Fundamentals and Applications of Nanomaterials

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Overview

This timely resource offers a broad introduction to nanomaterials, covering basic principles, technology, and cutting-edge applications. From quantum mechanics, band structure, surface chemistry, thermodynamics, and kinetics of nanomaterials, to nanomaterial characterization, nanoparticle synthesis, nanoelectronics, nanostructural materials, and nano-bio materials, this groundbreaking volume provides a solid understanding of a wide range of fundamental topics and brings you up-to-date with the latest developments in the field. This informative book is supported with more than 160 illustrations.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781596932623
  • Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 6/28/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 249
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Zhen Guo is a senior process development engineer at Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA. He is also a lecturer in the Department of Chemical and Material Engineering at San Jose State University. Dr. Guo holds an M.S. and a Ph.D. in material science and engineering from the University of Michigan and UC Berkeley, respectively. Li Tan is an assistant professor in the Department of Engineering Mechanics at the University of Nebraska. He earned his M.E. in civil engineering at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and his Ph.D. in macromolecular science and engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

Part I Fundamentals of Nanomaterials Science 1

1 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structures 3

1.1 Brief History of Quantum Mechanics 3

1.2 Photoelectric Effect and Duality Nature of Light 5

1.2.1 Photoelectric Effect 6

1.2.2 Einstein's Explanation 7

1.2.3 Duality of Light 9

1.3 Duality of Electrons 10

1.3.1 De Broglie's Hypothesis and Electrons as Waves 11

1.3.2 Time Independent Schrodinger Equation 12

1.3.3 Free Electrons 16

1.4 Electrons in Potential Well 17

1.4.1 1D Infinite Potential Well 17

1.4.2 3D Infinite Potential Well 19

1.5 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table 21

1.5.1 The Hydrogen Atom 21

1.5.2 The Helium Atom 22

1.5.3 The Periodic Table 23

2 Bonding and Band Structure 25

2.1 Classic Atomic Bonding 25

2.2 Atomic Bonding in Molecules: LCAO Theory 26

2.2.1 Two-Atom Molecule 29

2.2.2 Three-Atom Molecule 31

2.2.3 Four-Atom Molecule 31

2.2.4 Six-Atom Molecule (Benzene Ring) 32

2.2.5 Many-Atom Molecule 34

2.3 Atomic Bonding in Crystalline Solids: Band Theory 35

2.3.1 Energy Band in Solids 36

2.3.2 Partially Filled Energy Band for Metals 37

2.3.3 Energy Band for Insulators and Semiconductors 38

2.4 Bonding and Band Structures in Nanocrystal Materials 40

2.4.1 Top-Down Method for Quantum Wells and Dots 41

2.4.2 Bottom-Up Method for Carbon-Based Nanocrystals 44

References 47

3 Surface Science for Nanomaterials 49

3.1 Crystal Structure and Crystallography 49

3.1.1 Crystal Structures 49

3.1.2 Crystallography 50

3.1.3 Close-Packed Directions, Planes, and Structures 51

3.2 Surface Crystallography 55

3.2.1 Surface Structure for Close-Packed Structures 55

3.2.2 SurfaceStructure for BCC Structures 56

3.2.3 Surface Symmetry 57

3.3 Surface Energy 57

3.3.1 Crystallographically Preferred Surface 59

3.3.2 Wulff Constructions and Equilibrium Shape for Nanoparticles 59

3.4 Surface Reconfigurations 61

3.4.1 Surface Relaxation and Reconstructions 62

3.4.2 Adsorption 67

3.5 Surface Area and Surface Thermodynamics 68

3.5.1 Surface Area in Nanomaterials 69

3.5.2 Nanoparticle Nucleation 70

3.5.3 Wetting 71

References 73

4 Nanomaterials Characterization 75

4.1 X-Ray Diffraction for Nanomaterials Characterization 75

4.1.1 X-Ray Diffraction and the Laue Method 76

4.1.2 Bragg's Law 77

4.1.3 X-Ray Diffraction in Nanomaterials 78

4.2 Electron Microscopy for Nanomaterials Characterization 80

4.2.1 Interaction Between Electron Beams and Solids 81

4.2.2 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) 83

4.2.3 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 86

4.2.4 Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) 87

4.3 Surface Analysis Methods 89

4.3.1 Auger Electron Spectroscope (AES) 90

4.3.2 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscope (XPS) 90

4.3.3 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscope (SIMS) 91

References 91

Part II Nanomaterials Fabrication 93

5 Thin-Film Deposition: Top-Down Approach 95

5.1 Thin-Film Deposition Mechanism 95

5.1.1 Homogeneous Film Growth Mechanisms 95

5.1.2 Heterogeneous Film Growth Mechanisms 97

5.2 Thin-Film Deposition Methods 99

5.2.1 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) 100

5.2.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 102

Reference 106

6 Nanolithography: Top-Down Approach 107

6.1 Introduction 107

6.1.1 Parallel Replication 108

6.1.2 Serial Writing 110

6.2 Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) 110

6.2.1 NIL Process 110

6.2.2 3D Patterning via NIL 111

6.2.3 Air Cushion Press 111

6.2.4 Sequential Embossing/Imprinting Lithography (SEIL) 113

6.3 AFM Lithography 114

6.3.1 Scratching and Nanoindentation 115

6.3.2 Nanografting 117

6.4 Polymer Pen Lithography (PPL) 119

6.5 Templated Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers 122

References 126

7 Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Their Self-Assembly: Bottom-Up Approach 129

7.1 Synthesis of Nanoparticles 129

7.1.1 Coprecipitation 130

7.1.2 Sol-Gel Process 132

7.1.3 Microemulsions 135

7.1.4 Hydrothermal/Solvothermal Methods 136

7.1.5 Templated Synthesis 138

7.1.6 NPs of Organic Semiconductors 138

7.2 Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles 140

7.2.1 Hydrogen Bonding-Based Assembly 140

7.2.2 Electrostatic Assembly 141

7.2.3 Shape-Selective Assembly 142

7.2.4 Hydrophobic Assembly 144

7.2.5 Template-Assisted Assembly 144

7.2.6 Collective Properties of Self-Assembled Nanoparticles 146

7.3 Conclusion 147

References 147

Part III Nanomaterials Properties and Applications 151

8 Nanoelectronic Materials 153

8.1 Single-Electron Transistors (SETs) 153

8.1.1 Single-Electron Capacitor 154

8.1.2 Operating Principles for SETs 158

8.1.3 Quantum Effect on SETs 162

8.1.4 Fabrication of SETs 165

8.2 Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanoelectronic Device 170

8.2.1 Introduction to CNTs 170

8.2.2 Fabrications of CNTs 173

8.2.3 CNT-Based Devices 175

8.3 Spintronics 178

8.3.1 Operating Principles of Spintronics 178

8.3.2 Spintronics Devices 180

References 184

9 Nano Biomaterials 187

9.1 Introduction 187

9.2 Biomimetic Nanotechnology 188

9.2.1 DNA Nanotechnology 188

9.2.2 Structural Biomimicry 191

9.3 Nanostructures in Biodiagnostics 198

9.3.1 Nanoparticle-Based Detection Methods 200

9.3.2 Nanowire- and Nanotube-Based Detection Methods 201

9.4 Nanostructures in Cells Study 202

9.4.1 Microarray Platform as a Research Tool 202

9.5 Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery 205

References 205

10 Nanostructural Materials 209

10.1 Nanograin-Sized Structural Materials 209

10.1.1 Why Grain Refinement? 210

10.1.2 General Approaches for Grain-Refinement 210

10.2 Nanoindentation 213

10.2.1 Principles of Nanoindentation 214

10.2.2 In Situ Nanoindentation 214

10.3 Mechanical Instability of Nanostructures 219

10.3.1 Wrinkling of Thin Films 219

10.3.2 Buckling of Spheroidal Core/Shell Structures 224

10.3.3 Buckling of Nanobeams 225

10.3.4 Collective Buckling Model for Periodic Array of Nanostructures 229

References 235

About the Authors 239

Index 241

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