Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology / Edition 9

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Overview

Features:

  • Cross-references to the main textbook, Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, help students locate in-depth information when required.
  • Focus on Procedures helps students quickly identify the laboratory procedures that need to be performed.
  • Concept Check questions ensure that students understand one section of the exercises before moving forward.
  • Clinical Comments illustrate the relevance of anatomy and physiology to daily life.
  • Lab Reports utilize innovative concept maps to synthesize the concepts discovered in the laboratory exercises to the list of questions posed in the chapter opener.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A colorful, graphic introductory text for undergraduates, featuring many learning aids, including boxes on clinical topics and specific body components, detailed color anatomical illustrations and diagrams of physiological processes, graphical embryology summaries, and illustrations showing how different body systems are integrated. After chapters on the chemical and cellular levels of organization, information is organized in chapters on various body systems, with chapter exercises, key terms, detailed chapter reviews, review questions, and critical thinking and application questions, plus answers. This edition contains expanded material in many areas, more photos and new illustrations, plus an applications manual with additional questions and problems and color anatomical photos. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Booknews
Introductory textbook for a nurses' anatomy course. Basic patterns and organizatoinal themes are stressed throughout. Six parts cover levels of organization, support and movement, control and regulation, fluids and transport, environmental exchange, continuity of life. Lucid color illustrations. No bibliography. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321709332
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/2/2011
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 1264
  • Sales rank: 89,011
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Frederic (“Ric”) Martini received his Ph.D. from Cornell University in comparative and functional anatomy for work on the pathophysiology of stress. He is the lead author of nine undergraduate texts on anatomy and physiology or anatomy. Dr. Martini is currently affiliated with the University of Hawaii at Manoa and has a long-standing bond with the Shoals Marine Laboratory, a joint venture between Cornell University and the University of New Hampshire. Dr. Martini is now a President Emeritus of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) after serving as President-Elect, President, and Past-President over 2005-2007. Dr. Martini was a member of the HAPS committee that established the course curriculum guides for A&P.

Dr. Judi L. Nath is a biology professor at Lourdes College, where she teaches anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology, medical terminology, and pharmacology. She received her Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from Bowling Green State University and her Ph.D. from the University of Toledo. Dr. Nath is devoted to her students and strives to convey the intricacies of science in a captivating way that students find meaningful, interactive, and exciting. She is a multiple recipient of the Faculty Excellence Award, granted by the college to recognize her effective teaching, scholarship, and community service. She is active in many professional organizations, notably the Human Anatomy & Physiology Society (HAPS), where she has served several terms on the board of directors.

Ed Bartholomew received his undergraduate degree from Bowling Green State University and his M.S. from the University of Hawaii. He has taught A&P at both the secondary and undergraduate levels at Lahainaluna High School and at Maui Community College.

Bill Ober is the lead illustrator on all Martini titles. Bill is an Affiliate Professor of Biology at Washington and Lee University (Lexington, VA) and is part of the Core Faculty at Shoals Marine Laboratory (Portsmouth, NH), where he teaches Biological Illustration most summers.

Claire E. Ober is an illustrator who works closely with Bill Ober.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

This laboratory textbook is the embodiment of the thoughts and ideas of my students and colleagues alike, all of whom have spent countless hours discussing how best to conceptualize anatomy and physiology-not only for the benefit of health care students, but for biological science and general education students as well.

Although this conceptual laboratory textbook is written primarily to accompany Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Fifth Edition, by Frederic Martini, it can be used as a stand alone text. Both cat and fetal pig dissection exercises are included, in back-to-back format.

Organization

The organization of the exercises in this text parallels the order of topics in the Martini text. Concept Links to specific pages or topics within the Martini text are included where appropriate throughout this manual.

Anatomy and physiology are presented as separate exercises to allow for greater flexibility in adapting to the constraints of various classroom and laboratory settings. Dissection exercises are separate from the human-oriented exercises for the same reason. We assume that certain exercises will be combined and in the Instructor's Manual we offer suggestions for logical exercise combinations.

In addition to the basic anatomy and physiology labs, certain exercises—such as those in the introductory lessons—can be used in class or assigned as outside review material. Other exercises-such as those on anatomical terminology and skeletal terminology—can be referred to throughout the course. Clinically focused exercises—such as the EEG, blood testing, andurinalysis labs—are included where appropriate.

Unit I provides background information. It is designed specifically for those students who may need to review or conceptualize some basic scientific ideas. Unit II supplies the foundation for anatomy and physiology today by examining both the microscopic and the macroscopic structures and functions of the human body. Units III through XII examine the major systems of the body. Each unit begins with basic systemic anatomy and proceeds through the developmental and physiological aspects of the system., Dissection is included where appropriate. Unit XIII deals with the future of the human species. This unit is recommended particularly for those students who have not had a course in introductory biology prior to studying anatomy and physiology.

Pedagogical Features

The pedagogical features of this laboratory manual have been designed not only to highlight and integrate the essential concepts and terminology of anatomy and physiology, but to give the student an understanding of the corresponding scientific processes.

Most anatomy and physiology labs are hands-on learning centers where the student has the opportunity to use a variety of learning methods unique to the laboratory setting, such as examining models or slides, dissecting real animals, and performing experiments. Laboratory time is also used to practice vocabulary (often putting terms and concepts together for the first time), to create models, or to perform demonstrations which help master essential concepts. We have attempted to emphasize to the student that there are different ways of approaching new material, that there are different kinds of questions that can be answered using each method.

Exercise Format
We have created an Advance Organizer for each exercise which integrates traditional exercise objectives into a framework of different learning activities. Objectives have been formulated as questions, or Procedural Inquiries. These Socratic Objectives, based on the time-tested Socratic method, help the student see that science is about asking as well as answering questions. This Socratic framework serves as an overview of what is to follow in the laboratory period, and as a vehicle to show that the question asked often determines the procedures used. The student discovers the answers to the inquiries as s/he completes the lab exercise.

The primary learning categories used throughout this lab manual to help the student focus on a particular aspect of an exercise are these:

  • Preparation: Includes physical preparation and safety instructions, as well as certain conceptual overviews and vocabulary background information.
  • Examination: Includes observation of models or slides, in addition to gross or histological specimens.
  • Dissection: Includes all animal and organ dissections.
  • Model-building: Includes certain demonstrations and models made by students.
  • Practice: Includes skill mastery drills and procedures.
  • Experimentation: Includes all tests and actual experiments.
  • Additional Inquiries: Includes important objectives that are not achieved directly by examination or experimentation, but rather by synthesizing information the student has learned or read.

Each exercise is organized in a modified Outline Format. The Roman numerals denote the major topics, and the capital letters introduce the subtopics. The procedures themselves are written in a short, step-by-step manner within the outline. All procedures (and only the procedures) are indicated with Arabic numerals. This design helps the student distinguish between background material and the actual tasks at hand, and ensures that all steps in each procedure are accomplished in the correct order.

Where appropriate, Drawing Boxes are provided for the student to record gross or microscopic observations. These boxes are labelled for easy reference when the student reviews the exercise.

Clinical Comments are included throughout the laboratory manual to provide interesting information on diseases and disorders as they apply to concepts under consideration in the lab.

Frequent Concept Check Questions are found in each exercise. These questions quiz the student about the concept under consideration, ask the student to consider the implications of the laboratory procedures, and urge the student to recall relevant personal experience or personal insight. Some of these questions are checked with a distinctive icon. At the end of each exercise, these checked questions are answered in the Answers to Selected Concept Check Questions. In some cases, additional paper may be required.

An Additional Activities section is included for enrichment at the end of most laboratory exercises. Some of these additional activities require outside research; others require internal investigation or an extension of what has been covered in the laboratory exercise. Often the needs of the class will dictate the manner in which the additional activities are utilized.

The Lab Report begins with a Box Summary, in which the student is asked to organize the factual material presented in the exercise. Numbers given with each box correspond to the numbers found on the Advance Organizer inquiries. After completing the laboratory exercise, the student should be able to fill in these boxes. Should difficulty arise, however, the student can refer to the opening inquiries as "hints:" All questions are answered in the main body of the exercise.

The second part of the lab report includes a series of questions which the student should be able to answer after working through the procedures. Some of these questions are similar to given inquiries posed in the advance organizer. Some reports may require extra paper.

Supplements

Instructor's Manual
In writing the Instructor's Manual, I have focused on flexibility and conceptualization. Each laboratory is bound by a unique set of constraints, and it is important that each exercise exhibit a great deal of flexibility without sacrificing the central theme of the lesson. Some schools teach anatomy and physiology as two separate courses, while other schools integrate anatomical and physiological concepts throughout the span of a one-, two, or even three-term sequence. Some schools have as little as one hour per week for laboratory work while other schools have as many as four; and some schools have extensive equipment while at other schools, equipment is quite limited.

Because of this need for flexibility, the Instructor's Manual offers numerous suggestions for combining or modifying different laboratory exercises to meet specific academic agendas.

Recommendations are made to help the instructor with his or her laboratory ideas according to the defined needs of a particular program. Instructors wishing to use equipment other than that prescribed in the text will find suggestions for alternatives or substitutions throughout.

Adaptation is further enhanced by the modified outline format used in presenting the exercises. Parts of the outline can be enhanced or omitted according to need.

This outline format is also a part of our theme of conceptualization. The philosophy of the manual itself is that an understanding of anatomy and physiology is essential for today's student. In the Instructor's Manual we discuss conceptualization and explain what we believe are the primary concepts or ideas of the individual exercises. I have tried to offer suggestions for the implementation of these concepts by pointing out the essence of each exercise and demonstrating the logical and sequential framework around which each exercise is constructed.

Finally, we stress conceptualization by exploring ways in which the instructor can coordinate the inquiry-based objectives in the advance organizer with the concluding Lab Report which is specifically designed to bring together the various aspects of the laboratory exercise.

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Table of Contents

Unit 1 Levels of Organization
1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology 1
2 The Chemical Level of Organization 27
3 The Cellular Level of Organization: Cell Structure 59
4 The Cellular Level of Organization: Control Mechanisms at the Cellular Level 95
5 The Tissue Level of Organization 123
Systems Overview: An Orientation to the Human Body 166
Unit 2 Support and Movement
6 The Integumentary System 183
7 The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure 209
8 The Skeletal System: Axial Division 237
9 The Skeletal System: Appendicular Division 269
10 The Muscular System: Skeletal Muscle Tissue 297
11 The Muscular System: Organization 327
Unit 3 Control and Regulation
12 The Nervous System: Neural Tissue 369
13 The Nervous System: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 405
14 The Nervous System: The Brain and Cranial Nerves 433
15 The Nervous System: Pathways, Processing, and Higher-Order Functions 471
16 The Nervous System: Autonomic Division 499
17 Sensory Function 523
18 The Endocrine System 567
Unit 4 Fluids and Transport
19 The Cardiovascular System: The Blood 605
20 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart 633
21 The Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulation 663
22 The Lymphatic System and Immunity 709
Unit 5 Environmental Exchange
23 The Respiratory System 747
24 The Digestive System 783
25 Metabolism and Energetics 827
26 The Urinary System 859
27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 895
Unit 6 Continuity of Life
28 The Reproductive System 917
29 Development and Inheritance 953
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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

This laboratory textbook is the embodiment of the thoughts and ideas of my students and colleagues alike, all of whom have spent countless hours discussing how best to conceptualize anatomy and physiology-not only for the benefit of health care students, but for biological science and general education students as well.

Although this conceptual laboratory textbook is written primarily to accompany Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Fifth Edition, by Frederic Martini, it can be used as a stand alone text. Both cat and fetal pig dissection exercises are included, in back-to-back format.

Organization

The organization of the exercises in this text parallels the order of topics in the Martini text. Concept Links to specific pages or topics within the Martini text are included where appropriate throughout this manual.

Anatomy and physiology are presented as separate exercises to allow for greater flexibility in adapting to the constraints of various classroom and laboratory settings. Dissection exercises are separate from the human-oriented exercises for the same reason. We assume that certain exercises will be combined and in the Instructor's Manual we offer suggestions for logical exercise combinations.

In addition to the basic anatomy and physiology labs, certain exercises—such as those in the introductory lessons—can be used in class or assigned as outside review material. Other exercises-such as those on anatomical terminology and skeletal terminology—can be referred to throughout the course. Clinically focused exercises—such as the EEG, blood testing,andurinalysis labs—are included where appropriate.

Unit I provides background information. It is designed specifically for those students who may need to review or conceptualize some basic scientific ideas. Unit II supplies the foundation for anatomy and physiology today by examining both the microscopic and the macroscopic structures and functions of the human body. Units III through XII examine the major systems of the body. Each unit begins with basic systemic anatomy and proceeds through the developmental and physiological aspects of the system., Dissection is included where appropriate. Unit XIII deals with the future of the human species. This unit is recommended particularly for those students who have not had a course in introductory biology prior to studying anatomy and physiology.

Pedagogical Features

The pedagogical features of this laboratory manual have been designed not only to highlight and integrate the essential concepts and terminology of anatomy and physiology, but to give the student an understanding of the corresponding scientific processes.

Most anatomy and physiology labs are hands-on learning centers where the student has the opportunity to use a variety of learning methods unique to the laboratory setting, such as examining models or slides, dissecting real animals, and performing experiments. Laboratory time is also used to practice vocabulary (often putting terms and concepts together for the first time), to create models, or to perform demonstrations which help master essential concepts. We have attempted to emphasize to the student that there are different ways of approaching new material, that there are different kinds of questions that can be answered using each method.

Exercise Format
We have created an Advance Organizer for each exercise which integrates traditional exercise objectives into a framework of different learning activities. Objectives have been formulated as questions, or Procedural Inquiries. These Socratic Objectives, based on the time-tested Socratic method, help the student see that science is about asking as well as answering questions. This Socratic framework serves as an overview of what is to follow in the laboratory period, and as a vehicle to show that the question asked often determines the procedures used. The student discovers the answers to the inquiries as s/he completes the lab exercise.

The primary learning categories used throughout this lab manual to help the student focus on a particular aspect of an exercise are these:

  • Preparation: Includes physical preparation and safety instructions, as well as certain conceptual overviews and vocabulary background information.
  • Examination: Includes observation of models or slides, in addition to gross or histological specimens.
  • Dissection: Includes all animal and organ dissections.
  • Model-building: Includes certain demonstrations and models made by students.
  • Practice: Includes skill mastery drills and procedures.
  • Experimentation: Includes all tests and actual experiments.
  • Additional Inquiries: Includes important objectives that are not achieved directly by examination or experimentation, but rather by synthesizing information the student has learned or read.

Each exercise is organized in a modified Outline Format. The Roman numerals denote the major topics, and the capital letters introduce the subtopics. The procedures themselves are written in a short, step-by-step manner within the outline. All procedures (and only the procedures) are indicated with Arabic numerals. This design helps the student distinguish between background material and the actual tasks at hand, and ensures that all steps in each procedure are accomplished in the correct order.

Where appropriate, Drawing Boxes are provided for the student to record gross or microscopic observations. These boxes are labelled for easy reference when the student reviews the exercise.

Clinical Comments are included throughout the laboratory manual to provide interesting information on diseases and disorders as they apply to concepts under consideration in the lab.

Frequent Concept Check Questions are found in each exercise. These questions quiz the student about the concept under consideration, ask the student to consider the implications of the laboratory procedures, and urge the student to recall relevant personal experience or personal insight. Some of these questions are checked with a distinctive icon. At the end of each exercise, these checked questions are answered in the Answers to Selected Concept Check Questions. In some cases, additional paper may be required.

An Additional Activities section is included for enrichment at the end of most laboratory exercises. Some of these additional activities require outside research; others require internal investigation or an extension of what has been covered in the laboratory exercise. Often the needs of the class will dictate the manner in which the additional activities are utilized.

The Lab Report begins with a Box Summary, in which the student is asked to organize the factual material presented in the exercise. Numbers given with each box correspond to the numbers found on the Advance Organizer inquiries. After completing the laboratory exercise, the student should be able to fill in these boxes. Should difficulty arise, however, the student can refer to the opening inquiries as "hints:" All questions are answered in the main body of the exercise.

The second part of the lab report includes a series of questions which the student should be able to answer after working through the procedures. Some of these questions are similar to given inquiries posed in the advance organizer. Some reports may require extra paper.

Supplements

Instructor's Manual
In writing the Instructor's Manual, I have focused on flexibility and conceptualization. Each laboratory is bound by a unique set of constraints, and it is important that each exercise exhibit a great deal of flexibility without sacrificing the central theme of the lesson. Some schools teach anatomy and physiology as two separate courses, while other schools integrate anatomical and physiological concepts throughout the span of a one-, two, or even three-term sequence. Some schools have as little as one hour per week for laboratory work while other schools have as many as four; and some schools have extensive equipment while at other schools, equipment is quite limited.

Because of this need for flexibility, the Instructor's Manual offers numerous suggestions for combining or modifying different laboratory exercises to meet specific academic agendas.

Recommendations are made to help the instructor with his or her laboratory ideas according to the defined needs of a particular program. Instructors wishing to use equipment other than that prescribed in the text will find suggestions for alternatives or substitutions throughout.

Adaptation is further enhanced by the modified outline format used in presenting the exercises. Parts of the outline can be enhanced or omitted according to need.

This outline format is also a part of our theme of conceptualization. The philosophy of the manual itself is that an understanding of anatomy and physiology is essential for today's student. In the Instructor's Manual we discuss conceptualization and explain what we believe are the primary concepts or ideas of the individual exercises. I have tried to offer suggestions for the implementation of these concepts by pointing out the essence of each exercise and demonstrating the logical and sequential framework around which each exercise is constructed.

Finally, we stress conceptualization by exploring ways in which the instructor can coordinate the inquiry-based objectives in the advance organizer with the concluding Lab Report which is specifically designed to bring together the various aspects of the laboratory exercise.

Read More Show Less

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