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Overview

Fundamental Neuroscience is the only comprehensive text that defines the full scope of neuroscience. Developed in accordance with results of extensive reviews by neuroscience instructors, and in cooperation with the Association of Neuroscience Departments and Programs (ANDP), this text is divided into seven integrated sections. Each section may be used for a specific course, or the full text may be adopted to provide a broad-based curriculum that will carry the student from molecular to cognitive neuroscience. The Deluxe Package includes a CD-ROM that contains all of the color illustrations for teaching and presentations.

Key Distinctions:
* Written by approximately 100 authors who are specialists in their field
* Careful editing ensures a uniform style and cross-referencing
* Prepared in cooperation with the Association of Neuroscience Departments and Programs
* Created through the stewardship of an internationally renowned editorial board
* Outlined and balanced in accordance with the results of careful, extensive reviews by neuroscience instructors
* Provides historical context and clearly addresses the current state and mature progress of neuroscience and psychology disciplines
* Contains a comprehensive, balanced cognitive section
* Covers integrative systems and the clinical significance of neurobiology
* Comprehensive coverage of molecular, cellular, developmental, organismal, behavioral, and cognitive neuroscience
* Accessible to students from a variety of backgrounds
* World wide web site for updates and information forum: www.academicpress.com/fun

Special Features:
* Nearly 1000 four-color illustrations of the highest quality possible
* CD-ROM of illustrations included for presentations and course instruction
* Provides discussions of key experiments
* Lists bibliographies of reviews and classic papers for each chapter
* Includes clinical correlations and examples from a wide range of species
* Presents critical ethical content useful for mini courses
* Graduate students in neuroscience and related fields
* Advanced undergraduates
* Medical students wishing an experimental approach to the subject
* Researchers interested in updating their background in the field
* Designed to be accessible to people from across disciplines: Psychology, Biology, Computer Science, Engineering, Chemistry, Pharmacy, and others

"Neuroscience is a broad field built upon concerted activities of numerous heterogeneous disciplines, and continuous efforts of integration are imperative. Fundamental Neuroscience represents such efforts and helps readers to comprehend the whole scope of neuroscience, a field which is rapidly growing in many directions, including clinical research and application." (Masao Ito, Riken Brain Science Institute)

"...a comprehensive text defining the full scope of neuro- science...provides historical context and addresses the current state & progress of the subject...covers cognitive, molecular, cellular, developmenal, & behavioral aspects."

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Editorial Reviews

Masao Ito
Neuroscience is a broad field built upon concerted activities of numerous heterogeneous disciplines, and continuous efforts of integration are imperative. Fundamental Neuroscience represents such efforts and helps readers to comprehend the whole scope of neuroscience, a field which is rapidly growing in many directions, including clinical research and application.
R. Ranney Mize
Fundamental Neuroscience is a remarkable resource...an extraordinarily detailed and comprehensive textbook with superb illustrations. I suspect it will become a definitive source of information in the field of neuroscience. It is ideal both as a textbook for graduate students and as a reference for teachers and research scientists alike. I recommend it highly.
Richard G M Morris
...this remarkable textbook is laid out in seven sections, covering in turn cellular and molecular neuroscience, nervous system development, sensory systems, motor systems, regulation of the body by the brain, and finally, behavioral and cognitive aspects of higher brain function. The origin of the book is significant... remarkable collection of both color and black-and-white illustrations...a considerable achievement...
Richard G.M. Morris
...this remarkable textbook is laid out in seven sections, covering in turn cellular and molecular neuroscience, nervous system development, sensory systems, motor systems, regulation of the body by the brain, and finally, behavioral and cognitive aspects of higher brain function. The origin of the book is significant... remarkable collection of both color and black-and-white illustrations...a considerable achievement...
Nature Neuroscience
Roger N Rosenberg
The presentation of material is clear, well-focused, right up-to-date and magnificently illustrated with excellent figures, tables and wonderful molecular diagrams. It excels in providing a neuroscientific basis for clinical neurological diseases. I found it to be a superb text of interdisciplinary neuroscience.
Academic Press
"Fundamental Neuroscience is a remarkable resource...an extraordinarily detailed and comprehensive textbook with superb illustrations. I suspect it will become a definitive source of information in the field of neuroscience. It is ideal both as a textbook for graduate students and as a reference for teachers and research scientists alike. I recommend it highly."
--R. Ranney Mize, Ph.D., Past President, Association of Neuroscience Departments and Programs (ANDP) < br> "The presentation of material is clear, well-focused, right up-to-date and magnificently illustrated with excellent figures, tables and wonderful molecular diagrams. It excels in providing a neuroscientific basis for clinical neurological diseases. I found it to be a superb text of interdisciplinary neuroscience."
--Roger N. Rosenberg, M.D., Zale Distinguished Chair and Professor of Neurology, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
"...this remarkable textbook is laid out in seven sections, covering in turn cellular and molecular neuroscience, nervous system development, sensory systems, motor systems, regulation of the body by the brain, and, finally, behavioral and cognitive aspects of higher brain function...a considerable achievement..."
--Richard G. M. Morris in Nature Neuroscience
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780127808727
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
  • Publication date: 6/1/1998
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1600
  • Product dimensions: 8.88 (w) x 11.15 (h) x 2.63 (d)

Meet the Author

Michael J. Zigmond, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Floyd E. Bloom, Scripps Clinic & Research Institute, La Jolla, California, U.S.A.
Story C. Landis, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.
James L. Roberts, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, U.S.A.
Larry R. Squire, VA Medical Center and University of California, San Diego, U.S.A.
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Read an Excerpt

From Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Neuroscience

The name for the field of knowledge described in this book is neuroscience, the science of the nervous system. Studies of the nervous system were ongoing in the 19th century and before. Neuroanatomists studied the brain's shape, its cellular structure, and its wiring diagram; neurochemists studied the brain's chemical composition; neurophysiologists studied the brain's bioelectric properties; and psychologists and neuropsychologists investigated the organization and neural substrates of behavior and cognition. Then in the late 1960s the term neuroscience was coined, signaling the beginning of an era in which each of these disciplines would work synergistically, sharing a common language, common concepts, and a common goal—to understand the structure and function of the normal and abnormal brain. Neuroscience today stretches from the molecular biology of nerve cells to the biological basis of normal and disordered behavior and of cognition. Neuroscience is currently one of the most rapidly growing areas of science. Indeed, the brain is sometimes referred to as the last frontier of biology. In 1971, 1,100 scientists convened at the first Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. In 1997, 27,685 scientists participated at the Society's 27th Annual Meeting at which more than 14,000 research presentations were made.

WE HAVE ATTEMPTED TO PRESENT THE FULL SCOPE OF THE FIELD IN FUNDAMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE. This book lays out our current understanding in each of the important domains that together define the full scope of modern neuroscience. Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience (Section II) concentrates on the structure and function of the neurons, glia, and synapses that are the building blocks of the nervous system. These chapters also highlight the remarkable techniques now being used to study the nervous system in cellular detail, including molecular biological techniques that are making it possible to study and manipulate genes.

Another major domain of our field is Developmental Neuroscience (Section III), the study of the processes by which the nervous system develops. How does a simple epithelium differentiate into specialized collections of cells and ultimately into distinct brain structures? How do neurons grow out processes that find appropriate targets some distance away? How does neuronal activity and experience shape activity? Sensory and Motor Neuroscience (Sections IV and V) concern themselves with how the nervous system receives information from the external world and how movements and actions are produced; for example, eye movements and limb movements. These questions range from the molecular level (how are odorants, photons, and sounds transduced into patterned neural activity?) to the systems and behavioral level (which brain structures control eye movements and what are the computations required by each structure.).

An evolutionarily old function of the nervous system is to regulate respiration, heart rate, sleep and waking cycles, food and water intake, and hormones. In this area of Regulatory Neuroscience (Section V), we explore how organisms remain in balance with their environment, ensuring that they obtain the energy resources needed to survive and reproduce. At the level of cells and molecules, the study of regulatory systems concerns the receptors and signaling pathways by which particular hormones or neurotransmitters prepare the organism to sleep, to cope with acute stress, or to seek food. At the level of brain systems, we ask such questions as what occurs in brain circuitry to produce thirst or to create a self-destructive problem like drug abuse?

In recent years, the disciplines of psychology and biology have increasingly found common ground, and this convergence of psychology and biology define the modern topics of Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience (Section VI). These topics concern the so-called higher mental functions: perception, attention, language, memory, thinking, and the ability to navigate in space. Work on these problems has traditionally drawn on the techniques of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and behavioral analysis. More recently, behavioral and cognitive neuroscience has benefited from several new approaches: the use of computers to perform detailed formal analyses of how brain systems operate and how cognition is organized; noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, to obtain anatomically based pictures of the living human brain in action; and molecular biological methods, such as single-gene knockouts in mice, which can relate genes to brain systems and to behavior.

From Chapter 2: The Functional Architecture of Nervous Systems

Structure and function are two sides of the same coin, and it is important to understand the relationship between them if we are to fully appreciate the organization of the nervous system. An object's structure imposes physical constraints on its function. For example, a piano is a harp laid on its side and enclosed in a resonating wooden box (its structure) that can produce a wide variety of music (its function). Because of the limits of its structure, however, a piano cannot possibly be made to sound like a brass instrument—for example, a trumpet. In this chapter, we will address two questions that relate to the functional architecture of nervous systems: What are the major structural components of the central nervous system (CNS), and how are these components interconnected? Answers to these questions should ultimately help explain how the brain works at a systems level rather than at the cellular or molecular levels.

The fundamental cellular unit in the nervous system is the nerve cell, or neuron. The cellular basis of nervous system organization was not appreciated until near the end of the 19th century, as discussed in Box 2.1. We will consider neurons in greater detail in Chapter 3, but a basic understanding of neuronal morphology is essential at this point. The nucleus of a neuron is located in a region called the cell body, or soma (Fig. 2.2). Most of the inputs a neuron receives are delivered to numerous thin extensions of the cell known as dendrites. In vertebrate neurons, the dendrites usually arise from the soma. Because they branch extensively, dendrites greatly increase the plasma membrane surface area available for receiving and integration inputs. At the ''output'' end of a neuron is the axon, a single thin extension that can course uninterrupted for a meter or more and typically divides into a number of collateral branches. A portion of the output of thou sands of neurons can converge onto the dendrites of a single neuron. Conversely, the output of each neuron can diverge to reach hundreds or thousands of other neurons. The principles of convergence and divergence are major themes in the organization of nervous systems.

There are roughly 100 billion neurons and 100 trillion interneuronal connections in the human brain. Faced with the task of analyzing systems as complex as this, biologists have traditionally tried to simplify matters by focusing on less complex organisms or animals at earlier developmental stages. Therefore, we will begin by examining current ideas about the evolution of nervous systems to illustrate fundamental principles of nervous system organization. Then we will discuss the embryogenesis of the vertebrate CNS, because it reveals a common structural plan in this most complex animal subphylum, which includes our own species among the mammals. Next, we will consider a simple model of how the nervous system's basic functional systems may be organized structurally. Finally, we will explore the major structural features of the vertebrate nervous system.

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Table of Contents

I Neuroscience
1 Fundamentals of Neuroscience 3
2 Organization of Nervous Systems 9
II Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
3 The Cellular Components of Nervous Tissue 41
4 Subcellular Organization of the Nervous System 71
5 Electrotonic Properties of Axons and Dendrites 107
6 Membrane Potential and Action Potential 129
7 Release of Neurotransmitters 155
8 Neurotransmitters 193
9 Neurotransmitter Receptors 235
10 Intracellular Signaling 269
11 Cell-Cell Communication via Gap Junctions 317
12 Postsynaptic Potentials and Synaptic Integration 345
13 Information Processing in Dendrites 363
14 Brain Energy Metabolism 389
III Nervous System Development
15 Neural Induction and Pattern Formation 417
16 Neurogenesis and Migration 451
17 Cellular Determination 481
18 Growth Cones and Axon Pathfinding 519
19 Synapse Formation and Elimination 547
20 Programmed Cell Death 581
21 Neurotrophic Factors 611
22 Early Experience and Critical Periods 637
IV Sensory Systems
23 Fundamentals of Sensory Systems 657
24 Sensory Transduction 671
25 Chemical Senses: Taste and Olfaction 719
26 Somatic Sensation 761
27 Audition 791
28 Vision 821
V Motor Systems
29 Fundamentals of Motor Systems 855
30 Muscle, Motor Neurons, and Motor Neuron Pools 863
31 Spinal Motor Control, Reflexes, and Locomotion 889
32 Supraspinal Descending Control: The Medial "Postural" System 913
33 Voluntary Descending Control 931
34 Basal Ganglia 951
35 Cerebellum 973
36 Eye Movements 993
VI Regulatory Systems
37 The Hypothalamus: An Overview of Regulatory Systems 1013
38 Central Control of Autonomic Functions: The Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System 1027
39 Cardiovascular System 1051
40 Neural Control of Breathing 1063
41 Food Intake and Metabolism 1091
42 Water Intake and Body Fluids 1111
43 Neuroendocrine Systems I: Overview - Thyroid and Adrenal Axes 1127
44 Neuroendocrine Systems II: Growth, Reproduction, and Lactation 1151
45 Circadian Timing 1189
46 Sleep and Dreaming 1207
47 Psychosexual Development 1229
48 Motivation and Reward 1245
49 Drug Reward and Addiction 1261
VII Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience
50 Human Brain Evolution 1283
51 Cognitive Development 1313
52 Object and Face Recognition 1339
53 Spatial Cognition 1363
54 Attention 1385
55 Learning and Memory: Basic Mechanisms 1411
56 Learning and Memory: Systems Analysis 1455
57 Language and Communication 1487
58 Hemispheric Specialization 1521
59 Thinking and Problem Solving 1543
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