The Fundamentals of BreakBulk Shipping: A Primer and Refresher Study for Global Logistics Students and Professional Logisticians, Ashore and Afloat

The Fundamentals of BreakBulk Shipping: A Primer and Refresher Study for Global Logistics Students and Professional Logisticians, Ashore and Afloat

by Alistair M. Macnab

ISBN-10: 0558866360

ISBN-13: 9780558866365

Pub. Date: 10/20/2010

Publisher: Pearson Learning Solutions

Product Details

Pearson Learning Solutions
Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
8.30(w) x 10.70(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents


The World’s Commerce and Trade 1


Global Trade and Waterborne Transportation 7

The History of Container Development: 11

Breakbulk ships had to evolve too: 13

Cost-Effectiveness of Worldwide Purchasing: 13

Specialty of Breakbulk Carriage: 14


Introduction to Breakbulk Shipping and Why it Matters 21

An International Supply Chain: 24

The role of a Breakbulk Shipper 27

The role of a Freight forwarder: 28

The role of a Multipurpose Ship Operator: 28

Port/Terminal Operations 28

Duties of a Custom House Broker: 32

Management of Ocean Ships: 33

Planning of Breakbulk Process: 35

Monitoring and Control 39

Breakbulk vs. Container: 40


Specialist Cargo Ship Types 41

Heavy Lift Carrier (Rickmers-Linie) 41

Tween Decker (Spliethoff Carriers) 42

Operators of Multipurpose Ships: 46

Ship Crews: 47

Why A Ship’s Confi guration is Important to a Merchant? 50

Tramp Voyage 52

Liner Voyage 52


History of Ocean Shipping, Transport Deregulation and Port Development 55

Deregulation 62

The Marine Terminal: 65

What governmental agencies support a port’s activities? 67

Road Transportation to and from the Marine Terminal: 71

Legal Requirements in Different Countries: 73


Containerized Cargo and Container Ships 77

Cellular Container Ships: 78

The Container Terminal: 81


Breakbulk Ships and Bulk and Breakbulk Cargo 87

Types of Ships Engaged in Breakbulk Cargo Carriage: 87

Regular Breakbulk Trading Routes and Principal Cargoes: 90

The role of a Breakbulk Shipper 93

The role of a Freight forwarder: 94

The role of a Breakbulk Carrier 94

Marine Terminal: 95

Rail Transport 95

Road Transport 96

Barge Transport: 96

Specialized Cargo Handling Facilities 96

Ship’s Lift-On/Lift-Off Equipment 96

Dockside Lifting Facilities & Merchant’s Plant Lifting Facilities: 97

Breakbulk Cargo Lifting and Securing: 98

Documentation Required from Shippers: 98

Objectives and Requirements of Rickmers-Linie 99

Category A Cargo Units: 99

Category B Cargo Units: 100

Category C Cargo Units: 100

Category D Cargo Units: 101

Category E Cargo Units: 102

Category F Cargo Units: 102

Category G Cargo Units: 103

Category H Cargo Units: 103

Lifting Gear for Cargo Units: 104

Securing Gear for Cargo Units: 104

Cargo securing material consists of the following equipment: 105

Hazardous Breakbulk Cargo: 105

Breakbulk Cargo Damage in Transit: 106

Breakbulk Cargo Ventilation: 106


Identifying Container and Non Container

Cargo and their Differences 109

Size: 110

Weight: 110

Volume: 110

Lack of container-handling facilities: 111

Low value or objectionable shipments: 111

Breakbulk Cargo, Typical Carriage and

Stowage 115

Pre-Loading Information: 115

Cargo stowage: 117

Unloading, Custom Clearance and Delivery of Cargo 121

When Cargo Deliveries can go Wrong: 122

Cargo Tracking: 123

Chapter 9

Ro-Ro Operations and Ro-Ro Cargo 127

Ro-Ro Cargo and Ro-Ro Terminals: 130

Ro-Ro Operations: 131

Chapter 10

Bulk Liquid Cargoes and Tankers 133

Crude Oil Carriage: 135

Chemical/Parcel Tankers: 136

Bulk Oil Parcels on Multipurpose Ships: 137

Food Grade Bulk Oil: 138

Bulk Liquid Terminals: 138

Tanker Size: 140

Gas Carrying Tankers: 140

Chapter 11

Refrigerated Cargoes and Reefer Ships 143

Reefer Dockside Arrangements: 145

Reefer Containers: 146

Chapter 12

Dry Bulk Cargo and Bulkers 149

Bulk Cargo Precautions: 151

Chapter 13

Passengers and Passenger Ships 153

Chapter 14

Hybrid Ship Cargoes 157

Chapter 15

Intermodal and International

Trading Strategies 159

Trade Systems. 159

Additional Useful Terms: 165

Container Stuffing and Stripping: 166

Inland or Dry Port: 167

Stevedoring and Terminal Costs: 168

Major Drivers of World Trade 168

Various Export Strategies of Countries 170

Trade Policy, Trade Effi ciency and Best Practices 174

The role of an International Shipper: 175

Chartering: 176

The Role of the Often-Overlooked Consignee: 177

The role of an Ocean Carrier of

Multi Purpose Ships: 178


Sea Ports 181

The Roles of Port and Terminal Operators: 181

Port Authority - A Public Transportation Entity: 182

National and International Regulations: 183

Port Infrastructure, Public or Private: 186


Freight Rates, Freight Rate Construction,

Payment Terms and Banking Arrangements 189

What Can Go Wrong 191

Payment of Freight: 194


Documentation 195

Bill of Lading: 195

Jurisdiction: 196

Period of Responsibility and Scope of Voyage: 196

Substitution of Vessel, Transhipment or

Lighterage: 196

Loading, Discharging and Delivery: 196

Deck Cargo: 196

Freight and Charges: 197

General Average and Salvage: 197

Both to Blame Collision Clause: 197

Government Directions, War, Ice, Strikes,

Epidemics etc. 197

Identity of the Carrier and its Servants: 198

List of Commonly Used Documents in the Breakbulk Trade: 198

Charter Party and Negotiating Considerations: 200

Procedure to Maintain and Comply with Documentation Requirements 202

The Importance of Documentation and Compliance with Regulations Governing Documentation. 203

Cargo Care. 208

Cargo Safety and Security: 208

Chapter 19

Cargo or Ship Loss or Damage, Liability and Claims Procedures 211

Ventilation 212

Safe Carriage: 213

Cargo Damages: 213

Cargo Care: 214

Cargo Loss: 214

Loss of Life: 215

Loss of Ship: 215

The Environment: 215

The Company: 215

Weather: 216

Ship Handling: 216

Systems Monitoring: 216

Cargo Damage in Transit: 218


Stakeholders 221

Shippers: 221

Carrier: 221

Port/Terminal Operators: 222

Landside Transportation Contractor: 222

Ship’s Agent: 222

Owner’s Superintendent or Port Captain: 223

Ship’s Captain, Offi cers and Crew: 223

Banks: 223

Surveyors: 224

Consignees: 225

Government Agencies: 225

Identifying the Business Relationship of Various Stakeholders Involved with Breakbulk Trade. 226

Cargo Buyer: 226

Cargo Supplier: 228

Cargo Shipper: 229

Effective Communications: 230

Third Party Service Providers: 230

The Role of Terminal Operator, Stevedore and Surveyor 232

The Ocean Carrier, the Ship, the Captain and the Crew: 232

Port Captains and Pilots: 233

The Importance of Customer Interaction: 234

Exchange of Information with Potential Customers: 235


Final Scenario 237

The Story of a Project Shipment from Beginning to End as Refl ected by the Exchange of Emails between the Consignee and the Supplier 237

The Final Frontier 241

Glossary 249

Illustrations 267

Addendum A 267

Addendum B 268

About the Author 271

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