Fundamental Astronomy / Edition 4

Fundamental Astronomy / Edition 4

by Hannu Karttunen
     
 

ISBN-10: 3540001794

ISBN-13: 9783540001799

Pub. Date: 08/13/2003

Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC

Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fourth edition of this successful calculus-based textbook and…  See more details below

Overview

Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fourth edition of this successful calculus-based textbook and reference includes a wealth of new information and several chapters are restructured for clarity and improved organization. The chapters on radiation mechanisms and temperatures have been combined, and some of the material from the appendices has been redistributed to appropriate places throughout the text. In addition, the chapters on the solar system and cosmology are rewritten to reflect new understanding and tables in the appendix on the theory of relativity have been updated. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entree for dedicated amateur astronomers.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9783540001799
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Publication date:
08/13/2003
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
484
Product dimensions:
7.80(w) x 9.60(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

1.Introduction
1.1The Role of Astronomy3
1.2Astronomical Objects of Research4
1.3The Scale of the Universe7
2.Spherical Astronomy
2.1Spherical Trigonometry9
2.2The Earth12
2.3The Celestial Sphere14
2.4The Horizontal System14
2.5The Equatorial System15
2.6Rising and Setting Times18
2.7The Ecliptic System18
2.8The Galactic Coordinates19
2.9Perturbations of Coordinates19
2.10Positional Astronomy23
2.11Constellations27
2.12Star Catalogues and Maps28
2.13Sidereal and Solar Time30
2.14Astronomical Time Systems32
2.15Calendars35
2.16Examples39
2.17Exercises42
3.Observations and Instruments
3.1Observing Through the Atmosphere45
3.2Optical Telescopes47
3.3Detectors and Instruments62
3.4Radio Telescopes67
3.5Other Wavelength Regions74
3.6Other Forms of Energy77
3.7Examples79
3.8Exercises80
4.Photometric Concepts and Magnitudes
4.1Intensity, Flux Density and Luminosity81
4.2Apparent Magnitudes83
4.3Magnitude Systems84
4.4Absolute Magnitudes86
4.5Extinction and Optical Thickness86
4.6Examples89
4.7Exercises91
5.Radiation Mechanisms
5.1Radiation of Atoms and Molecules93
5.2The Hydrogen Atom95
5.3Line Profiles97
5.4Quantum Numbers, Selection Rules, Population Numbers98
5.5Molecular Spectra100
5.6Continuous Spectra100
5.7Blackbody Radiation101
5.8Temperatures103
5.9Other Radiation Mechanisms105
5.10Radiative Transfer106
5.11Examples107
5.12Exercises109
6.Celestial Mechanics
6.1Equations of Motion111
6.2Solution of the Equation of Motion112
6.3Equation of the Orbit and Kepler's First Law114
6.4Orbital Elements114
6.5Kepler's Second and Third Law116
6.6Systems of Several Bodies118
6.7Orbit Determination119
6.8Position in the Orbit119
6.9Escape Velocity121
6.10Virial Theorem122
6.11The Jeans Limit123
6.12Examples124
6.13Exercises127
7.The Solar System
7.1Planetary Configurations130
7.2Orbit of the Earth131
7.3The Orbit of the Moon132
7.4Eclipses and Occultations135
7.5The Structure and Surfaces of Planets137
7.6Atmospheres and Magnetospheres140
7.7Albedos145
7.8Photometry, Polarimetry and Spectroscopy147
7.9Thermal Radiation of the Planets151
7.10Mercury151
7.11Venus154
7.12The Earth and the Moon157
7.13Mars164
7.14Asteroids168
7.15Jupiter172
7.16Saturn177
7.17Uranus, Neptune and Pluto180
7.18Minor Bodies of the Solar System186
7.19Origin of the Solar System192
7.20Other Solar Systems196
7.21Examples196
7.22Exercises200
8.Stellar Spectra
8.1Measuring Spectra201
8.2The Harvard Spectral Classification203
8.3The Yerkes Spectral Classification205
8.4Peculiar Spectra207
8.5The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram208
8.6Model Atmospheres210
8.7What Do the Observations Tell Us?210
8.8Exercise212
9.Binary Stars and Stellar Masses
9.1Visual Binaries214
9.2Astrometric Binary Stars214
9.3Spectroscopic Binaries214
9.4Photometric Binary Stars216
9.5Examples218
9.6Exercises219
10.Stellar Structure
10.1Internal Equilibrium Conditions221
10.2Physical State of the Gas224
10.3Stellar Energy Sources225
10.4Stellar Models229
10.5Examples232
10.6Exercises234
11.Stellar Evolution
11.1Evolutionary Time Scales235
11.2The Contraction of Stars Towards the Main Sequence236
11.3The Main Sequence Phase238
11.4The Giant Phase240
11.5The Final Stages of Evolution242
11.6The Evolution of Close Binary Stars244
11.7Comparison with Observations246
11.8The Origin of the Elements247
11.9Example250
11.10Exercises250
12.The Sun
12.1Internal Structure251
12.2The Atmosphere253
12.3Solar Activity257
12.4Example263
12.5Exercises263
13.Variable Stars
13.1Classification266
13.2Pulsating Variables267
13.3Eruptive Variables269
13.4Examples275
13.5Exercises276
14.Compact Stars
14.1White Dwarfs277
14.2Neutron Stars278
14.3Black Holes283
14.4Examples286
14.5Exercises287
15.The Interstellar Medium
15.1Interstellar Dust289
15.2Interstellar Gas300
15.3Interstellar Molecules308
15.4The Formation of Protostars311
15.5Planetary Nebulae313
15.6Supernova Remnants314
15.7The Hot Corona of the Milky Way317
15.8Cosmic Rays and the Interstellar Magnetic Field317
15.9Examples319
15.10Exercises320
16.Star Clusters and Associations
16.1Associations321
16.2Open Star Clusters321
16.3Globular Star Clusters325
16.4Example326
16.5Exercises327
17.The Milky Way
17.1Methods of Distance Measurement331
17.2Stellar Statistics333
17.3The Rotation of the Milky Way337
17.4The Structure and Evolution of the Milky Way343
17.5Examples344
17.6Exercises345
18.Galaxies
18.1The Classification of Galaxies347
18.2Luminosities and Masses352
18.3Galactic Structures355
18.4Dynamics of Galaxies359
18.5Stellar Ages and Element Abundances in Galaxies361
18.6Systems of Galaxies361
18.7Active Galaxies and Quasars364
18.8The Origin and Evolution of Galaxies369
18.9Exercises369
19.Cosmology
19.1Cosmological Observations371
19.2The Cosmological Principle376
19.3Homogeneous and Isotropic Universes378
19.4The Friedmann Models379
19.5Cosmological Tests381
19.6History of the Universe383
19.7The Formation of Structure384
19.8The Future of the Universe385
19.9Examples388
19.10Exercises389
Appendices391
A.Mathematics392
A.1Geometry392
A.2Conic Sections392
A.3Taylor Series394
A.4Vector Calculus394
A.5Matrices396
A.6Multiple Integrals398
A.7Numerical Solution of an Equation399
B.Theory of Relativity401
B.1Basic Concepts401
B.2Lorentz Transformation. Minkowski Space402
B.3General Relativity403
B.4Tests of General Relativity403
C.Tables405
Answers to Exercises425
Further Reading429
Photograph Credits433
Name and Subject Index435
Colour Supplement449

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