Fundamental Aspects of Silicon Oxidation / Edition 1

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Overview

Discusses silicon oxidation in a tutorial fashion from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. The authors report on the state of the art both at Lucent Technology and in academic research. The book will appeal to researchers and advanced students.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

From the reviews:

"Silicon remains the dominant microelectronic material … . One of the reasons for this is the ‘extraordinary perfection’ of its interface with its thermally grown oxide. … The book provides a valuable snapshot as at early 2000 of the range of diverse approaches, both theoretical and experimental, being applied … by some of the leading practitioners in this field. It would be of interest to scientists and engineers with a specialist’s interest in this or related interfaces." (M. A. Green, The Physicist, Vol. 38 (6), 2001)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540416821
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 6/15/2001
  • Series: Springer Series in Materials Science , #46
  • Edition description: 2001
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 262
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.69 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 The Silicon MOSFET.- 1.2 Surface States and the Early Discoveries.- 1.3 New Technologies.- 1.4 Silicon Dioxide Growth.- 1.5 Microstructure of the Interface.- References.- 2 Morphological Aspects of Silicon Oxidation in Aqueous Solutions.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Reaction Anisotropy and the Control of Atomic-Scale Morphology.- 2.3 Extreme Anisotropy: NH4F Etching of Si(111).- 2.4 Controlling Anisotropy: The Curious Effects of Isopropanol.- 2.5 Correlated Reactions and the Development of Mesoscale Morphologies.- 2.6 Correlated Etching: The Surprising Role of Etch Pits.- 2.7 Kinetic Structures and the Development of Etch Hillocks.- 2.8 Using Micromachined Patterns to Study Surface Chemistry.- 2.9 Conclusions and Outlook.- References.- 3 Structural Evolution of the Silicon/Oxide Interface During Passive and Active Oxidation.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Passive and Active Oxidation in situ in the TEM.- 3.3 Passive Oxidation as a Layer-by-Layer Process.- 3.3.1 What Can in situ Experiments Reveal About the Reaction Mechanism?.- 3.3.2 Stress, Ordering and Stoichiometry at the Interface.- 3.4 Active Oxidation as a Step-Flow Process.- 3.4.1 Kinetic Measurements of Step Nucleation and Flow.- 3.5 Control of Surface Morphology During Device Processing.- 3.6 Electron Beam Effects During in situ Electron Microscopy.- 3.7 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Oxidation of H-Terminated Silicon.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Experimental and Analytical Details.- 4.3 Initial Stage of Oxidation of H-Terminated Si Surfaces.- 4.3.1 Initial Stage of Oxidation of the H-Si (111)-1 x 1 Surface.- 4.3.2 Initial Stage of Oxidation of the H-Si(100)-2 x 1 Surface.- 4.4 Layer-by-Layer Oxidation Reaction at the Interface.- 4.4.1 Layer-by-Layer Oxidation Reaction at the SiO2/Si(111) Interface.- 4.4.2 Lateral Size of Atomically Flat Interface.- 4.4.3 Effect of Initial Surface Morphology on the SiO2/Si(100) Interface Structures.- 4.5 Oxidation-Induced Roughness of Oxide Surfaces.- 4.5.1 Oxidation-Induced Surface Roughness on Si(111).- 4.5.2 Oxidation-Induced Surface Roughness on Si(100).- 4.6 Valence Band Discontinuities at and near the Si02/Si Interface.- 4.7 Summary and Future Directions.- References.- 5 Layer-by-Layer Oxidation of Si(001) Surfaces.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Experimental Details.- 5.3 SREM Observation of the Initial Oxidation of Si(001)-2 x 1 Surfaces.- 5.4 Mechanism of Layer-by-Layer Oxidation.- 5.5 Kinetics of Initial Layer-by-Layer Oxidation.- 5.6 Furnace Oxidation at High Temperature.- 5.7 Summary.- References.- 6 Atomic Dynamics During Silicon Oxidation.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Theoretical Approach.- 6.3 Atomic Processes During Oxidation.- 6.4 Model Structure of Si(001)-SiO2 Interface.- 6.5 Model of Oxidation.- 6.6 Discussion and Conclusion.- References.- 7 First-Principles Quantum Chemical Investigations of Silicon Oxidation.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Theoretical Approach.- 7.3 Water-Induced Oxidation of Si(100)-(2 x 1).- 7.3.1 Initial Adsorption of Water on Si(100)-(2 x 1).- 7.3.2 Thermodynamics of Oxygen Insertion and Aggregation.- 7.3.3 Vibrational Spectra at 600 K - Oxygen Migration.- 7.3.4 Higher Temperature Annealing - Oxygen Agglomeration.- 7.3.5 Continuous Oxide Formation.- 7.4 Conclusions.- References.- 8 Vibrational Studies of Ultra-Thin Oxides and Initial Silicon Oxidation.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Scientific Challenges.- 8.2.1 Spectroscopic Considerations.- 8.2.2 Theoretical Considerations.- 8.3 Nature of Ultra-Thin Silicon Oxides and Si/SiO2 Interface.- 8.4 Water Oxidation of Si(100)-(2 x 1).- 8.4.1 Initial Oxygen Insertion and Agglomeration.- 8.4.2 Continuous Oxide Formation.- 8.5 Conclusions.- References.- 9 Ion Beam Studies of Silicon Oxidation and Oxynitridation.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Experimental Techniques.- 9.2.1 Ion Scattering Techniques.- 9.2.2 Nuclear Reaction Techniques.- 9.2.3 Isotope Tracing Techniques.- 9.3 Silicon Oxidation.- 9.4 Silicon Oxynitridation.- 9.5 Hydrogen in Ultrathin SiO2 Films.- References.- 10 Local and Global Bonding at the Si-SiO2 Interface.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 The Oxidation Process and Local Bonding Arrangements.- 10.3 Global Bonding at the Interface.- 10.4 Z-Contrast Microscopy.- 10.5 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy.- References.- 11 Evolution of the Interfacial Electronic Structure During Thermal Oxidation.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Image Formation in STEM.- 11.3 Measuring Interface Roughness and Oxide Thickness.- 11.4 Mapping Interface States with EELS.- 11.5 Comparing Electronic Structure Calculations and EELS.- 11.6 Evolution of the Local Electronic Structure.- 11.7 Conclusions.- References.- 12 Structure and Energetics of the Interface Between Si and Amorphous SiO2.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Method.- 12.3 Calculation and Results.- 12.4 Discussion.- 12.5 Conclusion.- References.

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