Fundamental Optical Design

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Overview

This book provides all the essential and best elements of Kidger's many courses taught worldwide on lens and optical design. It is written in a direct style that is compact, logical, and to the point--a tutorial in the best sense of the word.

"I read my copy late last year, and read it straight through, cover to cover. In fact, I read it no less than three times. Its elegant expositions, valuable insights and up-front espousal of pre-design theory make it an outstanding work. It's in the same league with Conrady and Kingslake." --Warren Smith

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Basic geometrical optics and third-order aberration theory are reviewed using the nomenclature and sign conventions given in W.T. Welford's book, . Focus is on the application of theory to the design of a variety of simple optical systems, with design examples that include prescriptions and aberration data generated by SIGMA, the author's optical design code. The book is for those new to optical design, and for those who studied lens design prior to the advent of the IBM PC. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780819439154
  • Publisher: SPIE Press
  • Publication date: 12/28/2001
  • Series: SPIE Press Monograph Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 314
  • Sales rank: 1,311,621
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword xiii
Preface xvii
List of symbols xix
Chapter 1 Geometrical Optics 1
1.1 Coordinate system and notation 1
1.2 The rectilinear propagation of light 2
1.3 Snell's law 2
1.4 Fermat's principle 4
1.5 Rays and wavefronts--the theorem of Malus and Dupin 5
1.6 Stops and pupils 6
1.6.1 Marginal and chief rays 7
1.6.2 Entrance and exit pupils 7
1.6.3 Field stops 8
1.7 Surfaces 8
1.7.1 Spheres 8
1.7.2 Quadrics of revolution (paraboloids, ellipsoids, hyperboloids) 10
1.7.3 Oblate ellipsoid 12
1.7.4 The hyperbola 13
1.7.5 Axicon 14
References 15
Chapter 2 Paraxial Optics 17
2.1 Paraxial rays 17
2.1.1 The sign convention 17
2.1.2 The paraxial region 18
2.2 The cardinal points 18
2.2.1 Principal points 19
2.2.2 Nodal points 20
2.3 Paraxial properties of a single surface 21
2.4 Paraxial ray tracing 23
2.4.1 Discussion of the use of paraxial ray trace equations 25
2.5 The Lagrange invariant 25
2.5.1 Transverse (lateral) magnification 27
2.5.2 Afocal systems and angular magnification 28
2.6 Newton's conjugate distance equation 30
2.7 Further discussion of the cardinal points 32
2.7.1 The combination of two lenses 34
2.7.2 The thick lens 35
2.7.3 System of several elements 38
2.8 The refraction invariant, A 39
2.8.1 Other expressions for the Lagrange invariant 40
2.9 The eccentricity, E 41
2.9.1 The determination of E 42
References 44
Chapter 3 Ray Tracing 45
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 A simple trigonometric method of tracing meridian rays 46
3.3 The vector form of Snell's law 48
3.3.1 Definition of direction cosines 50
3.4 Ray tracing (algebraic method) 51
3.4.1 Precision 54
3.5 Calculation of wavefront aberration (optical path difference) 55
3.6 Ray tracing through aspheric and toroidal surfaces 57
3.7 Decentered and tilted surfaces 60
3.8 Ray tracing at reflecting surfaces 61
References 62
Chapter 4 Aberrations 63
4.1 The relationship between transverse and wavefront aberrations 63
4.2 Ray aberration plots 65
4.3 Spot diagrams 69
4.4 Aberrations of centered optical systems 70
4.4.1 First-order aberrations 73
4.4.2 The five monochromatic third-order (Seidel) aberrations 74
4.4.3 Higher-order aberrations 82
4.5 Modulation transfer function (MTF) 86
4.5.1 Theory 87
4.5.2 The geometrical approximation 88
4.5.3 Practical calculation 88
4.5.4 The diffraction limit 89
References 90
Chapter 5 Chromatic Aberration 91
5.1 Variation of refractive index--dispersion 91
5.1.1 Longitudinal chromatic aberration (axial color) of a thin lens 92
5.1.2 The Abbe V-value 93
5.1.3 Secondary spectrum 94
5.1.4 Transverse chromatic aberration (lateral color) 97
5.2 The Conrady method for calculation of chromatic aberration 97
5.3 Chromatic variation of aberrations 100
References 100
Chapter 6 Seidel Aberrations 101
6.1 Introduction 101
6.2 Seidel surface contributions 101
6.2.1 Spherical aberration 102
6.2.2 Off-axis Seidel aberrations 107
6.2.3 Alternative formula for distortion 108
6.2.4 Aberrations of a plano-convex singlet 109
6.2.5 First-order axial color and lateral color 111
6.2.6 Summary of the Seidel surface coefficients 112
6.2.7 A numerical example 113
6.3 Stop-shift effects 115
6.3.1 Derivation of the Seidel stop-shift equations 116
6.4 Dependence of the Seidel aberrations on surface curvature 120
6.5 The aplanatic surface 122
6.5.1 An example--the classical oil-immersion microscope objective 125
6.6 Zero Seidel conditions 126
6.7 "Undercorrected" and "overcorrected" aberrations 128
6.8 Seidel aberrations of spherical mirrors 129
6.9 Seidel aberration relationships 130
6.9.1 Wavefront aberrations 130
6.9.2 Transverse ray aberrations 131
6.9.3 The Petzval sum and the Petzval surface 132
6.9.4 The Petzval surface and astigmatic image surfaces 133
6.10 Pupil aberrations 135
6.11 Conjugate-shift effects 136
References 137
Chapter 7 Principles of Lens Design 139
7.1 Thin lenses 139
7.2 Thin lens at the stop 142
7.2.1 Spherical aberration 142
7.2.2 Coma 142
7.2.3 Astigmatism 142
7.2.4 Field curvature 143
7.2.5 Distortion 144
7.2.6 Axial color 145
7.2.7 Lateral color 146
7.3 Discussion of the thin-lens Seidel aberrations 146
7.3.1 Spherical aberration 148
7.3.2 Correction of coma 152
7.3.3 Correction of astigmatism 153
7.3.4 Correction of field curvature 153
7.3.5 Reduction of aberrations by splitting lenses into two 156
7.3.6 Seidel aberrations of a thin lens that is not at the stop 157
7.3.7 Correction of axial and lateral color 157
7.4 Shape-dependent and shape-independent aberrations 158
7.5 Aspheric surfaces 159
7.5.1 Third-order off-axis aberrations of an aspheric plate 161
7.5.2 Chromatic effects 162
7.6 The sine condition 162
7.6.1 Sine condition in the finite conjugate case 162
7.6.2 The sine condition with the object at infinity 163
7.6.3 The sine condition for the afocal case 164
7.7 Other design strategies 164
7.7.1 Monocentric systems 165
7.7.2 Use of front-to-back symmetry 165
References 166
Chapter 8 Achromatic Doublet Objectives 167
8.1 Seidel analysis 167
8.1.1 Correction of chromatic aberration 167
8.1.2 Astigmatism and field curvature 168
8.1.3 Comparison with the actual aberrations of a doublet 168
8.1.4 Correcting both Petzval sum and axial color in doublets 169
8.1.5 Possibilities of aberration correction in doublets 170
8.2 The cemented doublet 170
8.2.1 Optimization of cemented doublets 171
8.2.2 Crown-first doublet 172
8.2.3 Flint-first doublet 174
8.3 The split doublet 177
8.3.1 The split Fraunhofer doublet 177
8.3.2 The split Gauss doublet 179
8.4 General limitations of doublets 182
Chapter 9 Petzval Lenses and Telephoto Objectives 183
9.1 Seidel analysis 184
9.1.1 Calculation of predicted transverse aberrations from Seidel coefficients 185
9.2 Optimization 186
9.3 Examples 186
9.3.1 Simple Petzval lens with two doublets 186
9.3.2 Petzval lens with curved image surface 189
9.3.3 Petzval lens with field flattener 191
9.4 The telephoto lens 193
Chapter 10 Triplets 199
10.1 Seidel theory 199
10.2 Example of an optimized triplet 202
10.3 Glass choice 204
10.4 Vignetting 206
Chapter 11 Eyepieces and Afocal Systems 209
11.1 Eyepieces--design considerations 209
11.1.1 Specification of an eyepiece 210
11.1.2 Aberration considerations 211
11.2 Simple eyepiece types 213
11.2.1 The Ramsden eyepiece 213
11.2.2 The achromatized Ramsden, or Kellner, eyepiece 214
11.2.3 The Ploessl eyepiece 216
11.2.4 The Erfle eyepiece 217
11.3 Afocal systems for the visible waveband 219
11.3.1 Simple example of a complete telescopic system 220
11.3.2 More complex example of a telescopic system 222
11.3.3 Galilean telescopes 224
11.3.4 Magnifiers 226
References 229
Chapter 12 Thermal Imaging Lenses 231
12.1 Photon detection 231
12.1.1 8- to 13- [mu]m waveband 232
12.1.2 3- to 5- [mu]m waveband 233
12.2 Single-material lenses 233
12.2.1 Single germanium lens 234
12.2.2 Germanium doublets 236
12.2.3 Germanium Petzval lens 240
12.2.4 Germanium triplet 242
12.3 Multiple-material lenses 244
12.4 Infrared afocal systems 247
12.4.1 The objective 247
12.4.2 The eyepiece 247
12.4.3 Optimization and analysis 249
12.5 Other aspects of thermal imaging 249
12.5.1 Narcissus effect 249
12.5.2 Thermal effects 250
12.5.3 Special optical surfaces 250
References 250
Chapter 13 Catadioptric Systems 253
13.1 General considerations 253
13.1.1 Reminder of Seidel theory--spherical aberration, S[subscript 1] 253
13.1.2 Correction of field curvature, S[subscript 4] 254
13.1.3 General topics relating to computations with catadioptric systems 255
13.1.4 Baffles 255
13.2 Simple examples 255
13.2.1 Cassegrain telescope 255
13.2.2 Field corrector for a Cassegrain telescope 257
13.2.3 Coma corrector for a paraboloidal mirror 259
13.2.4 Field corrector for a paraboloidal mirror 260
13.2.5 The Ritchey-Chretien telescope 262
13.2.6 Field corrector for a Ritchey-Chretien telescope 263
13.2.7 Field corrector for a hyperbolic mirror 265
13.2.8 Schmidt camera 267
13.2.9 The achromatized Schmidt camera 268
13.2.10 The field-flattened Schmidt camera 270
13.2.11 The Maksutov-Bouwers Cassegrain system 272
13.2.12 A simple Mangin mirror system by Wiedemann 274
13.3 More complex examples 276
13.3.1 Canzek Mangin system 276
13.3.2 Mirror telephoto lens 279
References 281
Index 283
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