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When the First Edition of Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology was published in 1989, the options available for presenting, studying, and applying principles of anatomy and physiology (A & P) were much more limited than they are today. Our knowledge base has also expanded tremendously. As we proceed into the new millennium, we know much more than ever before about the biochemical and molecular foundations of many normal physiological processes, we understand the molecular origins of many diseases, and we are close to completing an initial survey of the human genome. This enhanced understanding has led to the development of effective new treatments, protocols, and interventions to combat disease, reduce suffering, and promote good health. Many of these advances could not have been made if they were not preceded by improvements in the speed and reliability of computers. Modern technology, especially computers and the Internet, has changed our daily lives and is reshaping our societies in many ways.
The emerging medical technologies allow us to perform complex surgical procedures on individual organs or to target specific cells within an organ. We can manipulate the DNA within cells, and we can even clone genetically identical animals, although we are still unable to repair even the simplest genetic defect in humans. Many people are horrified by what we can now do with technology; others are intent on pushing ahead without a clear idea of the ultimate destination. Nevertheless, all of us are affected by modern technology. Technology has become a means for acquiring and distributing information, and medicalprofessionals have learned to use technology to increase their effectiveness as well as to improve the quality of medical care.
By enhancing the availability of specific information, modern technology has affected how each of us deals with information in general. In many cases, rowing where to look for information is preferable to dying to memorize specific data. That is certainly the end in the training of medical and allied health professionals today. Students begin by mastering the technology and memorizing a substantial core of basic conceptual information. In the process, they are also given (1) a "mental framework" for organizing new information, (2) the ability to access additional information when needed, by consulting relevant print or electronic data sources, and (3) an understanding of how to apply their knowledge to solve particular problems. The same skills are equally important to people in other career paths. To be effective in almost any job today, you must know how to access and absorb new information, to use (or learn to use) available technology, and to solve problems.
The ultimate goal of any anatomy and physiology course should be to empower students to use their conceptual understanding to solve problems. Preparation for this goal involves a substantial amount of memorization, but the burden of memorization is reduced if the relevance of the information is evident. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology has been designed to place the information in a meaningful context and to help students develop their problem-solving skills. The electronic enhancements, including the enclosed CD-ROM and the Companion Website, make it easy for students and instructors to use current technology to access and manage information.
Over the last 5 years I have visited instructors and students at campuses throughout North America, Australia, and New Zealand. I have found that most instructors are aware of this relationship among information, technology, and problem solving. I have also found them seeking answers to similar questions, which could be summarized as follows:
These questions are asked by college faculty members in all courses; in fact, a very similar set of questions is asked by students. (See "To the Student" on page xxix.) The situation is probably more troublesome in A & P than in other courses, because this is the first college-level science course many of these students will take. They must learn not only a new vocabulary but also new ways of studying and organizing information. For most instructors, teaching anatomy and physiology has never been more challenging; in addition to teaching terminology, facts, and concepts, instructors must help their students be good problem solvers. Mastering terminology, facts, and concepts is of little value if that mastery cannot be used to solve problems. It would be analogous to a person's knowing all the parts of an automobile and the concepts behind the internal combustion engine without being able to back the car out of the garage and drive it away.
The focus of this text and its support materials has been to simplify the teaching and learning of anatomy and physiology. In the revision process, I've tried to address each of the above questions.
I have often heard the statement "all A & P books are the same." Well, yes and no. All books in this market are about the same size and length, and they all have a similar organization, colorful illustrations, and an assortment of supplements. However, that does not mean that all A & P books are exactly alike, any more than all cars are alike simply because they all have engines and tires and can transport you from one place to another. This textbook has been designed to meet specific needs. How were those needs determined? Personal experience has helped, but no one person has a complete view of any situation. So, wherever and whenever possible, I have met with instructors and students to learn more about shared problems, solutions, and perspectives. Prentice Hall has sponsored student focus groups and instructor focus groups, giving me the opportunity to get direct feedback and to "test-drive" new features. I have received hundreds of letters, phone calls, and email messages from instructors and students with comments and suggestions about this textbook and its supplements. The result is a package that is more than just "reliable transportation"—it will help you negotiate the curves and avoid the potholes. The textbook's important and distinctive features are explained in "To the Student" (page xxix). I urge you to read it before your course gets under way.
Each new edition requires some revising and updating, and that was certainly the case here. In the process, I reexamined the material within each chapter to see what steps could be taken to improve the delivery of information and clarify key concepts. This reexamination was the key to demonstrating the relevancy and applicability of the material, to integrating the components of the learning system more effectively, and to providing additional opportunities for enhancing student understanding during lectures, lab periods, and study times through the use of appropriate technologies. To give you an idea of the scope and nature of the changes, I will begin with changes to the textbook and then consider changes to the teaching and learning system as a whole.
The basic chapter sequence and organization of the text remains unchanged. However, in response to instructor and student feedback, I have streamlined the delivery of key physiological concepts and developed a new feature, called a Navigator, to help students keep track of their progress through the material. Simply put, a Navigator is a flow chart that includes the key topics covered within a section. This new feature is presented first as a full-size figure, accompanied by a narrative overview. It then reappears in simplified form each time the reader "steps" from one key topic to another. The Navigator concept, which sounds simple, actually entailed more than just creating new artwork and adding overviews. In some cases, it involved the resequencing of material and led to the creation of summary tables that review key concepts before the next "step" is taken. This approach is suitable neither for all topics nor for all chapters, but it is a big help in getting through tough sections that deal with abstract physiological concepts. For instance, Navigators are used in Chapters 12 (neurophysiology), 21 (cardiovascular physiology), 22 (immunity), 23 (respiratory physiology), and 25 (cellular metabolism). A comparable pattern of presentation—overview followed by blocks of text and art accompanied by summary tables—has been used throughout, even in chapters that do not contain Navigators.
Both anatomical structures and physiological processes must be visualized if students are to understand them. One of the greatest strengths of the art program in this textbook has been that all illustrations in all chapters have been created by the same two medical illustrators: Bill Ober, M.D., and Claire Garrison, R.N. Their efforts in previous editions have resulted in awards from the Association of Medical Illustrators and from the Text and Academic Authors Association. Having one team responsible for the visual presentation of information ensures that structures and processes are depicted in a consistent manner from figure to figure and from chapter to chapter; Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology is the only A & P textbook that has a unified art program. (To learn more about Bill and Claire, please see their brief biographies on page iii.) We work together as the manuscript evolves, and they read key sections of the manuscript to make sure that the visual and narrative presentations are in alignment. In addition, we have been able to work with Ralph Hutchings, a biomedical photographer recently cited as one of the best photographers of the twentieth century for his anatomical portrayals of the human body. Bill and Claire have incorporated many new photos into the textbook and the Companion Atlas of the Applications Manual, and Ralph's photos appear in the textbook, and in the media, Companion Atlas, and lab manuals that accompany the Fifth Edition.
A detailed examination of virtually any chapter in the Fifth Edition will reveal both subtle and dramatic improvements and additions to the illustration program. Dramatic improvements in the art program for this edition include the following:
Each chapter of the Fifth Edition contains an integrated learning tool celled a MediaLab. These innovative sections have been developed with the assistance of Kate Flickinger, Ph.D., of Maui Community College. Kate has extensive research and teaching experience in anatomy and physiology and specializes in media use and instructional design. (Her brief biography appears on page iv.)
Although computers continue to become more available to both faculty and students, relatively few instructors have used Web-based assignments in an A&P course. The reasons are that (1) instructors don't have time to cover the material already in the course syllabus and text; (2) there is no demonstrable link between the URL provided and the course material that will affect student grades; and (3) there are no guidelines for time expenditure—students could wander an the Internet for hours, when they might be better off spending that time studying their textbook and lecture notes. MediaLabs address these concerns by providing specific, time-constrained exercises with clearly stated objectives that relate the Web-based activities to the core chapter content. It is our hope that this feature will enable instructors to capitalize on the wealth of Web-based content as it provides students with alternative learning opportunities.
Introductory A & P students often need a lot of help with organizing and integrating the material, so this textbook offers a variety of pedagogical aids. The red figure locator dots, red checkmarks in Concept Check Questions, and Concept Link icons that distinguish this textbook from all others are important and effective learning aids that were, in many cases, suggested by students themselves. Focus-group participants and reviewers who used the Fourth Edition—as students or as instructors—were virtually unanimous in telling me to retain these features in the Fifth Edition. These pedagogical aids were retained, but the design has been changed to soften their visual impact. As a bonus, this new design has enabled me to coordinate the narrative and illustrations more closely.
One of the most important aspects of this new edition, from my perspective, is that I had the chance to look at the functionality and integration of all the components of the learning system developed over the last 12 years. That means examining not just the textbook and Applications Manual, for which I am largely responsible, but the study guides, CD-ROMs, websites, and other components that are created by others. As you know, each medium has its strengths and weaknesses. So, when I started dealing with content issues, reviewer comments, and so forth for the textbook revision, I also began working with the talented editorial and media staff at Prentice Hall to examine each element in the learning system. On the basis of feedback from faculty, students, and technical experts, we made decisions as to how the various components might be rearranged to make better use of the available media and to improve the delivery of the revised text content. I can give you a few specific examples here; others will become apparent as you become more familiar with the new edition.
We began by looking at the material in the textbook, the Applications Manual, student CD-ROMs, and Companion Website as though it were a single pool of resources. We then allocated content to take advantage of the strengths of each medium. After distributing assets, we evaluated each to determine how it could be enhanced and integrated with the whole to support an improved learning system. This evaluation led to several major changes from the approach used in the Fourth Edition.
Each of these components will be considered individually in the Supplements section next. But this brief overview should give you a sense of the nature and goals of the reorganization.
The supplements team consists of talented A & P instructors, most of whom have been using this textbook since its First or Second Edition. Their efforts are coordinated by the supplements editors and multimedia editors at Prentice Hall. During the development of the Fifth Edition, they have worked with me as an extra team of reviewers. In return, I have provided them with additional suggestions and comments while their revisions were under way.
Instructor's Preparation Box
Prentice Hall and I have tried to simplify the task of preparing lectures for this course. The Instructor's Preparation Box contains three sets of materials for each chapter. The first set contains traditional Instructor's Manual materials, including detailed lecture notes and an organizational grid of visual resources by chapter. This set also contains suggested demonstrations, analogies, answers to end-of-chapter questions, and mnemonic activities designed to engage students' interest and to provide some additional flavor for your lectures. The second set contains student handouts—including crossword puzzles and Quiz Art (line art without labels) for each chapter. The third set contains all the transparency acetates by chapter. Also included is a Lecture Presentation Notebook to help you organize your lecture material.
This useful resource includes a wealth of materials to help you prepare and organize your lectures, such as lecture notes, vocabulary aids, applications, and classroom demonstrations. To help you organize all the visual resources provided in the supplements package, this manual also includes a detailed grid that correlates each section of the textbook with the visual aids that support that section. At one glance you can determine which transparencies, animations, and CDROM images are available for your lecture. New to this edition are Medialab Instructor Notes, designed to ensure successful and meaningful use of the Medialab activities in each chapter of the textbook.
The transparency set has been significantly improved and expanded. More than 800 acetates are included, with art and labels enlarged for use in large lecture halls. Where possible, complex figures have been divided into separate transparencies for improved clarity and teaching effectiveness. The selection of acetates and the quality of each image have been assessed by faculty reviewers to ensure that we offer the best possible presentation.
Test Item File and Computer Test Manager
The Test Item File has been thoroughly revised and reorganized for easier selection of questions for every objective in the textbook. A test bank of more than 3000 questions organized around the three-level learning system (as seen in the textbook and Study Guide) will help you design a variety of tests and quizzes.
(Print format: 0-13-019678-9)
(Software: Windows 0-13-019679-7, Mac 0-13-019681-9)
Image Bank and PowerPoint Gallery
Available in both Windows and Macintosh formats, this CDROM includes both an Image Bank and a PowerPoint Gallery. The Image Bank contains more than 1100 illustrations, including line art and photos from the textbook, cadaver and cat dissection photos, MRI and CT scans, X-rays, and laboratory model photos. Of special note is the inclusion of a library of unlabeled art. This material can easily be used to develop art-based quizzes, customized to serve individual presentation needs, or printed within your course support material. In addition, the CD-ROM includes animations of more than 75 of the most difficult concepts in anatomy and physiology. To provide yet another resource, Prentice Hall has assembled a complete series of PowerPoint slides for the entire course. These slides can be customized to fit your particular needs, but the basic—and time-consuming—work has been done for you.
The Prentice Hall laser disk, Anatomy and Physiology in Motion, features a collection of professionally narrated animations of the most complex topics and processes in anatomy and physiology.
The Martini Companion Website
The new Companion Website has been designed to make it easier to teach anatomy and physiology and to make it easier to incorporate Web-based activities into the core curriculum. One of the key advances is the inclusion of chapter-based Medialabs. Medialabs provide specific, time-constrained exercises, called Web Explorations, with clearly stated objectives that relate the Web-based activities to the chapter content. The Web Explorations have been designed (1) to enable instructors to capitalize on the wealth of Web-based content and (2) to provide students with alternative learning opportunities. To help you implement these MediaLabs into your course, the Instructor's Manual offers instructions for their use.
The Companion Website also provides a wealth of other materials to help instructors enhance the course. One of these is the Syllabus Manager tool, which enables instructors to build easily and manage custom online syllabuses. This tool provides a seamless way for you to link to content provided by Prentice Hall and offered by other sources on the Web. If you've ever thought about offering Web-based or distance-learning options to your course, then you should consider this free resource.
In addition to the basic tools available on the Companion Website for this textbook, Prentice Hall provides rich and thorough course cartridges for both the WebCT and the Blackboard course management systems. Many campuses have already selected one of these course management tools to help instructors develop and deliver content for Web-based and distance learning.
I hope that as the year passes, you will use the Companion Website or my email address, listed at the end of the Preface, to contact me with suggestions for future improvements, new illustrations, or news of interesting research developments. Distance is no longer a limiting factor in our "global A & P village," and I hope that even more instructors and students will participate in the development of future editions.
Each new copy of the text comes packaged with an Applications Manual, which is written in collaboration with Kathleen Welch, M.D., my wife, who is also the clinical consultant for the text. This unique supplement provides access to interesting and relevant clinical and diagnostic information. It presents that information in a framework that helps students develop problem-solving skills. The book begins with an overview of the way diseases are diagnosed, and this leads to a discussion of the scientific method and to the use of logic and reasoning to evaluate health-related statements and claims. It then provides background information about chemical, cellular, and molecular disorders and techniques. Finally, it presents the major categories of disorders and important diagnostic techniques for each body system. Although it can be read separately, each major topic in the Applications Manual is cross-referenced to specific pages in the textbook.
The Applications Manual is designed to demonstrate the relevance of key concepts presented in the textbook. By placing the material in a separate volume, topics can be covered in greater depth—or skipped—without interrupting the flow of information in the textbook. Few instructors will require their students to read the entire Applications Manual, but each student will refer to segments of particular importance to their career plans or their personal or family health. In subsequent courses, it becomes an invaluable reference that links the topics covered in more-advanced courses with the basic anatomy and physiology covered in their introductory-level course.
The Applications Manual also contains a Companion Atlas, which consists of Embryology Summaries for all organ systems; photographs of skeletal anatomy, surface anatomy, cadaver prosections, and plastic models; and representative images produced by CT, MRI, and contrast X-ray procedures.
This very popular Study Guide, written by Charles Seiger, is an excellent way to review basic facts and concepts as well as to develop problem-solving skills. A variety of questions, including labeling and concept mapping, are keyed to every learning objective in the textbook and are organized around the three-level learning system used in the textbook.
The Martini Companion Website
Not only will the new design and content of the Companion Website for Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology make it easier for instructors to use and assign material, but this website has also been redesigned to make it easier for students to learn anatomy and physiology. Notice that I did not say that the website makes it easy to learn this subject; rather, it makes the process of learning anatomy and physiology less stressful and more interesting. To do this, the Companion Website must be engaging, appealing to students with diverse learning styles and backgrounds. It must not just provide reinforcement and feedback, although those are important; it must also provide insights that help clarify difficult topics. The benefits of working with this website must be apparent and real. Students should come away with a better understanding of the material, and that understanding should be reflected in their performance on the next exam. To accomplish these goals, the media team has redesigned the website and integrated multilevel questions, image banks, links to other websites, guided activities, and the eBook version of the textbook. For logistical and copyright reasons, the more-comprehensive Companion Website resources are passcode-protected. Each new copy of the Fifth Edition comes with a passcode that, when activated by a student, remains "live" for 18 months. Passcodes can also be purchased online for a small fee. Each instructor receives a passcode good for the life of the edition.
Martini Interactive Student CD-ROM
This CD-ROM was designed to accompany your textbook. It is fully integrated with both the textbook and its Companion Website. The CD-ROM contains interactive tools to help you visualize anatomy and physiology; three-dimensional animations; fly-through panoramas of the heart and gastrointestinal tract; interactive tutorials; clinical case studies; an audio glossary; and a link to the Companion Website.
The animations were developed with data from the Visible Human Project, sponsored by the National Library of Medicine. An easy-to-use navigation bar allows you to rotate each structure 360o, peel away the layers of each image, and view the structures with the labels on or off. The interactive tutorials present the most difficult topics in anatomy and physiology so as to help you discover the underlying principles while you control the flow of information. Each tutorial includes audio narration throughout. The clinical case studies are organized into steps that give you the opportunity to practice and apply your knowledge of anatomy and physiology in a practical and realistic way. These case studies, derived from actual case histories, support problem-based learning.
Science on the Internet: A Student's Guide
This guide is the latest in a series written by Andrew Stull and Harry Nickla to help you use the Internet. It is a handy reference to get you up to speed on the World Wide Web's vast resources, including the Companion Website for this book. The guide, a unique resource, gives clear steps to help you access regularly updated biology resources as well as an overview of general navigation strategies and techniques to help you critique material that you find on the Web.
Video Tutor for Anatomy and Physiology
This videotape offers high-quality tutorials for anyone with access to a VCR. Each segment includes a professionally narrated animation that walks you through the most difficult physiological concepts and offers self-check questions that allow you to test your understanding of the material. Segments of the Video Tutor include membrane transport, protein synthesis, muscle contraction, action potential propagation, vision, auditory function, heart function, urine formation, and the immune response.
The New York Times "Themes of the Times"
Prentice Hall's unique alliance with The New York Times enhances your access to current, relevant information and applications. Articles are selected by the textbook author and are compiled into a free supplement that helps you make the connection between your classroom and the outside world.
Prentice Hall publishes a variety of laboratory manuals to meet the diverse needs of anatomy and physiology labs. Please see your Prentice Hall sales representative for more details. Here is a list of those manuals:
|Unit 1||Levels of Organization|
|1||An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology||1|
|2||The Chemical Level of Organization||27|
|3||The Cellular Level of Organization: Cell Structure||59|
|4||The Cellular Level of Organization: Control Mechanisms at the Cellular Level||95|
|5||The Tissue Level of Organization||123|
|Systems Overview: An Orientation to the Human Body||166|
|Unit 2||Support and Movement|
|6||The Integumentary System||183|
|7||The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure||209|
|8||The Skeletal System: Axial Division||237|
|9||The Skeletal System: Appendicular Division||269|
|10||The Muscular System: Skeletal Muscle Tissue||297|
|11||The Muscular System: Organization||327|
|Unit 3||Control and Regulation|
|12||The Nervous System: Neural Tissue||369|
|13||The Nervous System: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves||405|
|14||The Nervous System: The Brain and Cranial Nerves||433|
|15||The Nervous System: Pathways, Processing, and Higher-Order Functions||471|
|16||The Nervous System: Autonomic Division||499|
|18||The Endocrine System||567|
|Unit 4||Fluids and Transport|
|19||The Cardiovascular System: The Blood||605|
|20||The Cardiovascular System: The Heart||633|
|21||The Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulation||663|
|22||The Lymphatic System and Immunity||709|
|Unit 5||Environmental Exchange|
|23||The Respiratory System||747|
|24||The Digestive System||783|
|25||Metabolism and Energetics||827|
|26||The Urinary System||859|
|27||Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance||895|
|Unit 6||Continuity of Life|
|28||The Reproductive System||917|
|29||Development and Inheritance||953|
This laboratory textbook is the embodiment of the thoughts and ideas of my students and colleagues alike, all of whom have spent countless hours discussing how best to conceptualize anatomy and physiology-not only for the benefit of health care students, but for biological science and general education students as well.
Although this conceptual laboratory textbook is written primarily to accompany Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Fifth Edition, by Frederic Martini, it can be used as a stand alone text. Both cat and fetal pig dissection exercises are included, in back-to-back format.
The organization of the exercises in this text parallels the order of topics in the Martini text. Concept Links to specific pages or topics within the Martini text are included where appropriate throughout this manual.
Anatomy and physiology are presented as separate exercises to allow for greater flexibility in adapting to the constraints of various classroom and laboratory settings. Dissection exercises are separate from the human-oriented exercises for the same reason. We assume that certain exercises will be combined and in the Instructor's Manual we offer suggestions for logical exercise combinations.
In addition to the basic anatomy and physiology labs, certain exercises—such as those in the introductory lessons—can be used in class or assigned as outside review material. Other exercises-such as those on anatomical terminology and skeletal terminology—can be referred to throughout the course. Clinically focused exercises—such as the EEG, blood testing,andurinalysis labs—are included where appropriate.
Unit I provides background information. It is designed specifically for those students who may need to review or conceptualize some basic scientific ideas. Unit II supplies the foundation for anatomy and physiology today by examining both the microscopic and the macroscopic structures and functions of the human body. Units III through XII examine the major systems of the body. Each unit begins with basic systemic anatomy and proceeds through the developmental and physiological aspects of the system., Dissection is included where appropriate. Unit XIII deals with the future of the human species. This unit is recommended particularly for those students who have not had a course in introductory biology prior to studying anatomy and physiology.
The pedagogical features of this laboratory manual have been designed not only to highlight and integrate the essential concepts and terminology of anatomy and physiology, but to give the student an understanding of the corresponding scientific processes.
Most anatomy and physiology labs are hands-on learning centers where the student has the opportunity to use a variety of learning methods unique to the laboratory setting, such as examining models or slides, dissecting real animals, and performing experiments. Laboratory time is also used to practice vocabulary (often putting terms and concepts together for the first time), to create models, or to perform demonstrations which help master essential concepts. We have attempted to emphasize to the student that there are different ways of approaching new material, that there are different kinds of questions that can be answered using each method.
We have created an Advance Organizer for each exercise which integrates traditional exercise objectives into a framework of different learning activities. Objectives have been formulated as questions, or Procedural Inquiries. These Socratic Objectives, based on the time-tested Socratic method, help the student see that science is about asking as well as answering questions. This Socratic framework serves as an overview of what is to follow in the laboratory period, and as a vehicle to show that the question asked often determines the procedures used. The student discovers the answers to the inquiries as s/he completes the lab exercise.
The primary learning categories used throughout this lab manual to help the student focus on a particular aspect of an exercise are these:
Each exercise is organized in a modified Outline Format. The Roman numerals denote the major topics, and the capital letters introduce the subtopics. The procedures themselves are written in a short, step-by-step manner within the outline. All procedures (and only the procedures) are indicated with Arabic numerals. This design helps the student distinguish between background material and the actual tasks at hand, and ensures that all steps in each procedure are accomplished in the correct order.
Where appropriate, Drawing Boxes are provided for the student to record gross or microscopic observations. These boxes are labelled for easy reference when the student reviews the exercise.
Clinical Comments are included throughout the laboratory manual to provide interesting information on diseases and disorders as they apply to concepts under consideration in the lab.
Frequent Concept Check Questions are found in each exercise. These questions quiz the student about the concept under consideration, ask the student to consider the implications of the laboratory procedures, and urge the student to recall relevant personal experience or personal insight. Some of these questions are checked with a distinctive icon. At the end of each exercise, these checked questions are answered in the Answers to Selected Concept Check Questions. In some cases, additional paper may be required.
An Additional Activities section is included for enrichment at the end of most laboratory exercises. Some of these additional activities require outside research; others require internal investigation or an extension of what has been covered in the laboratory exercise. Often the needs of the class will dictate the manner in which the additional activities are utilized.
The Lab Report begins with a Box Summary, in which the student is asked to organize the factual material presented in the exercise. Numbers given with each box correspond to the numbers found on the Advance Organizer inquiries. After completing the laboratory exercise, the student should be able to fill in these boxes. Should difficulty arise, however, the student can refer to the opening inquiries as "hints:" All questions are answered in the main body of the exercise.
The second part of the lab report includes a series of questions which the student should be able to answer after working through the procedures. Some of these questions are similar to given inquiries posed in the advance organizer. Some reports may require extra paper.
In writing the Instructor's Manual, I have focused on flexibility and conceptualization. Each laboratory is bound by a unique set of constraints, and it is important that each exercise exhibit a great deal of flexibility without sacrificing the central theme of the lesson. Some schools teach anatomy and physiology as two separate courses, while other schools integrate anatomical and physiological concepts throughout the span of a one-, two, or even three-term sequence. Some schools have as little as one hour per week for laboratory work while other schools have as many as four; and some schools have extensive equipment while at other schools, equipment is quite limited.
Because of this need for flexibility, the Instructor's Manual offers numerous suggestions for combining or modifying different laboratory exercises to meet specific academic agendas.
Recommendations are made to help the instructor with his or her laboratory ideas according to the defined needs of a particular program. Instructors wishing to use equipment other than that prescribed in the text will find suggestions for alternatives or substitutions throughout.
Adaptation is further enhanced by the modified outline format used in presenting the exercises. Parts of the outline can be enhanced or omitted according to need.
This outline format is also a part of our theme of conceptualization. The philosophy of the manual itself is that an understanding of anatomy and physiology is essential for today's student. In the Instructor's Manual we discuss conceptualization and explain what we believe are the primary concepts or ideas of the individual exercises. I have tried to offer suggestions for the implementation of these concepts by pointing out the essence of each exercise and demonstrating the logical and sequential framework around which each exercise is constructed.
Finally, we stress conceptualization by exploring ways in which the instructor can coordinate the inquiry-based objectives in the advance organizer with the concluding Lab Report which is specifically designed to bring together the various aspects of the laboratory exercise.