Fundamentals and Applications of Biophotonics in Dentistry

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Overview

Biophotonics in dentistry is a rapidly growing area. Unlike other books, this invaluable compendium touches on the fundamental areas in biophotonics. Contributed by world-renowned authors, it provides a basic understanding on a range of topics for individuals of different backgrounds to acquire a minimum knowledge of research and development in biophotonics. The chapters are arranged in two major categories. The first describes the fundamental aspects of photonics, such as photomechanics, biomedical imaging, lasers and laser-tissue interaction, spectroscopy and photodynamic therapy.

The second details the applications of biophotonics, with special relevance to dentistry, including dental photobiomechanics, Raman spectroscopy and dental tissue optics.

Key Features

A comprehensive textbook ideal for a course on photonics in dentistry

Provides an in-depth introduction to light-tissue interactions

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781860947049
  • Publisher: Imperial College Press
  • Publication date: 12/28/2006
  • Pages: 340
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface v

Fundamentals

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Definition and Significance 2

1.3 Classification of Biophotonics in Dentistry 3

1.3.1 Diagnostic 3

1.3.2 Therapeutic 4

1.3.3 Research 5

1.4 Future Opportunities 7

1.5 Scope of this Book 8

Chapter 2 Photomechanics 9

2.1 Introduction to Mechanics 9

2.1.1 Force and Stress 10

2.1.2 Deformation and Strain 13

2.1.3 Stress-Strain Equations 16

2.2 Basic Optical Engineering 16

2.2.1 Geometric Optics 17

2.2.2 Physical (Wave) Optics 19

2.2.3 Photonics 27

2.3 Photomechanics 30

2.3.1 Moiré and Grid Methods 31

2.3.2 Speckle Methods 40

2.3.3 Photoelasticity 46

2.3.4 Holography 54

2.3.5 Digital Photomechanics 58

2.4 Concluding Remarks 60

Chapter 3 Biomedical Imaging 64

3.1 Introduction 64

3.2 Non-Linear Optical Microscopy (NLOM) Multiphoton Excited Fluorescence (MPEF) and Second Harmonic Generation (SGH) 65

3.2.1 Principles of NLOM 66

3.2.2 Development and Applications of NLOM 69

3.2.3 NLOM in Dentistry 72

3.3 Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 73

3.3.1 Principles of OCT 74

3.3.2 Developments and Applications of OCT 75

3.3.3 OCT in Dentistry 80

3.4 Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) and Modulated Imaging (MI) 82

3.5 Fluorescence Contrast Enhancement 85

3.6 Concluding Remarks 87

Chapter 4 Spectroscopy

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 Molecular Orbitals and Transitions 94

4.3 Transition Dipole Moment 99

4.4 Spin Selection Rule 100

4.5 Franck-Condon Principle 102

4.6 Jablonski Diagram 104

4.7 Stokes Shift 107

4.8 Spectrophotometry 108

4.9 Fluorescence Intensity and Lifetime 110

4.10 Spectrofluorimetry 112

4.11 FluorescenceQuenching 115

4.12 Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) 116

4.13 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy 117

4.14 Concluding Remarks 120

Chapter 5 Lasers and Laser Tissue Interaction

5.1 Introduction 123

5.2 Laser Basics 124

5.2.1 Characteristics of Lasers 126

5.3 Light Propagation in Tissue 128

5.4 Optical Imaging and Diagnosis 131

5.4.1 Optical Imaging 131

5.4.2 Optical Spectroscopic Diagnosis 133

5.5 Optical Processing of Tissue 141

5.5.1 Photothermal Effects 142

5.5.2 Photomechanical Effects 144

5.5.3 Photochemical Effects 144

5.5.4 Applications of Laser Processing of Tissue 145

5.6 Concluding Remarks 148

Chapter 6 Mechanisms and Applications of Photodynamic Therapy

6.1 Historical Background 154

6.2 Photosensitizers 155

6.3 Light Applicators 156

6.4 PDT Mechanisms 161

6.4.1 Photophysics and Photochemistry 161

6.4.2 Biological Effect 162

6.5 PDT Dosimetry 166

6.6 Progress in Clinical Application 167

6.6.1 Non-Malignant Diseases 168

6.6.2 Malignant Diseases 169

6.7 PDT in Dentistry 175

6.7.1 Technical Challenges 175

6.7.2 Current Status 176

6.8 Concluding Remarks 177

Applications

Chapter 7 Dental Photo-Biomechanics

7.1 Introduction 183

7.2 Photoelasticity 184

7.2.1 Introduction 184

7.2.2 Photoelastic Models 185

7.2.3 Polariscope 186

7.2.4 Photoelastic Fringe Analysis 189

7.2.5 Applications of Photoelasticity in Dentistry 192

7.3 Moiré Interferometry 195

7.3.1 Introduction 195

7.3.2 Specimen Grating and Moiré Interferometer 196

7.3.3 Applications of Moiré Technique in Dentistry 197

7.4 Electronic Speckle Pattern Correlation Interferometry 200

7.4.1 Introduction 200

7.4.2 ESPI Experimental Arrangement 201

7.4.3 Applications of ESPI Technique in Dentistry 201

7.5 Concluding Remarks 207

Chapter 8 Micro-Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications in Dental Research

8.1 Introduction 209

8.2 Breakdown of Composite Repair/Replacement Materials 210

8.3 Material/Tissue Interface 211

8.4 Brief Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy 212

8.5 Applications of Micro-Raman Spectroscopy in Dental Research 215

8.5.1 Characterization of the Smear Layer 215

8.5.2 Characterization of Smear Debris 224

8.5.3 Quantifying Reactions at the Adhesive/Dentin Interface 226

8.5.4 Investigation of Adhesive Phase Separation 231

8.6 Concluding Remarks 239

Chapter 9 Dental and Oral Tissue Optics

9.1 Introduction 245

9.2 Continuous Wave Light Interaction with Tissues 248

9.3 Time-Resolved Diffusion Measurements 253

9.4 Optical Properties of Dental Enamel and Dentin 256

9.4.1 Structure of Enamel and Dentin 256

9.4.2 Spectral Properties of Enamel and Dentin 259

9.4.3 Scattering Properties of Enamel 261

9.4.4 Scattering Properties of Dentin 263

9.4.5 Waveguide Effects 264

9.5 Propagation of Polarized Light in Tissues 266

9.5.1 Basic Principles 266

9.5.2 Transillumination Polarization Technique 268

9.5.3 Backscattering Polarization Imaging 269

9.5.4 In-Depth Polarization Spectroscopy 272

9.5.5 Superficial Epithelial Layer Polarization Spectroscopy 273

9.5.6 Polarization Microscopy 274

9.5.7 Digital Photoelasticity Measurements 274

9.6 Optothermal Radiometry 275

9.7 Thermal Imaging 279

9.8 Coherent Effects in the Interaction of Laser Radiation with Tissues and Cell Flows 280

9.9 Dynamic Light Scattering 283

9.9.1 Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering 283

9.9.2 Dynamic Speckles 284

9.9.3 Full-Field Speckle Technique-LASCA 285

9.9.4 Diffusion Wave Spectroscopy 286

9.9.5 Experimental Studies 287

9.10 Coherent Backscattering 287

9.11 Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 288

9.11.1 Introduction 288

9.11.2 Conventional (Time-Domain) OCT 289

9.11.3 En-Face OCT 290

9.11.4 Doppler OCT 291

9.11.5 Polarization Sensitive OCT 292

9.11.6 Optical Coherence Microscopy 294

9.12 Concluding Remarks 295

Chapter 10 Fiber Optic Diagnostic Sensors

10.1 Introduction 301

10.2 Fiber Optics in Diagnosis 302

10.2 Fiber Optic Diagnostic Sensors: Principles 304

10.4 Direct Fiber Optic Sensors: Principles 304

10.4.1 Direct Fiber Optic Physical Sensors 306

10.4.2 Direct Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors 306

10.5 Indirect Fiber Optic Sensors: Principles 309

10.5.1 Indirect Fiber Optic Physical Sensors 310

10.5.2 Indirect Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors 313

10.6 Biosensors 316

10.7 Applications of Fiber Optic Diagnostic Sensors in Dentistry 319

10.8 Concluding Remarks 326

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