Fundamentals of Chemistry 3rd Edition / Edition 3

Fundamentals of Chemistry 3rd Edition / Edition 3

by David E. Goldberg
     
 

ISBN-10: 0072318139

ISBN-13: 9780072318135

Pub. Date: 07/07/2000

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

An introduction to the fundamentals of chemistry,this text is designed to prepare students who wish to pursue a science major requiring a comprehensive course in general chemistry. Students who need help with mathematical manipulations,as well as reading and writing scientific material,will find Goldberg's text an excellent learning tool.

Overview

An introduction to the fundamentals of chemistry,this text is designed to prepare students who wish to pursue a science major requiring a comprehensive course in general chemistry. Students who need help with mathematical manipulations,as well as reading and writing scientific material,will find Goldberg's text an excellent learning tool.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780072318135
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
07/07/2000
Edition description:
3RD
Pages:
704

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
To the Studentxix
Chapter 1Basic Concepts1
1.1Classification of Matter2
1.2Properties6
1.3Matter and Energy10
1.4Chemical Symbols11
1.5The Periodic Table12
1.6Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories17
Summary19
Problems20
Chapter 2Measurement25
2.1Factor Label Method27
2.2The Metric System33
Length or Distance38
Mass39
Volume40
2.3Significant Digits42
Significant Digits in Calculated Results47
Rounding Off49
2.4Exponential Numbers52
Changing the Form of Exponential Numbers55
Multiplication and Division of Exponential Numbers56
Addition and Subtraction of Exponential Numbers59
Raising an Exponential Number to a Power60
2.5Density61
2.6Time, Temperature, and Energy64
Time64
Temperature and Energy65
Temperature Scales65
Energy66
Summary68
Problems69
Chapter 3Atoms and Atomic Masses77
3.1Laws of Chemical Combination78
3.2Dalton's Atomic Theory81
3.3Subatomic Particles83
3.4Atomic Mass85
3.5Development of the Periodic Table87
Summary91
Problems92
Chapter 4Electronic Configuration of the Atom98
4.1A Brief Exploration of Light99
4.2Bohr Theory101
4.3Quantum Numbers104
4.4Relative Energies of Electrons106
4.5Shells, Subshells, and Orbitals110
4.6Shapes of Orbitals113
4.7Energy Level Diagrams114
4.8Periodic Variation of Electronic Configuration116
Summary120
Problems122
Chapter 5Chemical Bonding127
5.1Chemical Formulas128
Molecules of Elements129
Formula Units131
5.2Ionic Bonding133
Detailed Electronic Configurations of Anions135
Detailed Electronic Configurations of Cations136
5.3Electron Dot Diagrams138
5.4Formulas for Ionic Compounds138
5.5Covalent Bonding142
Systematic Method for Drawing Electron Dot Diagrams145
Polyatomic Ions148
Non-Octet Structures151
Summary152
Problems154
Chapter 6Nomenclature160
6.1Binary Nonmetal-Nonmetal Compounds161
6.2Naming Ionic Compounds163
Naming Cations163
Naming Anions167
Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds169
6.3Naming Acids and Acid Salts170
Naming Acids171
Naming Acid Salts172
6.4Hydrates175
Summary176
Problems178
Chapter 7Formula Calculations184
7.1Formula Masses185
7.2Percent Composition187
7.3The Mole188
7.4Empirical Formulas192
7.5Molecular Formulas196
Summary199
Problems200
Chapter 8Chemical Reactions206
8.1The Chemical Equation207
8.2Balancing Equations209
8.3Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions213
Combination Reactions213
Decomposition Reactions215
Single Substitution Reactions217
Double Substitution Reactions219
Combustion Reactions223
8.4Acids and Bases225
Properties of Acids and Bases225
Acidic and Basic Anhydrides228
Acid Salts230
Carbonates and Acid Carbonates231
Summary234
Problems235
Chapter 9Net Ionic Equations240
9.1Properties of Ionic Compounds in Aqueous Solution241
9.2Writing Net Ionic Equations243
Summary249
Problems250
Chapter 10Stoichiometry253
10.1Mole Calculations for Chemical Reactions254
10.2Mass Calculations for Chemical Reactions257
10.3Calculations Involving Other Quantities261
10.4Problems Involving Limiting Quantities265
10.5Theoretical Yield and Percent Yield273
10.6Calculations with Net Ionic Equations274
Summary276
Problems277
Chapter 11Molarity285
11.1Definition and Uses of Molarity286
11.2Molarities of Ions294
11.3Titration298
Summary304
Problems305
Chapter 12Gases310
12.1Gas Pressure311
12.2Boyle's Law312
12.3Charles' Law317
12.4The Combined Gas Law320
12.5The Ideal Gas Law322
12.6Molar Masses and Molecular Formulas325
12.7Gases in Chemical Reactions328
12.8Volume Ratios in Chemical Reactions330
12.9Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures332
12.10Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases336
Summary340
Problems341
Chapter 13Atomic and Molecular Properties347
13.1Atomic and Ionic Sizes348
13.2Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity351
13.3Electronegativity and Bond Polarity354
13.4Molecular Shape355
13.5Polar and Nonpolar Molecules359
13.6Intermolecular Forces362
Dipolar Attractions362
van der Waals Forces362
Hydrogen Bonding364
Summary367
Problems368
Chapter 14Solids and Liquids, Energies of Physical and Chemical Changes371
14.1Nature of the Solid and Liquid States372
The Solid State372
The Liquid State376
14.2Changes of Phase377
14.3Measurement of Energy Changes379
14.4Enthalpy Changes in Chemical Reactions386
Enthalpy Change387
Enthalpy of Formation388
Hess's Law390
Summary393
Problems395
Chapter 15Solutions401
15.1The Solution Process402
15.2Saturated, Unsaturated, and Supersaturated Solutions404
15.3Molality406
15.4Mole Fraction408
15.5Colligative Properties410
Vapor-Pressure Lowering410
Freezing-Point Depression412
Boiling-Point Elevation414
Osmotic Pressure416
Summary418
Problems419
Chapter 16Oxidation Numbers424
16.1Assigning Oxidation Numbers425
16.2Using Oxidation Numbers in Naming Compounds430
16.3Periodic Variation of Oxidation Numbers431
Predicting Oxidation Numbers431
Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds434
16.4Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations434
16.5Electrochemistry440
Voltaic Cells440
Electrolysis442
16.6Equivalents and Normality444
Normality445
Equivalent Mass447
Summary449
Problems450
Chapter 17Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium456
17.1Rates of Reaction457
17.2The Condition of Equilibrium458
17.3LeChatelier's Principle460
17.4Equilibrium Constants464
Finding Values of Equilibrium Constants466
Calculations Using Equilibrium Constants468
Summary472
Problems473
Chapter 18Acid-Base Theory478
18.1The Bronsted Theory479
Acid and Base Strength481
Acidic or Basic Nature of Salt Solutions482
Acids and Bases without Water483
18.2Ionization Constants484
18.3Autoionization of Water486
18.4Buffer Solutions491
Summary495
Problems497
Chapter 19Organic Chemistry501
19.1Hydrocarbons502
The Alkanes503
The Alkenes505
The Alkynes507
The Aromatic Hydrocarbons508
19.2Isomerism509
Isomers of Alkanes511
Isomers of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons513
19.3Some Other Classes of Organic Compounds514
Organic Halides515
Alcohols and Ethers516
Aldehydes and Ketones519
Organic Acids and Esters520
Amines and Amides521
19.4Polymers523
19.5Foods525
Fats525
Carbohydrates527
Summary529
Problems530
Chapter 20Nuclear Reactions534
20.1Natural Radioactivity535
Radioactive Series538
Tracers541
20.2Half-Life542
20.3Nuclear Fission551
Chain Reactions552
Energetics of Nuclear Reactions553
20.4Nuclear Fusion555
Summary557
Problems558
Appendices
Appendix 1Scientific Calculations561
A.1Scientific Algebra and Geometry561
Designation of Variables561
Units564
Percentage567
Quadratic Equations567
Conversion to Integral Ratios568
Scientific Geometry569
A.2The Scientific Calculator570
Precedence Rules571
Division573
The Change Sign Key574
Exponential Numbers575
The Reciprocal Key577
Logarithms and Antilogarithms577
Significant Figures579
Problems580
Appendix 2Tables of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Prefixes and Suffixes585
Appendix 3Table of Basic Mathematical Equations589
Appendix 4Answers to Practice Problems591
Appendix 5Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Problems604
Glossary654
Photo Credits665
Index667

Customer Reviews

Average Review:

Write a Review

and post it to your social network

     

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See all customer reviews >