Fundamental Optical Design

Fundamental Optical Design

by Michael J. Kidger

This book provides all the essential and best elements of Kidger's many courses taught worldwide on lens and optical design. It is written in a direct style that is compact, logical, and to the point--a tutorial in the best sense of the word.

"I read my copy late last year, and read it straight through, cover to cover. In fact, I read it no less than three

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This book provides all the essential and best elements of Kidger's many courses taught worldwide on lens and optical design. It is written in a direct style that is compact, logical, and to the point--a tutorial in the best sense of the word.

"I read my copy late last year, and read it straight through, cover to cover. In fact, I read it no less than three times. Its elegant expositions, valuable insights and up-front espousal of pre-design theory make it an outstanding work. It's in the same league with Conrady and Kingslake." --Warren Smith

Product Details

SPIE Press
Publication date:
SPIE Press Monograph Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
6.90(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

List of symbolsxix
Chapter 1Geometrical Optics1
1.1Coordinate system and notation1
1.2The rectilinear propagation of light2
1.3Snell's law2
1.4Fermat's principle4
1.5Rays and wavefronts--the theorem of Malus and Dupin5
1.6Stops and pupils6
1.6.1Marginal and chief rays7
1.6.2Entrance and exit pupils7
1.6.3Field stops8
1.7.2Quadrics of revolution (paraboloids, ellipsoids, hyperboloids)10
1.7.3Oblate ellipsoid12
1.7.4The hyperbola13
Chapter 2Paraxial Optics17
2.1Paraxial rays17
2.1.1The sign convention17
2.1.2The paraxial region18
2.2The cardinal points18
2.2.1Principal points19
2.2.2Nodal points20
2.3Paraxial properties of a single surface21
2.4Paraxial ray tracing23
2.4.1Discussion of the use of paraxial ray trace equations25
2.5The Lagrange invariant25
2.5.1Transverse (lateral) magnification27
2.5.2Afocal systems and angular magnification28
2.6Newton's conjugate distance equation30
2.7Further discussion of the cardinal points32
2.7.1The combination of two lenses34
2.7.2The thick lens35
2.7.3System of several elements38
2.8The refraction invariant, A39
2.8.1Other expressions for the Lagrange invariant40
2.9The eccentricity, E41
2.9.1The determination of E42
Chapter 3Ray Tracing45
3.2A simple trigonometric method of tracing meridian rays46
3.3The vector form of Snell's law48
3.3.1Definition of direction cosines50
3.4Ray tracing (algebraic method)51
3.5Calculation of wavefront aberration (optical path difference)55
3.6Ray tracing through aspheric and toroidal surfaces57
3.7Decentered and tilted surfaces60
3.8Ray tracing at reflecting surfaces61
Chapter 4Aberrations63
4.1The relationship between transverse and wavefront aberrations63
4.2Ray aberration plots65
4.3Spot diagrams69
4.4Aberrations of centered optical systems70
4.4.1First-order aberrations73
4.4.2The five monochromatic third-order (Seidel) aberrations74
4.4.3Higher-order aberrations82
4.5Modulation transfer function (MTF)86
4.5.2The geometrical approximation88
4.5.3Practical calculation88
4.5.4The diffraction limit89
Chapter 5Chromatic Aberration91
5.1Variation of refractive index--dispersion91
5.1.1Longitudinal chromatic aberration (axial color) of a thin lens92
5.1.2The Abbe V-value93
5.1.3Secondary spectrum94
5.1.4Transverse chromatic aberration (lateral color)97
5.2The Conrady method for calculation of chromatic aberration97
5.3Chromatic variation of aberrations100
Chapter 6Seidel Aberrations101
6.2Seidel surface contributions101
6.2.1Spherical aberration102
6.2.2Off-axis Seidel aberrations107
6.2.3Alternative formula for distortion108
6.2.4Aberrations of a plano-convex singlet109
6.2.5First-order axial color and lateral color111
6.2.6Summary of the Seidel surface coefficients112
6.2.7A numerical example113
6.3Stop-shift effects115
6.3.1Derivation of the Seidel stop-shift equations116
6.4Dependence of the Seidel aberrations on surface curvature120
6.5The aplanatic surface122
6.5.1An example--the classical oil-immersion microscope objective125
6.6Zero Seidel conditions126
6.7"Undercorrected" and "overcorrected" aberrations128
6.8Seidel aberrations of spherical mirrors129
6.9Seidel aberration relationships130
6.9.1Wavefront aberrations130
6.9.2Transverse ray aberrations131
6.9.3The Petzval sum and the Petzval surface132
6.9.4The Petzval surface and astigmatic image surfaces133
6.10Pupil aberrations135
6.11Conjugate-shift effects136
Chapter 7Principles of Lens Design139
7.1Thin lenses139
7.2Thin lens at the stop142
7.2.1Spherical aberration142
7.2.4Field curvature143
7.2.6Axial color145
7.2.7Lateral color146
7.3Discussion of the thin-lens Seidel aberrations146
7.3.1Spherical aberration148
7.3.2Correction of coma152
7.3.3Correction of astigmatism153
7.3.4Correction of field curvature153
7.3.5Reduction of aberrations by splitting lenses into two156
7.3.6Seidel aberrations of a thin lens that is not at the stop157
7.3.7Correction of axial and lateral color157
7.4Shape-dependent and shape-independent aberrations158
7.5Aspheric surfaces159
7.5.1Third-order off-axis aberrations of an aspheric plate161
7.5.2Chromatic effects162
7.6The sine condition162
7.6.1Sine condition in the finite conjugate case162
7.6.2The sine condition with the object at infinity163
7.6.3The sine condition for the afocal case164
7.7Other design strategies164
7.7.1Monocentric systems165
7.7.2Use of front-to-back symmetry165
Chapter 8Achromatic Doublet Objectives167
8.1Seidel analysis167
8.1.1Correction of chromatic aberration167
8.1.2Astigmatism and field curvature168
8.1.3Comparison with the actual aberrations of a doublet168
8.1.4Correcting both Petzval sum and axial color in doublets169
8.1.5Possibilities of aberration correction in doublets170
8.2The cemented doublet170
8.2.1Optimization of cemented doublets171
8.2.2Crown-first doublet172
8.2.3Flint-first doublet174
8.3The split doublet177
8.3.1The split Fraunhofer doublet177
8.3.2The split Gauss doublet179
8.4General limitations of doublets182
Chapter 9Petzval Lenses and Telephoto Objectives183
9.1Seidel analysis184
9.1.1Calculation of predicted transverse aberrations from Seidel coefficients185
9.3.1Simple Petzval lens with two doublets186
9.3.2Petzval lens with curved image surface189
9.3.3Petzval lens with field flattener191
9.4The telephoto lens193
Chapter 10Triplets199
10.1Seidel theory199
10.2Example of an optimized triplet202
10.3Glass choice204
Chapter 11Eyepieces and Afocal Systems209
11.1Eyepieces--design considerations209
11.1.1Specification of an eyepiece210
11.1.2Aberration considerations211
11.2Simple eyepiece types213
11.2.1The Ramsden eyepiece213
11.2.2The achromatized Ramsden, or Kellner, eyepiece214
11.2.3The Ploessl eyepiece216
11.2.4The Erfle eyepiece217
11.3Afocal systems for the visible waveband219
11.3.1Simple example of a complete telescopic system220
11.3.2More complex example of a telescopic system222
11.3.3Galilean telescopes224
Chapter 12Thermal Imaging Lenses231
12.1Photon detection231
12.1.18- to 13- [mu]m waveband232
12.1.23- to 5- [mu]m waveband233
12.2Single-material lenses233
12.2.1Single germanium lens234
12.2.2Germanium doublets236
12.2.3Germanium Petzval lens240
12.2.4Germanium triplet242
12.3Multiple-material lenses244
12.4Infrared afocal systems247
12.4.1The objective247
12.4.2The eyepiece247
12.4.3Optimization and analysis249
12.5Other aspects of thermal imaging249
12.5.1Narcissus effect249
12.5.2Thermal effects250
12.5.3Special optical surfaces250
Chapter 13Catadioptric Systems253
13.1General considerations253
13.1.1Reminder of Seidel theory--spherical aberration, S[subscript 1]253
13.1.2Correction of field curvature, S[subscript 4]254
13.1.3General topics relating to computations with catadioptric systems255
13.2Simple examples255
13.2.1Cassegrain telescope255
13.2.2Field corrector for a Cassegrain telescope257
13.2.3Coma corrector for a paraboloidal mirror259
13.2.4Field corrector for a paraboloidal mirror260
13.2.5The Ritchey-Chretien telescope262
13.2.6Field corrector for a Ritchey-Chretien telescope263
13.2.7Field corrector for a hyperbolic mirror265
13.2.8Schmidt camera267
13.2.9The achromatized Schmidt camera268
13.2.10The field-flattened Schmidt camera270
13.2.11The Maksutov-Bouwers Cassegrain system272
13.2.12A simple Mangin mirror system by Wiedemann274
13.3More complex examples276
13.3.1Canzek Mangin system276
13.3.2Mirror telephoto lens279

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