; Ph.D., Columbia University, 1967

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