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Fundamental Principles of Optical Lithography: The Science of Microfabrication / Edition 1

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Microlithography is the main technical driving force behind one of the most important phenomenon in the history of technology - microelectronics and the incredible shrinking transistor. These dramatic increases in electronic functionality per unit cost each year for nearly five decades, have transformed society. The gating piece of technology in this marvel of manufacturing progress has always been the process of lithography - the photochemical printing of circuit patterns onto semiconductor wafers.

This text attempts a difficult task - to capture the fundamental principles of the incredibly fast-changing field of semiconductor microlithography in such a way that these principles may be effectively applied to past, present and future microfabrication technology generations. Its focus is on the underlying scientific principles of optical lithography, rather than its practice. It will serve equally well as a university textbook (each chapter has an extensive set of problems) and as an industry resource.

Much of the material contained in this book is, of course, a tutorial review of the published literature on lithography and related sciences, but a significant portion is new work, never before having been published. There is no other single book that covers the wide breadth of scientific disciplines needed in the practice of optical microlithography. The major topics covered within this text are optics (imaging and thin film interference effects), photoresist chemistry (chemical reactions, diffusion, and development phenomenon), lithography as a manufacturing process (process control, critical dimension control, and overlay), and resolution enhancement technologies.

Aboutthe Author:
Dr. Chris A. Mack is also an adjunct faculty member at the University of Texas at Austin

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470727300
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/22/2008
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 534
  • Sales rank: 1,022,820
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 1.08 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Chris A. Mack developed the lithography simulation software PROLITH, and founded and ran the company FINLE Technologies fro ten years. He then served as Vice President of Lithography Technology for KLA-Tencor for five years, until 2005. In 2003 he received the SEMI Award for North America for his efforts in lithography simulation and education. He is also an adjunct faculty member at the University of Texas at Austin. Currently, he writes, teaches, and consults on the field of semiconductor microlithography in Austin, Texas.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Semiconductor Lithography 1

2 Aerial Image Formation - The Basics 29

3 Aerial Image Formation - The Details 75

4 Imaging in Resist: Standing Waves and Swing Curves 129

5 Conventional Resists: Exposure and Bake Chemistry 191

6 Chemically Amplified Resists: Exposure and Bake Chemistry 223

7 Photoresist Development 257

8 Lithographic Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing 297

9 Gradient-Based Lithographic Optimization: Using the Normalized Image Log-Slope 369

10 Resolution Enhancement Technologies 411

Appendix A Glossary of Microlithographic Terms 457

Appendix B Curl, Divergence, Gradient, Laplacian 491

Appendix C The Dirac Delta Function 495

Index 501

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