Fundamentals of Building Construction: Materials and Methods / Edition 6

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Overview

This new edition of the bestselling reference, Fundamentals of Building Construction: Materials and Methods provides the complete, up-to-date coverage of building construction practices that thousands of professionals and students of architecture, engineering, and construction technology have been relying on for years. using the new International Building Code as its basis, this classic guidebook covers the complete range of construction activities, from excavating and foundations to cladding and interior finishes. It's organized around a detailed treatment of the structural systems most widely used in North America: heavy timber, wood light frame, masonry, steel, light gauge steel, and reinforced and precast concrete. Fundamentals of Building Construction, Fourth Edition makes available to students and professionals an array of construction information that is unprecedented in scope and quality.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
This revision of the authoritative handbook on common building materials and methods includes current information on foundations, new uses for plastics in construction and more. Fifty new photographs and 25 new line drawings further enhance the existing program of over 900 illustrations. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
From the Publisher
"In the new fifth edition of Fundamentals of Building Construction, Allen and Iano set a new benchmark by incorporating sustainability issues into a mainstream construction textbook, section by section, as in this concise overview from the first chapter. We also look forward to a future edition of their outstanding book in which appropriate sustainability considerations have penetrated every topic and page." (ArchitectureWeek, April 13, 2009)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118138915
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/14/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 1024
  • Sales rank: 86,516
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 11.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Edward Allen, FAIA, has taught for forty years as a faculty member at Yale University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and has frequently taught as a guest lecturer at other institutions throughout the United States. He has designed more than fifty constructed buildings and is the bestselling coauthor of The Architect's Studio Companion, Architectural Detailing, Form and Forces, and Fundamentals of Residential Construction, all published by Wiley.

Joseph Iano is an author, illustrator, and practicing architect who has taught design and technology in schools of architecture throughout the United States, and has also worked in the construction trades. Currently, he heads a Seattle firm that provides technical and quality management consulting to the design and construction industry. He is the coauthor with Edward Allen of The Architect's Studio Companion.

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Read an Excerpt

Fundamentals of Building Construction

Materials and Methods
By Edward Allen Joseph Iano

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-471-21903-7


Chapter One

Making Buildings

Choosing Building Systems: Information Resources

ASTM, CSA, and ANSI

Construction Trade and Professional Associations MasterFormat

Choosing Building Systems: The Work of the Design

Professional

Sustainability

Making Choices

Recurring Concerns

Designing Buildings

Choosing Building Systems: Constraints

Zoning Ordinances

Building Codes

Other Legal Constraints

Designing Buildings

A building begins as an idea in someone's mind, a desire for new and ample accommodations for a family, many families, an organization, or an enterprise. For any but the smallest of buildings, the next step for the owner of the prospective building is to engage, either directly or through a hired construction manager, the services of building design professionals. An architect helps to consolidate the owner's ideas about the new building, develops the form of the building, and assembles a group of engineering specialists to help work out concepts and details of foundations, structural support, and mechanical, electrical, and communications services.

This team of designers, working with the owner, then develops the scheme for the building in progressively finer degrees of detail. Drawings and written specifications are produced bythe architect-engineer design team to document how the building is to be made and of what. A general contractor is selected, either by negotiation or by competitive bidding. The general contractor hires subcontractors to carry out many specialized portions of the work. The drawings and specifications are submitted to the municipal inspector of buildings, who checks them for conformance with zoning ordinances and building codes before issuing a permit to build. Construction may then begin, with the building inspector, the architect, and the engineering consultants inspecting the work at frequent intervals to be sure that it is carried out according to plan.

Choosing Building Systems: Constraints

Although a building begins as an abstraction, it is built in a world of material realities. The designers of a building-the architects and engineers-work constantly from a knowledge of what is possible and what is not. They are able, on the one hand, to employ any of a limitless palette of building materials and any of a number of structural systems to produce a building of almost any desired form and texture. On the other hand, they are inescapably bound by certain physical limitations: how much land there is with which to work; how heavy a building the soil can support; how long a structural span is feasible; what sorts of materials will perform well in the given environment. They are also constrained by a construction budget and by a complex web of legal restrictions.

Those who work in the building professions need a broad understanding of many things, including people, climate, the physical principles by which buildings work, the technologies available for utilization in buildings, the legal restrictions on buildings, and the contractual arrangements under which buildings are built. This book is concerned primarily with the technologies of construction materials-what the materials are, how they are produced, what their properties are, and how they are crafted into buildings. These must be studied, however, with reference to many other factors that bear on the design of buildings, some of which require explanation here.

Zoning Ordinances

The legal restrictions on buildings begin with local zoning ordinances, which govern the types of activities that may take place on a given piece of land, how much of the land may be covered by the building or buildings, how far buildings must be set back from each of the property lines, how many parking spaces must be provided, how large a total floor area may be constructed, and how tall the building may be. In many cities, the zoning ordinances establish special center-city fire zones in which buildings may be built only of noncombustible materials. Copies of the zoning ordinances for a municipality are available for purchase or reference at the office of the building inspector or the planning department, or they may be consulted at public libraries.

Building Codes

In addition to its zoning ordinances, each local government also regulates building activity by means of a building code. The intent of a building code is to protect public health and safety, primarily against building fires, by setting a minimum standard of construction quality.

Most building codes in North America are based on one of several model building codes, standardized codes prepared by national organizations of local building code officials. Canada publishes its own model code, the National Building Code of Canada. In the United States, building codes are enacted and enforced at the state and local levels. At this writing, more and more local code jurisdictions throughout the United States are adopting as a model the International Building Code(r) (IBC), the first unified code in U.S. history, first published in March of 2000. Many jurisdictions, however, still base their codes on three earlier model codes that competed with one another: In the western United States and parts of the Midwest, most codes have been modeled after the Uniform Building Code (UBC). In the East and other areas of the Midwest, the BOCA National Building Code (BOCA) has been the model. The Standard Building Code (SBC) has been adopted by many southern and southeastern states. The IBC was written and issued by the cooperative efforts of the three organizations that formerly published these competing codes.

The establishment of a single model building code for the United States was welcome news to architects and engineers, who were weary of having to work to different standards in different parts of the country. However, their relief was not to last long, because the National Fire Protection Association, for reasons that are difficult to appreciate, issued the first edition of its own model building code in 2002, raising the possibility that it will be adopted in many code jurisdictions and thereby create a situation even more chaotic than before.

Building-code-related information in this book is based on the International Building Code (IBC). The IBC begins by defining occupancy groups for buildings as follows:

Groups A-1 through A-5 are Assembly occupancies: theaters, auditoriums, lecture halls, night clubs, restaurants, houses of worship, libraries, museums, sports arenas, and so on.

Group B is Business occupancies: banks, administrative offices, higher-education facilities, police and fire stations, post offices, professional offices, and the like.

Group E is Educational occupancies: schools for grades K through 12 and day care facilities.

Group F comprises industrial buildings.

Groups H-1 through H-5 are various types of High Hazard occupancies in which toxic, combustible, or explosive materials are present.

Groups I-1 through I-4 are Institutional occupancies in which occupants may not be able to save themselves during a fire or other emergency, such as health care and geriatric facilities and prisons.

Group M is Mercantile occupancies: stores, markets, service stations, and sales rooms.

Groups R-1 through R-4 are Residential occupancies, including apartment buildings, dormitories, fraternities and sororities, hotels, one- and two-family dwellings, and assisted-living facilities.

Group S-1 includes buildings for Storage of hazardous materials, and S-2, low-hazard storage.

Group U is Utility buildings. It comprises agricultural buildings, carports, greenhouses, sheds, stables, fences, tanks, towers, and other secondary buildings.

The IBC's purpose in establishing occupancy groups is to distinguish various degrees and qualities of need for safety in buildings. A hospital, in which many patients are bedridden and cannot escape a fire under their own power, must be built to a high standard of safety. A warehouse for masonry materials, which are noncombustible, is likely to be occupied by only a few people, all of them able bodied, and can be constructed to a lower standard. An elementary school requires more protection for its occupants than a university building. A theater needs special egress provisions to allow its many patrons to escape quickly, without stampeding, in an emergency.

These definitions of occupancy groups are followed by a set of definitions of construction types. At the head of this list (Type I) are highly fire-resistive kinds of construction such as masonry, reinforced concrete, and fire-protected steel. At the foot of it (Type V) are kinds of construction that are relatively combustible because they are framed with small wood members. In between are a range of construction types with varying levels of resistance to fire.

With occupancy groups and construction types carefully defined, the code proceeds to match the two, setting forth in a table which occupancy groups may be housed in which types of construction, and under what limitations of story height and area per floor. Figure 1.1 is reproduced from the International Building Code. It gives the maximum height in stories and the maximum area per floor for every possible combination of occupancy group and construction type. The maximum total floor area of a building under the IBC is three times the maximum area permitted for one floor. If the floor area for a single floor is unlimited, of course, the maximum floor area for the building is also unlimited.

This table concentrates a great deal of useful information into a very small space. A designer may enter it with a particular occupancy group in mind-an electronics plant, for example-and find out very quickly what types of construction will be permitted and what shape the plant may take. Under the IBC, an electronics plant belongs to Occupancy Group F-1, Factory, Moderate-Hazard Occupancy. Reading across the chart from left to right, we find immediately that this factory may be built to any desired size, without limit, using Type IA construction.

Type IA construction is defined in nearby tables in the IBC, one of which is reproduced here as Figure 1.2. Looking down the columns of this table under Type IA construction, we find a listing of the required fire resistance ratings, measured in hours, of the various parts of either a Type IA or a Type IB building. In a Type IA building, for example, we find on the first line that columns, girders, and trusses must be rated at 3 hours. The second line mandates a 3-hour resistance also for bearing walls, walls that serve to carry floors or roofs above. Nonbearing walls or partitions, which carry no load from above, are listed in the third line, which refers to Table 602, which gives fire resistance rating requirements based on the building's distance from other buildings. (Table 602 is included in Figure 1.2.) Floor construction and roof construction standards are defined in the last two lines of Table 601.

Looking across Table 601 in Figure 1.2, we can see that fire resistance rating requirements are highest for Type IA construction, decrease to 1 hour for Type VA, and finally to zero for Type VB.

Fire resistance ratings of many common construction components and assemblies are found in Section 7.19 of the IBC. Ratings for many more assemblies are tabulated in a variety of catalogs and handbooks issued by building material manufacturers, construction trade associations, and organizations concerned with fire protection of buildings. In each case, the ratings are derived from full-scale laboratory fire tests of building components carried out in accordance with Standard E119 of the American Society for Testing and Materials, to assure uniformity of results. (This fire test is described more fully in Chapter 22 of this book.) Figures 1.3-1.5 reproduce small sections of tables from catalogs and handbooks to illustrate how this type of information is presented.

It is not possible in this volume to reproduce a comprehensive listing of fire resistance ratings for every type of building component, but what can be said in a very general way (and with many exceptions) is that the higher the degree of fire resistance, the higher the cost. In general, therefore, buildings are built with the least level of fire resistance that is permitted by the applicable building code. The hypothetical electronics plant could be built using Type IA construction, but does it really need to be constructed to this high standard?

Let us suppose that the owners want the electronics plant to be a two-story building with 20,000 square feet on each floor. The table in Figure 1.1 makes it clear that it can be built of Type IB and Type IIA construction, but not of Type IIB, which permits only 15,500 square feet per floor. It can be built of Type IIIA or IV construction, but not of Type IIIB, VA, or VB.

Other factors come into play in these computations. If a building is protected throughout by an approved, fully automatic sprinkler system for suppression of fires, the IBC provides that the tabulated area may be quadrupled for a single-story building, and tripled for multistory buildings. A one-story increase in allowable height is also granted for most occupancies if a sprinkler system is installed. If the two-story, 20,000-square-foot electronics plant that we have been considering is provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system, a bit of arithmetic will show that it can be built of any construction type shown in Figure 1.1.

If more than a quarter of the building's perimeter walls face public ways or open spaces, an increase in area is granted in accordance with a simple formula. Additionally, if a building is divided by fire walls having the fire resistance ratings specified in another table (Figure 1.6), each portion of the building that is separated from the remainder of the building by fire walls may be considered as a separate building for purposes of computing its allowable area, which effectively permits the architect to create a building many times larger than Figure 1.1 would indicate.

The IBC also establishes standards for natural light; ventilation; means of emergency egress; structural design; floor, wall, ceiling, and roof construction; chimney construction; fire protection systems; accessibility of the building to disabled persons; energy efficiency; and many other important factors.

The building code is not the only code with which a new building must comply.

Continues...


Excerpted from Fundamentals of Building Construction by Edward Allen Joseph Iano Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Sixth Edition xi

1 Making Buildings 3

Learning to Build 4

Buildings and the Environment 5

The Work of the Design Professional 11

The Work of the Construction Professional 19

Trends in the Delivery of Design and Construction Services 24

2 Foundations and Sitework 31

Foundation Requirements 32

Earth Materials 33

Sustainability of Foundations and the Building Site 39

Earthwork and Excavation 40

Foundations 51

Protecting Foundations from Water, Heat Flow, and Radon Gas 66

Sitework 73

Geotextiles 76

Designing Foundations 77

Foundation Design and the Building Code 78

3 Wood 83

Trees 84

Sustainability of Wood 90

Lumber 90

Wood Products 103

A Naturally Grown Structural Material 108

Plastic Lumber 110

Wood Panel Products 110

Wood Chemical Treatments 118

Wood Fasteners 120

Wood Product Adhesives and Formaldehyde 127

Prefabricated Wood Components 128

Types of Wood Construction 130

FROM CONCEPT TO REALITY 135

French American School

4 Heavy Timber Frame

Construction 139

Fire-Resistive Heavy Timber Construction 142

Sustainability in Heavy Timber Construction 143

Heavy Timber in Other Construction Types 150

Lateral Bracing 152

Cross-Laminated Timber Construction 152

Accommodating Building Services 156

Wood-Concrete Composite Construction 156

Longer Spans in Heavy Timber 157

For Preliminary Design of Heavy Timber Structures 164

Heavy Timber and the Building Codes 164

Uniqueness of Heavy Timber Framing 165

5 Wood Light Frame Construction 171

History 173

Platform Frame 174

Sustainability in Wood Light Frame Construction 176

Foundations for Light Frame Structures 176

Building the Frame 184

Variations on Wood Light Frame Construction 219

For Preliminary Design of a Wood Light Frame Structure 222

Wood Light Frame Construction and the Building Codes 222

Uniqueness of Wood Light Frame Construction 224

6 Exterior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction 231

Protection from the Weather 232

Roofing 233

Windows and Doors 240

Paints and Coatings 244

Siding 248

Corner Boards and Exterior Trim 257

Sealing Exterior Joints 258

Sustainability of Paints and Other Architectural Coatings 260

Exterior Painting, Finish Grading, and Landscaping 260

Exterior Construction 260

7 Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction 265

Completing the Building Enclosure 273

Sustainability of Insulation Materials for Wood Light Frame Construction 282

Wall and Ceiling Finish 285

Millwork and Finish Carpentry 285

Proportioning Fireplaces 286

Proportioning Stairs 300

Flooring and Ceramic Tile Work 302

Finishing Touches 304

8 Brick Masonry 309

History 310

Mortar 313

Sustainability of Brick Masonry 316

Brick Masonry 316

Masonry Wall Construction 339

9 Stone and Concrete Masonry 349

Stone Masonry 350

Sustainability in Stone and Concrete Masonry 362

Concrete Masonry 370

Other Types of Masonry Units 381

Masonry Wall Construction 382

10 Masonry Wall Construction 387

Types of Masonry Walls 388

For Preliminary Design of a Loadbearing Masonry Structure 396

Spanning Systems for Masonry Bearing Wall Construction 396

Detailing Masonry Walls 400

Some Special Problems of Masonry Construction 406

Movement Joints in Buildings 408

Masonry Paving 414

Masonry and the Building Codes 415

Uniqueness of Masonry 415

11 Steel Frame Construction 421

History 422

The Material Steel 424

For Preliminary Design of a Steel Structure 427

Joining Steel Members 435

Details of Steel Framing 441

The Construction Process 451

Fire Protection of Steel Framing 468

Longer Spans and High-Capacity Columns in Steel 473

Fabric Structures 482

Industrialized Systems in Steel 486

Sustainability in Steel Frame Construction 487

Steel and the Building Codes 488

Uniqueness of Steel 488

12 Light Gauge Steel Frame Construction 499

The Concept of Light Gauge Steel Construction 500

Sustainability in Light Gauge Steel Framing 501

Light Gauge Steel Framing 502

Other Uses of Light Gauge Steel Framing 511

For Preliminary Design of a Light Gauge Steel Frame Structure 513

Insulating Light Gauge Steel Frame Structures 513

Advantages and Disadvantages of Steel Framing 514

Light Gauge Steel Framing and the Building Codes 514

Finishes for Light Gauge Steel Framing 514

Metals in Architecture 516

FROM CONCEPT TO REALITY 522

Camera Obscura at Mitchell Park, Greenport, New York

13 Concrete Construction 527

History 528

Cement and Concrete 529

Sustainability in Concrete Construction 532

Making and Placing Concrete 535

Formwork 540

Reinforcing 541

Concrete Creep 555

Prestressing 555

ACI 301 560

Innovations in Concrete Construction 560

14 Sitecast Concrete Framing Systems 565

Casting a Concrete Slab on Grade 567

Casting a Concrete Wall 571

Casting a Concrete Column 577

One-Way Floor and Roof Framing Systems 578

Two-Way Floor and Roof Framing Systems 587

Other Uses of Sitecast Concrete 592

Sitecast Posttensioned Framing Systems 592

Selecting a Sitecast Concrete Framing System 594

Innovations in Sitecast Concrete Construction 594

For Preliminary Design of a Sitecast Concrete Structure 597

Architectural Concrete 600

Cutting Concrete, Stone, and Masonry 604

Longer Spans in Sitecast Concrete 608

Designing Economical Sitecast Concrete Buildings 611

Sitecast Concrete and the Building Codes 611

Uniqueness of Sitecast Concrete 612

15 Precast Concrete Framing Systems 621

Precast, Prestressed Concrete Structural Elements 624

For Preliminary Design of a Precast Concrete Structure 625

Assembly Concepts for Precast Concrete Buildings 626

Manufacture of Precast Concrete Structural Elements 627

Joining Precast Concrete Members 633

Fastening to Concrete 634

Composite Precast/Sitecast Concrete Construction 647

The Construction Process 647

Sustainability in Precast Concrete Construction 648

Precast Concrete and the Building Codes 649

Uniqueness of Precast Concrete 649

16 Roofing 661

Low-Slope Roofs 663

Building Enclosure Essentials: Thermal Insulation and Vapor Retarder 668

Steep Roofs 688

Sustainability in Roofing 702

Cool Roofs 702

Green Roofs 705

Photovoltaic Systems 706

Roofing and the Building Codes 707

Building Enclosure Essentials: Dissimilar Metals and the Galvanic Series 708

17 Glass and Glazing 717

History 718

The Material Glass 720

Sustainability of Glass 722

Glazing 734

Glass and Energy 744

Glass and the Building Codes 747

FROM CONCEPT TO REALITY 750

Skating Rink at Yerba Buena Gardens

18 Windows and Doors 755

Windows 756

Plastics in Building Construction 766

Sustainability of Windows and Doors 777

Doors 777

Other Window and Door Requirements 783

19 Designing Exterior Wall Systems 791

Design Requirements for the Exterior Wall 792

Sustainability of Exterior Wall Systems 797

Conceptual Approaches to Watertightness in the Exterior Wall 798

Sealing Joints in the Exterior Wall 803

Loadbearing Walls and Curtain Walls 807

Building Enclosure Essentials: Air Barrier 808

The Exterior Wall and the Building Codes 812

20 Cladding with Masonry and Concrete 817

Masonry Veneer Curtain Walls 818

Stone Curtain Walls 825

Precast Concrete Curtain Walls 830

Exterior Insulation and Finish System 836

Keeping Water Out with Masonry and Concrete Cladding 840

FROM CONCEPT TO REALITY 842

Seattle University School of Law

21 Cladding with Metal and Glass 847

Aluminum Extrusions 848

Sustainability of Aluminum Cladding Components 852

Aluminum and Glass Framing Systems 854

Double-Skin Facades 868

Sloped Glazing 869

The Curtain Wall Design and Construction Process 869

Metal Panel Cladding 871

22 Selecting Interior Finishes 877

Installation of Mechanical and Electrical Services 878

The Sequence of Interior Finishing Operations 880

Sustainability of Interior Finishes 882

Selecting Interior Finishes 883

Trends in Interior Finish Systems 888

23 Interior Walls and Partitions 891

Types of Interior Walls 892

Framed Partition Systems 893

Sustainability of Gypsum Products 898

Plaster Ornament 910

Masonry Partition Systems 924

Wall and Partition Facings 924

24 Finish Ceilings and Floors 931

Finish Ceilings 932

Types of Ceilings 932

Sustainability of Finish Ceilings and Floors 943

Finish Flooring 944

Types of Finish Flooring Materials 948

Flooring Thickness 961

Appendix 966

Glossary 968

Index 999

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