Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Creating Intense and Curative Therapeutic Relationships / Edition 1

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As cognitive behavior therapy becomes increasingly integrated, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) remains a rich therapeutic method. FAP synthesizes aspects of psychodynamic and object relations therapy with traditional CBT methods, and author/ practitioners Robert Kohlenberg and Mavis Tsai originally created this book to be more than a simple how-to manual. Rather it is a powerful framework for clinicians seeking to rethink their approach to the therapeutic relationship. Now in paperback, this classic work is more relevant than ever. The book begins with the theory behind the therapy (including its roots in B. F. Skinner's behavior-analytic work in the 1970s), explaining why clients' unique needs may extend beyond well-mapped routes to change. From there, the authors present the clinical principles of FAP and their uses in treating diffuse, resistant problems. Case illustrations model the therapeutic dyad, show FAP techniques in action, and offer crucial caveats. The ground rules: how, and why, FAP works. Recognizing clinically relevant verbal behaviors. The role of the self in personality disorders. New roles for cognitions and beliefs in therapy. Memories and emotions: what they can and can't do to promote change. How FAP fills the niche between psychodynamic and behavioral therapy. Key issues in ethics, research, and supervision. For the clinical psychologist interested in revitalizing practice, minimizing impasses, and treating clients on a deeper emotional level, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy brings fresh insights to the many worlds within and outside the clinical setting. Graduate students, especially, will find this text a valuable window onto traditional behavioral approaches to therapy.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Gary B Kaniuk, Psy.D.(Cermak Health Services)
Description: This book describes how radical behaviorism can be used to create therapeutic relationships in order for meaningful change to occur. Although functional analytic psychotherapy is derived from B.F. Skinner's ideas analyzing the working relationship between therapist and client, the authors also integrate other psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral theories as well for "creating intense and curative therapeutic relationships," as the subtitle states. This is a paperback version of a book published in hardcover in 1991.
Purpose: In the preface, the authors note that they "view this work as a treatment manual with guidelines for creating deep, intense, meaningful, and healing therapeutic relationships. It is not a collection of techniques, although a fair share of them are included. Instead, we have described a conceptual framework that is intended to guide a therapist's activity."
Audience: The audience includes therapists "interested in revitalizing practice, minimizing impasses, and treating clients on a deeper emotional level." The authors suggest that graduate students will also find this book valuable.
Features: An introduction to functional analytic psychotherapy and its philosophical roots in radical behaviorism begins the book. It goes on to discuss clinical applications and the therapist's role in understanding and addressing emotions, memories, cognitions, and beliefs. The authors spend significant time talking about the self and the integration of psychodynamic theory and behavior theory, which is the substance of functional analytic psychotherapy. The book ends with a look at supervision and ethical and cultural issues. Among the helpful aspects of this book are the way it integrates theory with clinical practice, the clinical vignettes and longer case illustrations, its thorough coverage of the therapeutic relationship, and the way the table of contents is broken down into specific topics so readers are able to quickly find information of interest. The book clearly shows how theory is married to practice. With its step-by-step approach, readers will feel they have learned something that is immediately applicable to their clinical settings. There are no glaring shortcomings, but the authors could have included more figures/tables to highlight the material.
Assessment: This book is excellent in the way it combines two theories and shows specifically how to apply them in clinical work. The authors address the therapeutic relationship, maybe somewhat of a surprise given the roots in radical behaviorism. The book is not very long (217 pages), but it is full of valuable information. It must be clear that this is simply a paperback version of a book first published in 1991. However, it is as relevant as ever because the concepts it introduces do not really change with time.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780387708546
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 6/26/2007
  • Edition description: 1st ed. 1991. 2nd printing 2007
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 217
  • Sales rank: 833,425
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert Kohlenberg, Ph.D., ABPP, is a professor of psychology at the University of Washington where he was the Director of Clinical Training from 1997 - 2004. The WA State Psychological Assoc. honored him with a Distinguished Psychology Award in 1999. He has presented "Master Clinician" and "World Round" sessions at the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy and has published papers on migraine, OCD, depression, intimacy of the therapeutic relationship, and a FAP approach to understanding the self. He has presented FAP workshops both in the US and internationally. He has received research grants for FAP treatment development, and his current interests are identifying the elements of effective psychotherapy, the integration of psychotherapies, and the treatment of co-morbidity. He and Dr. Tsai are co-authors of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: A guide for creating intense and curative therapeutic relationships. New York: Plenum. (1991).

Mavis Tsai, Ph.D., is a psychologist in independent practice and a clinical instructor at the University of Washington where she is involved in supervision and research. The list of publications and presentations by Dr. Tsai indicates the breadth of her expertise and includes work on healing PTSD interpersonal trauma with FAP, disorders of the self, power issues in marital therapy, incorporating Eastern wisdom into psychotherapy, racism and minority groups, teaching kids to be peace activists, and women's empowerment via reclaiming purpose and passion. She has led numerous workshops nationally and internationally and is known for her engaging interpersonal style as well as her behaviorally informed multi-modal approach to healing and growth that integrates mind, body, emotions, and spirit.

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Table of Contents

Introduction     1
Philosophical Tenets of Radical Behaviorism     3
Contextual Nature of Knowledge and Reality     3
Nonmentalistic View of Behavior: The Focus on Environmental Variables That Control Behavior     5
Focal Interest in Verbal Behavior Controlled by Directly Observed Events     6
Theoretical Underpinnings of FAP     7
Reinforcement     8
Specification of Clinically Relevant Behavior     13
Arranging for Generalization     13
Clinical Application of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy     17
Client Problems and Clinically Relevant Behaviors     17
Client Problems That Occur in Session     18
Client Improvements That Occur in Session     19
Client Interpretations of Behavior     22
Assessment     23
Therapeutic Technique-The Five Rules     24
Watch for CRBs     24
Evoke CRBs     26
Reinforce CRB2s     29
Observe the Potentially Reinforcing Effects of Therapist Behavior in Relation to Client CRBs     36
Give Interpretations of Variables That Affect Client Behavior     37
Case Illustration     42
Supplementation: Enhancing Therapist Awareness of Clinically RelevantBehavior     47
Classification of Verbal Behavior     47
The FAP Client Response Classification System     50
Classification and the Observation of Clinically Relevant Behavior     60
Examples of Classifications of Client Responses     61
Therapeutic Situations That Frequently Evoke Clinically Relevant Behavior     63
The Role of Emotions and Memories in Behavior Change     69
Emotions     69
Learning the Meanings of Feelings     72
Feelings as Causes of Behavior     73
Expressing Feelings     75
Avoiding Feelings     77
Degree of Contact with Controlling Variables     78
Memories     81
Clinical Implications     84
Offer a Behavioral Rationale for Getting in Touch with Feelings     85
Increase Private Control of Feelings     86
Increase Therapist Expression of Feelings     87
Enhance Client Contact with Controlling Variables     88
Case Illustration     94
Cognitions and Beliefs     97
Cognitive Therapy     98
Problems with Cognitive Therapy and the ABC Paradigm     98
Revised Formulation of Cognitive Therapy     101
The FAP Revision of A [right arrow] B [right arrow] C     103
Contingency-Shaped Behavior     104
Tacts and Mands: Two Types of Verbal Behavior     105
Rule-Governed Behavior     111
Cognitive Structures and Contingency-Shaped Behavior     113
Clinical Implications of the FAP View of Beliefs     114
Focus on Thinking in the Here and Now     114
Take into Account the Varying Role That Thoughts Can Play     116
Offer Relevant Explanations of Client Problems     119
Use Direct Cognitive Manipulation with Caution     120
Case Illustration     122
The Self     125
Common Definitions of the Self     126
A Behavioral Formulation of Self     127
Basic Concepts     128
The Emergence of "I" as a Small Functional Unit     132
Qualities of the "I"     139
Maladaptive Development of the Self Experience     141
Less Severe Disturbances of the Self     142
Severe Disturbances of the Self     148
Clinical Implications     157
Reinforce Talking in the Absence of Specific External Cues     158
Match Therapeutic Tasks to the Level of Private Control in the Client's Repertoire     159
Reinforce as Many Client "I X" Statements as Possible     165
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: A Bridge between Psychoanalysis and Behavior Therapy     169
FAP in Contrast with Psychodynamic Approaches     170
Transference     170
The Therapeutic Alliance     177
Object Relations     179
FAP in Contrast with Current Behavior Therapies     182
FAP: A Unique Niche between Psychoanalysis and Behavior Therapy     185
Reflections on Ethical, Supervisory, Research, and Cultural Issues     189
Ethical Issues     189
Proceed Cautiously     190
Avoid Sexual Exploitation     191
Guard against the Continuation of a Nonbeneficial Treatment     191
Be Aware of Prejudicial and Oppressive Values     192
Avoid Emotional Tyranny     193
FAP Supervision     194
Research and Evaluation     196
Pitfalls of Traditional Research Paradigms     197
Alternative Methods of Data Collection that Influence Clinical Practice     199
Cultural Problems Due to Loss of Contact     203
Conclusion     207
References     209
Index     215
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